I. M.A.I.N D.Nationalism 1.Having pride in ones country. 2.Areas in larger empires were desperately seeking their independence and hoped to govern themselves.
II. Beginning A.Assassination 1. In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife visited Bosnia. 2.They were assassinated by a member of a Serbian Nationalist group
II. Beginning B.Declaration of War 1.Serbia (ally of Russia) was immediately blamed. 2.On July 28, 1914 Austria Hungary (ally of Germany) declared war on Serbia. 3.World War I had begun
III. US Involvement A.Neutrality 1.Wilson hoped to keep America out of war, however several circumstances prevented this from happening. A.Germany abandoned the Sussex Pledge B.Zimmerman Note – Germans tried to convince Mexico to invade US C.Russian Revolution – Bolsheviks overthrow czar D.US declares war on April 6, 1917
IV. End of the War A.Armistice 1.By the end of 1919, World War I ended 2.On November 11, 1918 Germany agreed to an armistice (truce). By then the other central powers had surrendered
IV. End of the War B.Impacts 1.World War I was the world’s first modern war. New inventions and technologies affected how the war was fought. 2.Other aspects also changed the ways war was fought forever
IV. End of the War B.Impacts 3.Selective Service Act – required men ages 21 to 30 to register for military service. 4.African Americans served in segregated military units.
IV. End of the War B.Impacts 5.Land War A. Trench warfare – new kind of defensive war Americans mostly fought on the Western front (France). 6.Air War A. First use of airplanes in combat 7.Sea War A. U-boats
IV. End of the War C.Fourteen Points 1.Before the war had ended, Wilson went before Congress promoting a plan for a just and lasting peace. 2.He called his blueprint for peace the Fourteen Points.
IV. End of the War D. Peace 4.The Fourteen Points were designed to protect every peace loving nation from force and self aggression. A.Key Points 1.Eliminate Causes of War 5.Self Determination 14.League of Nations A. International organization to ensure world peace.
IV. End of the War E. Paris Peace Conference 1.The Big Four met at the Palace of Versailles. A. Germany was not invited 2.Talks eventually led to the Treaty of Versailles
IV. End of the War F. Treaty of Versailles 1.War Guilt Clause – insisted that Germany take responsibility for the war and pay $33 billion in reparations to the allies A. This would eventually lead to German nationalism and the rise of the 3 rd Reich. 2.Self Determination only in Europe A. Asian countries were not included 3.League of Nations was created A. Members would maintain peace by providing collective security for members.
IV. End of the War G. Treaty Ratification 1.Reservationists A.Concerned about collective security B.Lead by Henry Cabot Lodge, they feared that the US would be drawn into unnecessary wars
IV. End of the War G. Treaty Ratification 2.Irreconcilables A. Completely opposed to any inclusion in a international organization. 3.Internationalists A. Believed a greater cooperation of nations could benefit all nations.
IV. End of the War H. Wilson’s Struggle 1.Wilson tried to gain the nation’s support in the ratification of the treaty. 2.Congress never approved the treaty and the league of nations began operations without the membership of the United States.