Presentation on theme: "Unit Fourteen: Social Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit Fourteen: Social Psychology Myers-Chapter 18: Social Psychology
2 "We cannot live for ourselves alone "We cannot live for ourselves alone. Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads…” ~Herman Melville
3 What is social psychology? the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
4 Social Thinkingattribution, actions and attitudes
5 How do we explain others' behaviors? Fritz Heider ( )attribution theory- suggests how we explain someone’s behavior, by crediting either the situation or the person’s dispositionfundamental attribution error-tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate personal disposition
7 The Fundamental Attribution Error The actor: While standing in the crowd at Riverfront Coliseum, I distinctly remember feeling that I was being punished for being a rock fan. My sister and I joked about this, unaware of the horror happening around us. Later, those jokeds came back to us grimly as we watched the news. How many lives will be lost before the punitive and inhuman policy of festival seating at rock concerts is outlawed?The observer:The violently destructive message that The Who and other rock groups deliver leaves me little surprised that they attract a mob that will trample human beings to death to gain better seats. Of greater concern is a respected news magazine’s adulation of this sick phemomenon.
8 Compared to people in Western countries, those in East Asian cultures are more sensitive to situational influences on behavior.TRUE
9 Who is to blame? Husband Wife Lover #1 Lover #2 Ferryboat Captain Highwayman
10 "Just-World Phenomenon" tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
11 attitudes actions actions attitudes attitude- feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and eventssometimesleadtoattitudesactionsbut, more commonly…leadtoactionsattitudes
12 attitudes follow behavior doing becomes believing In order to change people’s racist behaviors, we first need to change their racist attitudes.FALSEattitudes follow behavioranddoing becomes believing
13 foot-in-the-door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger one
14 How does role-playing affect attitudes? Zimbardo’s StanfordPrison Experiment“No man, for any considerable period, can wear one face to himself and another to the multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be true.” Nathaniel Hawthorne
15 Why do we act this way?cognitive dissonance theory- theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
16 Prisoner's DilemmaTwo burglars, Bob and Al, are captured near the scene of a burglary and are given the “third degree” separately by the police. Each has to choose whether or not to confess and implicate the other. If neither man confesses, then both will serve one year on a charge of carrying a concealed weapon. If each confesses and implicates the other, both will go to prison for 10 years. However, if one burglar confesses and implicates the other, and the other burglar does not confess, the one who has collaborated with the police will go free, while the other burglar will go to prison for 20 years on the maximum charge.What should they do?
17 How many points would you like to receive? Choose one. “Bonus Point Ballot”If less than 4 people select 15 bonus points, those people will receive the 15 points and everyone else will receive 5 points.If more than 4 people select 15 bonus points, no students will receive bonus points.How many points would you like to receive? Choose one.15 points5 points
18 conformity,obedience and Social Influenceconformity,obedience andgroup influence
19 Behavior is contagious. chameleon effect- we unconsciously mimic others’ expressions, postures, voice, tones, etc.; helps us feel what they are feeling
20 Chimps are more likely to yawn after observing another chimp yawn. TRUE
21 Solomon Asch and Conformity conformity- adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
22 What conditions increase conformity? one feels incompetent or insecuregroup has at least 3 peoplegroup is unanimousone admires the status or attractiveness of the groupone has no prior commitment to a responseone‘s behavior is observed by othersculture encourages respect for social standards
23 Why do we conform?to avoid rejection and/or to gain social approval; to gain informationnormative social influence- influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapprovalinformational social influence- influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
24 Stanley Milgram and Obedience to Authority How do people respond to commands?
25 Stanley Milgram and Obedience to Authority Where would you stop?Slight Shock15,30,45,60Moderate Shock75,90,105,120Strong Shock135,150,165,180Very Strong Shock195,210,225,240Intense Shock255,270,285,300Extreme Intensity Shock315,330,345,360Danger: Severe Shock375,390,405,420XXX435,450
26 When was obedience the greatest? the person giving the order was near in proximity and seemed a legitimate authoritythe person giving the order was affiliated with a prestigious institutionthe victim was far away or was depersonalizedno other participants were seen disobeying
27 What can we learn from these studies? The experiments of Asch and Milgram were devised to force participants to choose between following their own beliefs/standards and being responsive to the group.Strong social influences can make people conform.
28 Most people would refuse to obey an authority figure who told them to hurt an innocent person. FALSE
29 How do groups influence our behavior? social facilitation- stronger performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of otherssocial loafing- tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountabledeindividuation- loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
30 Studies of college and professional athletic events indicate that home teams win about 6 in 10 games.TRUESportGames StudiedHome Team Winning %baseball23,03453.5%football2,59257.3%ice hockey4,32261.1%basketball13,59664.4%soccer37,20269.0%
31 Individuals pull harder in a team tug-of-war than when they pull in a one-on-one tug-of-war. FALSE
32 How does interacting with others effect our behavior? group polarization- enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the groupgroupthink- mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
33 The higher the morale and harmony of a social group, the more likely are its members to make a good decision.FALSE
34 What can the individual do? minority influence- power of one or two individuals to sway majoritiesmore likely when the minority opinion is held strongNever doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.~Margaret Mead ( )
36 Prejudice "prejudgment" unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group or members; generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, predisposition to discriminatory actionstereotype- generalized belief about a group of people; sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized
37 Prejudice vs. Discrimination prejudice is a negative attitude; discrimination is a negative behavior
38 The how's and why's of prejudice… it seems racial and gender attitudes have changedovert prejudice has disappeared, but subtle prejudice remainsrecent experiments show prejudice can be automatic/unconscious
39 social, emotional and cognitive roots of prejudice prejudice rationalizes social inequalitiesus and them: ingroup biasEmotional:prejudice comes from “the passions of the heart”scapegoat theory: prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blameCognitive:categorization- a way to simplify the worldjust-world phenomenon and hindsight biasvivid cases stand out more readily
41 Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy biological influences:genetic, neural and biochemicalpsychological influences:frustration-aggression principle, learning, observationIt is difficult to change established aggressive behavior patterns.
42 Those who keep a gun in the house are more likely to be murdered. TRUE
43 Conflict perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, and ideas social traps- situation where conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behaviorsPrisoner’s Dilemma (individual self-interest vs. communal well-being)enemy perceptions
44 Attraction Three ingredients: proximity physical attractiveness similarity
45 Proximity geographic nearness most powerful predictor of friendship mere exposure effectrepeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking
46 Physical Attractiveness this is what most affects first impressionsjudgment of attraction is relative, but some characteristics are universalattraction also depends on how we feel about a person“Do I love you because you’re beautiful, or are you beautiful, because I love you?” (Cinderella)“Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind.” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream)
48 “Birds of a feather, flock together.” Similarity"Opposites attract."“Birds of a feather, flock together.”
49 2 keys to a satisfying and long-lasting relationship 2 types of lovetemporary passionate lovemore enduring companionate love2 keys to a satisfying andlong-lasting relationshipequity and self-disclosure
50 Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others bystander effect- tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are presentWhy do we help people?social-exchange theoryreciprocity normsocial-responsibility norm
51 PeacemakingPeacemaking is helped by cooperation, communication, and conciliation.