Presentation on theme: "Era’s Review World War I - World War II Vanessa Campbell, Mary Beth O’Donnell, David Sheen, and Arnelle Yabut."— Presentation transcript:
Era’s Review World War I - World War II Vanessa Campbell, Mary Beth O’Donnell, David Sheen, and Arnelle Yabut
Presidents - Woodrow Wilson 28th president Democratic Party Term: March 4, March 4, 1921 (WWI) 17th amendment (1913) Federal Reserve Act (1913) Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) World War I ( ) o Lusitania sunk (1915) o United States enters World War I (1917) Treaty of Versailles (1919) 18th Amendment (1919) 19th Amendment (1920)
Presidents - Franklin Delano Roosevelt 32nd President Democratic Party Term: March 4, April 12, 1945 (WWII) 21st amendment (1933) New Deal Policies Social Security Act (1935) Court Packing Plan (1937) World War II ( ) o Pearl Harbor Attacked; U.S. enters WWII (1941) o Yalta Conference (1945)
Presidents - Harry S. Truman 33rd President Democratic Party Term: April 12, January 20, 1953 (WWII) Atomic Bombs Dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945) End of World War II (1945) United Nations Created (1945) Nuremberg Trials ( ) Truman Doctrine (1947) Taft-Hartley Act (1947) Israel Created (1948) Marshall Plan ( ) NATO Treaty (1949) Korean Conflict ( ) Twenty-Second Amendment Ratified (1951) Hydrogen Bomb Detonated (1952)
World War I - Causes Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Unauthorized German submarines along U.S. east coast o Lusitania sunk, 128 Americans die
World War I - Effects 37 million military and civilian casualties Social reforms o 19th amendment o Great Migration Economic boom
World War II - Causes Invasions by Germany, Italy, and Japan o Poland refused to give land to Germany → Germany declared war in 1939 Pearl Harbor attack
World War II - Effects million dead Ended depression Unified country Women’s rights movement United States listed as a superpower Rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
Social Ideologies Women’s fight for suffrage --National American Woman Suffrage Association felt fighting for democracy abroad would get democracy at home Labor strikes led to fears about communism --Sacco and Vanzetti Trial:Factory worker and peddler convicted of murder --prejudiced against because they were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers --The two men became martyrs in class struggle
Prohibition --Supported in south and west where whites wanted to keep stimulant away from blacks in case they get out of “their place” --Opposed by larger eastern cities and immigrants --hard to regulate b/c low government control of private lives --Increased bank savings but also gangsterism Fundamentalists --felt Darwinism was destroying faith in God and a breakdown of youth → Scopes Monkey Trial
Culture during the 20’s --Flappers --jazz --Harlem Renaissance → vibrant black culture; Marcus Garvey
WWI Foreign Policy Issues President Wilson: Wilson’s presidency was characterized by an approach to foreign policy as Wilsonian Idealism-also called Missionary Diplomacy because Wilson based his political thinking on religious beliefs of Presbyterian theology. he was anti-expansionist and wanted America’s goal to not obtain wealth and power. the U.S. mission as to create a Divine Plan and bring out democracy to the world. Wilson wanted the U.S. to intervene with military forces only for moral purposes.
WWI Foreign Policy Issues Cont. Before the War: Tensions were building up in Europe as European politics and the struggle for economic dominance led to the creation of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente. After the Vienna government targeted Serbia, war broke out between the Central Powers and the Allies by almost overnight. Conclusion: Wilson issued the neutrality proclamation which is favored by both sides of war. U.S. Neutrality: ●Neutral trade between Germany and America ceased as the British blockade prevented trade to German ports. ●The U.S. was threatened by the German’s submarines as International Law was broken with the idea of underwater warfare. ●Wilson continued to fight for neutrality, hoping and praying that no high-seas incident would cause the involvement of the U.S. in this war. ●Conclusion: Sadly, the Germans insisted on sinking the Lusitania and the Sussex, causing Wilson to break diplomatic relations with Germany.
WWI Foreign Policy Issues Cont. Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Wilson addresses his Fourteen Points to Congress in order to guarantee political independence of all countries in January 8,1918. On the verge of surrender, the kaiser was forced to flee Holland in order for Germany to negotiate an armistice and surrender to the U.S. under Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Aftermath of War: ●The Big 4 meet at the Paris Peace Conference on January 18, 1919 in order to construct the Treaty of Versailles, which included a plan to form a League of Nations that would serve as a world parliament.
WWII Foreign Policy Issues After President Hoover started the Good Neighbor Policy with the Latin American countries, Franklin D. Roosevelt advocated a new direction with his policy of cooperation. This policy of nonintervention was carried out by: the withdrawal of American marines from Haiti. the nullification of the Platt Amendment by a treaty signed with Cuba. the U.S. giving up rights to police the Panama government. the U.S. giving up control of finances with the Dominican Republic. Following Hoover’s footsteps, FDR replaced economic nationalism with economic cooperation: ●Reciprocity treaties were made with 15 Latin American countries. ●FDR increased the annual payments to Panama for canal rights.
WWII Foreign Policy Issues Cont. The Neutrality Act of 1937 hurt the Loyalist government in Spain since it allowed the U.S. to trade supplies with Europe, but not with the Loyalist government. The Neutrality Act of 1939 provided that the European democracies might buy American war materials, but on a “cash-and-carry basis.” The Destroyer Deal between the U.S. and Britain concerning destroyers- for-bases agreement was made. This made the U.S. declare its support of England openly in the war against Germany. This act marks to the end of the U.S. neutrality. The Lend Lease Bill was entitled “An Act further to promote the Defense of the United States.” It was praised as a device to keep the U.S. out of was and sent limitless supply of arms to the victim countries of war. This becomes a major turning point in American foreign policy.
WWII Foreign Policy Issues Cont. The atlantic Charter was drawn up by Churchill and Roosevelt with the following principles: a pledge against aggression a promise of self-determination in territorial changes. respect for the right of self government and freedom of speech. a creation of an effective international organization. On July 26, 1941, the U.S. declared a full-scale embargo on all trade with Japan, proving disastrous.
WWI-WWII Political Platforms Election of 1916: Democrats: Woodrow Wilson Platform: following George Washington’s Farewell Address in order to avoid foreign entanglements, the platform stressed for record of achievement, economic freedom, tariffs, Americanism, international relations, conservation, good roads, woman suffrage, and labor. Wilson wins the election. Republicans: Charles Evans Hughes Platform: condemned the Democratic tariff, assaults on trusts, and Wilson’s lack of determination in dealing with Mexico and Germany. The platform stressed protection of American rights, foreign relations, Latin America, Philippines, tariff, business, conservation, and labor laws.
WWI-WWII Political Platforms Election of 1920: Democrats: James M. Cox Vice: Franklin D. Roosevelt Platform: the platform stressed for financial achievements, tax revision, public economy, tariffs, budgets, agriculture interests, labor and industry, education, and woman suffrage. Republicans: Warren G. Harding Vice: Calvin Coolidge Platform: this platform stressed for a constitutional government, foreign relations, agriculture, congress and reconstruction, national economy, industrial relations, and taxation. Harding wins the election.
WWI-WWII Political Platforms Election of 1924: Democrats: John W. Davis Platform: stressed for tariffs, taxation, railroads, credit, conservation, education, and G.O.P. corruption. Republicans: Calvin Coolridge Platform: stressed for public economy, finance, taxation, civil service, foreign debts, tariff, agriculture, foreign relations and wartime mobilization. Coolridge wins the election. Progressives: Robert La Follette Platform: stressed for natural resources, distress of farmers, tax reduction, railroads, labor, war veterans, popular sovereignty, and peace on earth.
WWI-WWII Political Platforms Election of Democrats: Alfred E. Smith Platform: stressed for the right of states, Republican corruption, economy, financing, taxation, foreign policy, waterways, conservation, and law enforcement. Republicans: Herbert Hoover Platform: stressed for the public economy, public debt, tax reduction, tariff, foreign debts, settlement of war claims, foreign policies, and agriculture. Hoover wins the election.
WWI-WWII Political Platforms Election of 1932: Democrats: Franklin D. Roosevelt Platform: stressed for a “competitive tariff”, extensive banking, financial reform, aid programs for farmers, balanced budget, and reduction of federal expenditures. Roosevelt wins the election. Republicans: Herbert Hoover Platform: stressed for unemployment, public economy, banking system, agriculture, tariffs, veterans, and foreign affairs.
Supreme Court cases WWI-WWII Schenck VS. United states: (1919) Schenck was found guilty by the United States of America. Schenck was charged with conspiracy to violate an American law, The Espionage Act. The ruling judge ruled that Schenck's actions printing anti-conscription messages in a Socialist newspaper violated freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. - The ruling Judge by the name of Holmes, created the "Clear and present danger clause" which determines the circumstances in which the First Amendment can be restricted. - Holmes Declared “T he question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that the United States Congress has a right to prevent. United States Congress -Winners: Government power, wartimes measures Losers: Free speech, 1st amendment, Individual rights Schecter Poultry Vs. United states (1935) During the Great Depression, FDR established an economic recovery program known as the “New Deal.” As part of the program, the President established the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 which authorized the President to set “codes of fair competition,” regulating certain facets of interstate commerce. Schechter was indicted for disobeying the “live poultry code,” one of the codes of fair competition. The government alleged that Schechter failed to observe minimum wage and hour provisions, sold unfit and uninspected chickens and made false reports. Schechter appealed his conviction. - the National Industrial Recovery Act, gave the President the authority to regulate certain aspects of commerce during the Depression, was an unconstitutional delegation of presidential power. - The Supreme Court of the United States, in a unanimous decision, held that the delegation of power made by the NIRA was unconstitutional. The Court held that Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce, not the President, and that Congress cannot delegate legislative power to the President
Supreme Court cases (Cont.) Korematsu Vs. United States(1944) There were strong anti-Japanese feelings in the United States due to the war with Japan. In May 1942, Korematsu, an American citizen of Japanese descent, was convicted in federal court of “knowingly remaining in a designated military area in San Leandro, California.” His actions violated Exclusion Order and Executive Order of 1942, which had been issued to protect the West Coast from acts of espionage and sabotage. The Acts required all Japanese-Americans living in restricted areas to go to inland relocation centers. Korematsu believed the order violated his constitutional rights. - the issue was whether Executive Order of 1942, violated Korematsu’s Fourteenth Amendment right to equal protection of the law and his Fifth Amendment right to life, liberty, and property; and whether, because of the special circumstance of the world war, Congress or the President had the power to violate Korematsu’s constitutional rights. - the Supreme Court ruled that an entire race could be labeled a “suspect classification,” meaning that the government was permitted to deny the Japanese their constitutional rights because of military considerations. Because a number of Japanese may have been disloyal, the military felt that complete exclusion of persons of Japanese ancestry from certain areas was essential during wartime.
WWI-WWII Treaties Treaty Of Versailles (1919) -This treaty was made to ensure a lasting peace right after World War I through trying to punish Germany and setting a League of Nations to help solve diplomatic problems. The treaty did just the opposite causing bitterness from Germany and helping to spark World War II. -The Treaty of Versailles put a lot of restrictions upon Germany. They were given restricted military, forced to pay for the wartime, their colonies were taken away, and the worst of all they were blamed completely for the war. This, of course, caused a lot of bitterness in Germany which explains the tensions tension that grew and the rise of Hitler. By placing so many restrictions on Germany, the people grew to nationalism and the hopes for a some savior would arise. The bitterness caused Hitler to reject the treaty, and because the other countries were so afraid of war, they did nothing.rise of Hitler Provisions: - Ended the great WWI - Established the League of Nations - Germany punished for instigating war Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934) Plan suggested by Secretary of State Cordell Hull which authorized FDR's administration to negotiate treaties that reduced US trade tariffs up to 50% in return for a reciprocal reduction on tariffs from the other nation. Resulted in new treaties with 21 countries and 40% increase in U.S. exports - activated low-tariff policies - relief & recovery which boosted American trade - amended Hawley-Smoot by lowering rates 50% provided that others do the same - allowed Roosevelt to control taxes - foreign trade increased - free trade international economic system
WWI-WWII Treaties Cont. The Neutrality Acts of (1935, 1936 and 1937) The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. -No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship - sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation -make loans to a belligerent nation This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist. Lend-Lease Act (1940) This was a law passed by Congress in 1941 providing that any country whose security was vital to U.S. interests could receive arms and equipment by sale, transfer, or lease from the United States. - President Franklin D. Roosevelt summarized the Lend- Lease Act as "helping to put out the fire in your neighbor`s house before your own house caught fire and burned down." IFranklin D. Roosevelt -$7 billion worth of American matérial was shipped to Great Britain, China, Russia, Brazil and eventually many other countries. The expenditure grew to $50 billion by 1945.
WWI-WWII Treaties Cont. Atlantic Charter (1941) The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement first issued in 1941 that early in World War II defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister Winston Churchill - The main points of the Charter were reflective of Wilson's Fourteen Points of WWI -No territorial changes without the express wishes of the people. - open trade for economic prosperity - people can choose their own government -a peace should enable all to transverse the high seas -permanent system of general security (UN) Paris Peace Treaties (1947) The victorious wartime Allied powers ; the United States, United Kingdom,France and the Soviet Union negotiated the details of treaties of peace for their World War II enemies Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland.United StatesUnited KingdomFranceSoviet UnionWorld War IIItalyRomania HungaryBulgariaFinland -The treaties allowed Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland to reassume their responsibilities as sovereign states in international affairs and to qualify as members in the United NationsUnited Nation - The Peace treaties included payment of war reparations, commitment to minority rights and territorial adjustments. war reparations minority rights -Political clauses demanded that the treaty should “take all measures necessary to secure to all persons under (its) jurisdiction, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, of press and publication, of religious worship, of political opinion and of public meeting." - Each government undertook measures to prevent the resurgence of fascist organizations or any others "whether political, military or semi-military, whose purpose it is to deprive the people of their democratic rights".
18th Amendment: Prohibition of alcohol 19th Amendment: prohibits denying right to vote based on gender 20th Amendment: changed date of when terms for president, vice president, senators, and representatives end and begin (Jan 20 for prez and VP; Jan 3 senators and reps) 21st Amendment: repeals 18th amendment
Famous Publications American Mercury- H.L. Mencken assailed marriage, patriotism, democracy, and prohibition This Side of Paradise- F. Scott Fitzgerald; became a Bible for the young flapper culture The Great Gatsby An American Tragedy by Theodore Dreiser- dealt with the murder of a pregnant working girl by her socially ambitious young lover The Sun Also Rises- Ernest Hemingway responded to propaganda and overblown call to patriotism He also wrote A Farewell to Arms- about the war experience Sinclair Lewis’s Babbit- a prosperous middle class man conforming to the materialism of his group Poem: “The Wasteland” by T.S. Elliot
Name one famous publication and what it was about Examples include: American Mercury assailing patriotism, marriage, etc The Great Gatsby Babbit a man conforming to the materialism of his group
Why would a bar have this name? because the 21st amendmen t ended prohibition of alcohol
Which group advocated for women to help the war effort in order to gain suffrage? National American Woman Suffrage Association
Who were the two martyrs in the class struggle? Sacco and Vanzetti
What was a positive effect of prohibition? a negative effect? Increased bank savings Bootlegging and gangsterism
what was Schenck charged with? What law did he violate? Schenck was charged with conspiracy to violate an American law. That law being The Espionage Act, and Schenck was found to have conspired against it.
When and What treaty ended WWI and Established the League of Nations? The Treaty of Versailles
What was The Atlantic Charter a reflection of? Wilson’s Fourteen Points of WWI
What did the Supreme Court rule during the Korematsu Vs. US case? The government was permitted to deny the Japanese their constitutional rights, military felt that complete exclusion of persons of Japanese ancestry from certain areas.
The National Industrial Recovery Act gave the President the right to... Gave the President the authority to regulate certain aspects of commerce
The Lend-Lease Act allowed….. The US to lend arms (borrow) to Britain to be returned after the war.
Which presidential election involved 3 parties between WWI -WWII? The presidential election of 1924
What was President Wilson’s signature foreign policy which was also nicknamed the Missionary Diplomacy? Wilsonian Idealism
What treaty was formed at the Paris Peace Conference ? The Treaty of Versailles
When did the U.S. end its neutrality during WWII? After the British lent destroyers to the U.S. in the Destroyer deal/ destroyers-for-bases- agreement
What event occurred on December 7, 1941 in Hawaii? Pearl Harbor