3 History of Virginia henderson History of Virginia hendersonVirginia Henderson was born November 30, 1897, in Kansas City, Missouri. In 1901, she and her family relocated to Virginia. Her first teaching position was at Teachers College, Columbia University in In 1939, her revision of Bertha Harmer’s Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing was published. Virginia Henderson directed the Nursing Index Studies Project from , which led to her publication of the four volume Nursing Index Studies. Henderson was named research associate emeritus at Yale at age 75. Virginia Henderson for 70 years made remarkable contributions to nursing. She paid as an advocate for humane and holistic care for patients, promoter for nursing research, and author to widely used nursing texts. Henderson died March 19,
4 Why did She develop this theory? Two events influenced the development of her definition of nursing and her theory. 2Her participation in the revision of “The Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing” written by Bertha Harmer. Following this, Henderson realized the need to be very clear about the role and functions of the nurse.2She grew concerned that many states had no provisions for nursing licensure. She felt it was important to establish the idea of what truly makes a nurse in order to ensure safe and competent care for patients. She examined the earlier statements of nursing functions set forth by the American Nurses Association and viewed these statements as non specific, unclear, and unsatisfactory. 2
5 Need theoryVirginia Henderson’s goal was not to develop a theory in nursing, but a unique focus on the nursing concept.2Need Theory suggests that nurses should be caring for the patient, but at the same time helping the patient gain independence so that once they are discharged they are able to take care of themselves.2The four major concepts addressed in this theory are:The Individual2The Environment2Health2Nursing2This theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biophysical needs rather than as a type of client or consumer. 2
6 There are fourteen components based on human needs that make up nursing activities. These components are:1.Breathe normally. 22. Eat and drink adequately.23.Eliminate body wastes.24.Move and maintain desirable postures.25.Sleep and rest.26.Select suitable clothing. That is, dress and undress appropriately.27.Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment.28.Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument.29.Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.210.Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.211.Worship according to one's faith.212.Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.213.Play or participate in various forms of recreation.214.Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.2
8 How it applies…Henderson described the nurse's role as substitutive (doing for the person), supplementary (helping the person), or complementary (working with the person), with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible. Henderson wanted to work to rehabilitate patients in order to make them more independent for themselves.5Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease.5Each nurse would want the 14 concepts for themselves and should strive for their patients to heal in the same environment.5
9 accomplishmentsNursing Studies Index – First annotated index of nursing research.2Sigma Theta Tau International Library – Named in honor of Virginia Henderson.2The Virginia Henderson Award – Award created in her honor for outstanding contributions to nursing research.2Received the first Christianne Reimann Prize for the transitional scope of her work. 2Received honorary doctorate degrees from several universities. 2
10 summaryClick to view a video summary of Henderson's life.
11 ConclusionThe 14 components that Henderson has adopted are ideas that all able bodied people should desire to have for themselves.Basic human needs are self-explanatory and uncomplicated.Henderson’s practice and concepts of nursing match how she defines nursing.Henderson has proven to be an important part of how nursing care should be provided; a sort of team-like approach and not just a nurse doing for a patient but assisting them into full rehabilitation.Care may be different today if her principles had not been adopted into current practice.
12 references1Clark, J. (1997). The unique function of the nurse. International Nursing Review, 44(5),2Nursing Theory. (2013). Virginia Henderson. Retrieved from: theory.php3Virginia Henderson - Nursing Need Theory - Nurseslabs. (n.d.). Retrieved October 5, 2014, from hendersons-need-theory/4Virginia A. Henderson ( ) 1996 Inductee. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2014, from5Virginia Henderson's Need Theory. (n.d.). Retrieved October 1, 2014, from6Virginia Henderson’s Nursing Need Theory. (2014, August 6). Retrieved October 3, 2014, from hendersons-need-theory/7Virginia Henderson. (1966, January 1). Retrieved October 5, 2014, from