Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Topic: Foreign Affairs from Imperialism to Post World War I (1898-1930) The industrial and territorial growth of the United States fostered expansion."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2 Topic: Foreign Affairs from Imperialism to Post World War I (1898-1930) The industrial and territorial growth of the United States fostered expansion overseas. Greater involvement in the world set the state for American participation in World War I and attempts to preserve post-war peace.
Chapter 2: Post War Treaties and the League of Nations Content Statement: After WWI, the United States pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. However, as a result of the national debate over the Versailles Treaty ratification and the League of Nations, the United States moved away from the role of world peacekeeper and limited its involvement in international affairs. Expectations For Learning: Explain why and how the United States moved to a policy of isolationism following World War I.
Section 1: Treaty of Versailles and The League of Nations Content Elaboration: After WWI, the United States emerged as a world leader pursued efforts to maintain peace in the world. President Wilson’s efforts partially helped shape the Treaty of Versailles, but debate over its terms and efforts to avoid foreign entanglements led to its defeat in the Senate and the United States’ decision not to join the League of Nations.
The Struggle For Peace THE BIG FOUR These 4 met to discuss what to do with the losing side 1. President Wilson—United States 2. David Lloyd George—Great Britain 3. Georges Clemenceau—France 4. Vittorio Orlando—Italy
The Versailles Treaty ***When Germans lost, they felt the peace would not be bad. They were in for a shock! ***The Big Four (except Wilson) wanted to punish Germany and get as much land and money from them as possible. ***Versailles Treaty: the agreement made after World War I that was very harsh to Germany
Provisions of the Treaty The Provisions of the Treaty (Not as harsh as G.B., France, and Italy hoped, not as easy as Wilson hoped) 1. War Guilt Clause: lays sole responsibility for the war on Germany and her allies, which is to be accountable for all damage to civilian populations of the Allies. 2. the Rhineland would be occupied by Allied troops for a period of 15 years.Rhineland 3. German armed forces will number no more than 100,000 troops 4. German naval forces will be limited to 15,000 men, six battleships (no more than 10,000 tons displacement each), six cruisers (no more than 6,000 tons displacement each), 12 destroyers (no more than 800 tons displacement each) and 12 torpedo boats (no more than 200 tons displacement each). No submarines are to be included.battleshipscruisersdestroyerstorpedo boats submarines 5. Central Powers lost land, and the empires were broken up 6. Poland and Czechoslovakia were created 7. Germany lost their colonies (coal fields) in Africa 8. Reparations--payment for losing the war--Germany made to pay the TOTAL COST ($33 Billion owed, $4.5 billion actually paid) 9. Wilson tries to get the League of Nations (Fourteen Points)
League of Nations 1.President Wilson’s idea 2.International organization created to preserve the peace after World War I 3.Collective security A. All countries in the League would have each other’s back
The fight over the treaty begins 1. Senate must have 2/3 vote to pass treaty 2. Big debate: Article 10 a. If a country in the League of Nations was attacked, all other nations would help out
The Failure to Enter the League 1. Wilson went to people a. traveled 8000 miles b. visited 29 cities c. gave 40 speeches in 22 days d. collapsed and taken back to White House e. had stroke f. sick for 8 months
The Failure to Enter the League 2. Election of 1920 a. Wilson wants League --. moral reasons b. Warren G. Harding --. ran against Wilson --. against the League of Nations c. Harding wins --. U.S. did not join League
***The League of Nations never had any power, because the most powerful country in the world did not join!
Military Deaths in World War 1914-1918 Belgium 45,550 British Empire 942,135 France 1,368,000 Greece 23,098 Italy 680,000 Japan 1,344 Montenegro 3,000 Portugal 8,145 Romania 300,000 Russia 1,700,000 Serbia 45,000 United States 116,516 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Bulgaria 87,495 Germany 1,935,000
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The main purpose of President Wilson ’ s Fourteen Points at the end of World War I was to A. help leaders of Europe gain additional territory at Germany ’ s expense B. assure peace in the future by not treating Germany as a vanquished nation C. divide Germany into several parts so it would not be a threat in the future D. gain reparations from Germany to help pay for the cost of the war
OGT Multiple Choice (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The international organization created to preserve the peace after World War I was the A. North Atlantic Treaty Organization B. United Nations C. Organization of American States D. League of Nations
OGT Multiple Choice (Blue Book, 2005) Which of the following was a part of Wilson ’ s Fourteen Points? A. Allies reparations to the Germans B. maintenance of national boundaries as they existed when World War I began C. a “ guilt clause ” for Germany D. the establishment of a League of Nations
OGT Multiple Choice (Base Test March 2005) The League of Nations was created after World War I as a forum for resolving international conflicts. However, the League was unable to resolve tensions that led to World War II. One factor that contributed to the ineffectiveness of the League was the A. breakup of colonial empires in Africa and Asia B. decision of the United States not to join the League C. opposition of League members to the Treaty of Versailles D. rise of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
OGT Multiple Choice (Blue Book, 2005) Which of the following statements is most accurate? A. The U.S. Senate approved the Versailles Treaty with some hesitation. B. The U.S. Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. C. The U.S joined the League of Nations after the Versailles Treaty was rejected. D. Wilson ’ s Fourteen Points rejected the idea of a League on Nations.
OGT Multiple Choice “ The Big Four ” were the leaders of the countries who won World War I. They included A. France, Spain, Germany, and England B. France, Germany, Italy, and the United States C. France, England, Italy, and the United States D. the United States, England, France, and Austria-Hungary
OGT Multiple Choice The major reason for American opposition to the League of Nations was A. fear of being required to get involved in future European wars B. Wilson’s failure to promote the League to the public C. the desire of Americans to punish the Central Powers D. the high financial costs of joining the League
OGT Extended Response (Base Test March 2005) Historians often cite the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany as a primary cause of the eventual outbreak of World War II. Summarize two provisions of the Versailles Treaty relating to Germany and discuss how each helped lead to World War II.
Section 2: Other Postwar Treaties Content Elaboration: Desires to avoid another major war led to treaties addressing arms limitation and territorial expansion (Four, Five and Nine Power Treaties). In 1928, the United States signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact to prohibit war as “an instrument of national policy.” In taking a leading role in these later treaties, the United States sought to limit its involvement in international affairs.
After World War I, the United States and other countries made attempts to assure there would never be another World War. Many treaties and pacts were made
Four Power Treaty The Four-Power Treaty was a treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain,France and Japan at the Washington Naval Conference on 13 December 1921.United StatesGreat BritainFranceJapanWashington Naval Conference By the Four-Power Treaty, all parties agreement to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, by respecting the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement, not seeking further territorial expansion, and mutual consultation with each other in the event of a dispute over territorial possessions.status quo
Five Power Treaty a treaty among the major nations that had won World War I, which by the terms of the treaty agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, which was held in Washington, D.C., from November 1921 to February 1922, and signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, France, and Italy. It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories. World War Iarms raceWashington Naval ConferenceWashington, D.C.battleshipsbattlecruisersaircraft carriers
Nine Power Treaty a 1922 treaty affirming the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China as per the Open Door Policy.ChinaOpen Door Policy
Kellogg-Briand Pact a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them".  Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty". It was signed by Germany,France and the United States on August 27, 1928, and by most other nations soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounced the use of war and called for the peaceful settlement of disputesinternational agreementwar GermanyFranceUnited States