a lyric poem fourteen lines written in iambic pentameter with a definite rhyme scheme and a definite thought structure
The English or Shakespearean sonnet, developed first by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517-1547) The Italian, or Petrarchan sonnet, named after Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374), the Italian poet, was introduced into English poetry in the early 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542).
Italian or Petrarchan English or Shakespearean 1 Octave 1 Sestet ◦ Octave often presents problem and sestet answers it Rhyme Scheme ◦ abba abba ◦ cde cde (any variation) Volta ◦ shift between the octave and the sestet, often indicating a point of dramatic change. Iambic Pentameter 3 Quatrains 1 Couplet (often functions as the moral of the sonnet) Rhyme Scheme ◦ Abab cdcd efef gg Theme builds from quatrain to quatrain, using couplet for dramatic statement. Uses the first 12 lines to present the problem and the last couplet to solve or restate it. Iambic Pentameter
Fourteen small broidered berries on the hema Of Circe’s mantle, each of magic gold;b Fourteen of lone Calypso’s tears that rolledb Into the sea, for pearls to come of them;a Fourteen clear signs of omen in the gema With which Medea human fate foretold;b Fourteen small drops, which Faustus, growing old,b Craved of the Fiend, to water Life’s dry stem.a It is the pure white diamond Dante broughtc To Beatrice; the sapphire Laura wored When Petrarch cut it sparkling out of thought;c The ruby Shakespeare hewed from his heart’s core;d The dark, deep emerald that Rossetti wroughtc For his own soul, to wear for evermore.d
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? a Thou art more lovely and more temperate: b Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a And summer's lease hath all too short a date: b Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,c And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; d And every fair from fair sometime declines, c By chance, or nature's changing course untrimm'd;d But thy eternal summer shall not fade, e Nor lose possession of that fair thou know'st; f Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, e When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st:f So long as man can breath, or eyes can see, g So long lives this, and this gives life to theeg
An Iamb is a metrical foot consisting of an unaccented syllable U followed by an accented syllable /. Pentameter means five iambs per line of poetry
U / U / U / U / U / One day I wrote her name upon the strand, U / U / U / U / U / But came the waves and wash ed it a way: U / U / U / U / U / A gain I wrote it with a sec ond hand, U / U / U / U / U / But came the tide, and made my pains his prey Edmund Spenser, Amoretti, Sonnet 75
Rhythm Terms Metrical Terms Iambic foot- unstressed followed by stressed syllables (insist, unite, repeat) Trochaic foot- inversion stressed syllables followed by unstressed (unit, reaper, instant) Anapestic foot-two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed (intercede, disarranged) Dactylic foot-stressed syllable followed by two unstressed (applejack, Washington) Spondaic foot-two successive stressed syllables (heartbreak, headline) Monometer: one foot (rare) Dimeter: two feet (rare Trimeter: three feet Tetrameter: four feet Pentameter: five feet Hexameter: six feet Heptameter: seven feet (rare)
alliteration: the repetition of initial consonant sounds assonance: the repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants, such as in neigh/fade consonance: the repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after different vowel sounds, as in boost/best; it can also be seen within several compound words, such as fulfill and Ping Pong cacophony: harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony euphony: a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony caesura: strong pause or break within a line creating a counter rhythm onomatopoeia: the use of words that sound like what they mean, such as hiss and boom
allusion: a brief mention that calls a character, event, idea to mind (mythology, biblical, literary, pop culture) antithesis: opposite ideas in grammatical parallel, (man proposes; God disposes) apostrophe: usually in poetry but sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to a imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction connotation: implied or suggested meaning of a word because of its association in the reader's mind conceit: unusually elaborate comparison denotation: literal definition of a word hyperbole: deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis imagery: words or phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the five senses in order to create a mental picture irony: implies an attitude that is often the opposite of that which is literally expressed.
metaphor: a figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another; for example, "my love is a fragile flower" metonymy: speech that makes a term closely related to something serve as it substitute, (the “sword” meaning military career) mood: similar to tone, mood is the primary emotional attitude of a work oxymoron: a figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases, such as "wise fool" paradox: apparent contradiction that illuminates truth( ex. courageous fear) simile: a figure of speech that uses like, as, or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities; for example, "the sky looked like an artist's canvas" personification: human qualities to an inanimate object synecdoche: speech that uses the part to stand for the whole, or the whole to stand for the part; (“wheels for a car”, “crown” for the monarchy) tone: the characteristic emotion or attitude of an author toward the characters, subject, and audience
It was on that day when the sun’s ray was darkened in pity for its Maker, that I was captured, and did not defend myself, because your lovely eyes had bound me, Lady. It did not seem to me to be a time to guard myself against Love’s blows: so I went on confident, unsuspecting; from that, my troubles started, amongst the public sorrows. Love discovered me all weaponless, and opened the way to the heart through the eyes, which are made the passageways and doors of tears so that it seems to me it does him little honour to wound me with his arrow, in that state, he not showing his bow at all to you who are armed.
When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries, And look upon myself and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed, Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate; For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings That then I scorn to change my state with kings.
Title- Connotation/Denotation Response-What do you think and why? Vocabulary-Define Paraphrase-Write each line in your own words Speaker-Describe Literary Devices-Identify/Example/ Interpretation Structure /Organization-Comment Theme-Identify and write a thesis Application-Affirm or Challenge your experience. Explain.