Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26: World War I and the Russian Revolution Section I: Factors Leading to War Revert Magee World History."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 26: World War I and the Russian Revolution Section I: Factors Leading to War Revert Magee World History
A. Europe on the Eve of War Conflicting national interests led to a buildup of tensions in Europe.
A. Europe on the Eve of War Conflicting National Interests – The second half of the nineteenth century was a great time of economic improvements. – National interests became more important to individual countries than their neighboring countries. – Imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and a tangled system of alliances led to war in Europe.
A. Europe on the Eve of War A Push for Nationalism – The growing desire for nationalism was a contributing factor in World War I. – The French were awfully displeased about their losses' is the Franco-Prussian War. – Each countries had many unresolved mistrustful feelings towards each other.
A. Europe on the Eve of War March Toward War – Germany was a major threat to the other European countries because of their military victory in 1871 against the French. – Another major cause of WWI was the arms race to obtain a great military power. – Many of the countries began developing industries to produce guns, cannons, and other modern weapons.
B. Forming Alliances European countries tried to find a balance of power by forming alliances with one another.
B. Forming Alliances The Triple Alliance – The German chancellor Otto von Bismarck wanted to prevent the alliance between France and Russia because it would isolate Germany. – Germany could be attacked from two sides which would make it very difficult to advance at all in the war. – So he formed the Three Emperor's Alliance amongst Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. – He also made The Triple Alliance amongst Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy. – This isolated France.
B. Forming Alliances France and Russia – When Germany allied with Austria-Hungary France took advantage of the situation and formed an alliance with Russia. – Great Britain, Russia, and France formed the Triple Entente. – This balanced out the Triple Alliance.
C. War Breaks Out The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie led to the outbreak of World War I.
C. War Breaks Out An Assassination in Sarajevo. – On June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a member of a nationalist society known as the Black Hand, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to Austria’s throne, and his wife Sophie. – He was told by the Black Hand to assassinate the archduke because they thought it would help their cause. – Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum. They could only meet some of the demands. – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia that day.
C. War Breaks Out Alliance Spread Conflict – All the different alliances between the European countries quickly spread conflict. – Because one member of one alliance declared a member of an other alliance. – The Triple Entente became the Allies and The Triple Alliance became The Central Powers.
C. War Breaks Out War and Society – As the war unfolded it needed support for the society, not just the military. – They had to be willing to make sacrifices to aid the military and their chances of winning the war. – They needed to make posters, cartoons, marching songs, and editorials used propaganda. – They used propaganda to get others into supporting the war.
Chapter 26: World War I and the Russian Revolution Section II: The War is Fought
A. The War Unfolds Many nations fought World War I using new technology.
A. The War Unfolds Military Resources and Strategy – Austria-Hungary began bombarding the Siberian city of Belgrade the day after the assassination. – Germany sent Russia and France both ultimatums, they both ignored them. – The Allies had an advantage over The Central Powers because they had more industrial and military forces. They also had many young men eager to fight in the war.
A. The War Unfolds A New Kind of War – World War I was a war of new technology. – With the introduction of machine guns, giant cannons, planes, and tanks. – Germany developed the U- boat (Undersea boat), know today as a submarine. – Planes could scout out enemy lines, drop bombs, and engage other planes in dog fights(a in air conflict between two or more planes).
B. The War From 1914 to 1916 The war dragged on with heavy losses and no end in sight.
B. The War From 1914 to 1916 The Western Front – In early September Germany came within 15 miles of Paris, but they were halted in their assault by the British and French. This stopped the Germans hope for a quick victory in France. – The most common way to fight during World War I was called trench warfare. – This was where troops would dig trenches as barriers inching their way towards enemy lines.
B. The War From 1914 to 1916 The Eastern Front – While there were battles being fought on the Western Front battles were also being fought on the Eastern Front. – German and Russian armies took heavy tolls fighting on the Eastern Front. – Within two battles on the Eastern Front over 350,000 Russian soldiers were captured.
C. Global Involvement The United States entered the war in 1917, which led Germany to eventually seek an end to the fighting.
C. Global Involvement Fighting on the Sea – Britain and Germany set up blockades at sea to cut off supplies to their enemy’s troops. – A German U-boat sank the British passenger ship Lusitania, which was carrying over 100 American civilians. – Then President Woodrow Wilson threatened to cut off diplomatic ties with Germany if they did not follow international law.
C. Global Involvement The United States Gets Involved – Until this point the U.S. had kept out of the war but two major events gave them a reason to enter the war. – First German U-boats continued to sink 5 more American merchant ships. – And the Germans sent a message to Mexico saying if they help them, Germany would help them regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
C. Global Involvement Clashes in Russia – The fighting in Russia on the Eastern Front made them desperate for peace, for the had extreme casualties. – As a result the new leaders of Russia signed a peace treaty with the Central Powers in 1918. – With Germanys fight on the Eastern Front over they could concentrate their efforts on the Western Front.
Chapter 26: World War I and the Russian Revolution Section III: Peace in a new Europe
A. Signing an Armistice Germany was the last of the Central Powers to sign an armistice that ended the war.
A. Signing an Armistice The Eleventh Hour – As wave after wave of American troops poured into Western Europe, the Germans saw that winning the war was impossible. – At 11:00 in the morning on November 11, 1918 Germany finally surrendered. – Germany had to surrender all its submarines and a large part of its navy, release all war prisoners, and turn over all weapons. The Allies were also allowed to occupy all German territory west of the Rhine River.
A. Sighing an Armistice Disbanding Allied Troops – With the armistice signed plans were started to demobilize American troops. – Because there were so many troops demobilization took a dreadfully long time. – The last American troops didn’t leave Europe until 1923, 5 years after the end of the war.
B. Effects of the War The economic and human cost of World War I were enormous.
B. Effects of the War Total War – World War I was called the total war. – It completely changed the face of the countries involved. It change the political boundaries of entire countries. – Shortly after women gained the right to vote in both Great Britain and in the U.S.
B. Effects of the War Costs of the War – The cost of the war was staggeringly high. – The total cost of the war was $186 billion which would be equal to $9,066,837,606,837.61 today. – There was a grand total of over 37,000,000 casualties.
B. Effects of the War Loss of Life – This was the most costly war—up to this point—in casualties and in cost. – Some battles casualties would reach up into the millions. – America’s losses reached about 350,000.
C. The Terms of Peace After the war, world leaders worked out strict treaties, and the United States did not join the League of Nations.
C. The Terms of Peace The Fourteen Points – 1. No secret treaties. 2. Freedom of the seas in war and peace. 3. Free trade. 4. Reduction of arms. 5. Adjustment of colonial claims 6. Conquered territories in Russia. 7. Preservation of Belgian sovereignty. 8. Restoration of French territory. 9. Redrawing of Italian frontiers. 10. Division of Austria-Hungary. 11. Redrawing of Balkan boundaries. 12. Limitations on Turkey. 13. Establishment of an independent Poland. 14. Association of nations.
C. The Terms of Peace The Paris Peace Conference – Allied leaders met in Paris to hammer out a formal peace treaty. – They had to determine who had to pay reparations. – All of the major powers from the Allies found things in the Fourteen Points that they didn’t like.
C. The Terms of Peace Treaty of Versailles – The defeated nations not were allowed to have a say in the Treaty of Versailles. – Germany’s population and territory was reduced by 10%. – All of Germany’s colonies were taken over by Allied nations.
C. The Terms of Peace Other Treaties – Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia made a treaty after the war. – After the war German territory was redrawn. – In the redrawing Turkey lost territory as well.
C. The Terms of Peace The League of Nations – The treaty also included the establishment of the League of Nation. – The U.S government shot down the peace treaty multiple times before finally letting it through. – The main reason for the League of Nations was to prevent aggression by enforcing the treaty after World War I.
C. The Terms of Peace Effects of the Peace Treaties – The harsh treaties did not resolve anything forever. – The Allies ignored their defeated enemies and this allowed resentment to build. – Less then 20 years later this resentment exploded into World War I.
Chapter 26: World War I and the Russian Revolution Section IV: The Russian Revolution
A. Problems in Russia The Russian people were extremely discontented with their rulership in the years before the revolutions.
A. Problems in Russia Background to Disconnect – During the rein of Russia last Czar, Nicholas II, there was tremendous turmoil in the country. – The Bolsheviks wanted a small group of professional revolutionists in their party. – In 1899 Russia's workers went on strike, and students protested against the czar.
A. Problems in Russia The Revolution 1905 – A Russian priest named Father Gopan led thousands of people on a peaceful march to czar’s winter palace. – Hundreds were killed or wounded when his troops opened fire. – The revolution of 1905 was also known as Bloody Sunday, this gave strength to the rebellion.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War Resistance to the revolutions resulted in a civil war lasting three years and the spread of the revolution party in Russia.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War The March Revolution – During World War I Russia had casualties in the millions. – This ended the rein of Czar Nicholas. – This in turn ended a 300 year dynasty, the Romanov family.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War Between Revolutions – The government was reorganized four times between March and October. – None of the leaders could fix the problems that plagued the country. – The government was unpopular with the people because it refused to end the war with Germany.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War The November Revolution – In November 1917, the Bolsheviks were ready to start uprisings and use force to seize power. – On November 17,1917 solders, sailors, and armed workers took control of the Winter Palace. – The Bolsheviks were soon renamed Communists.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War The Russian Civil War – Two weeks later Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. – Also the White Army (followers of the Czar) rose against the Communists. – The White Army was supported by the Allies because they didn’t want to see Communists come to power.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War Lenin’s Leadership – For a short time Lenin let peasants use some of the land that he had captured. – He also allowed groups of workers control the different factories. – But during the Russian Civil War the Communists took back all the land from the people.
B. Two Revolutions and a Civil War Views of Communism – They believe that workers have to be put in charge to create a peaceful society. – Government controls almost all aspects of the peoples lives. – People needed an omnipotent government.
Fourteen Points In January of 1918 President Woodrow Wilson had made a speech in which he set forth his ideas about how countries of the world should exist after the war.