Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Section 3 Main Idea: The United States mobilized a variety of resources to wage WWI."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 Section 3Main Idea: The United States mobilized a variety of resources to wage WWI
2Learning Objectives for Section 3 Identify how the government mobilized the economy for the war effortLearn how workers mobilized on the home frontRecognize how the government tried to influence public opinion about the war
3Bellringer/ Section Preview What was a Liberty Bond? When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, President Wilson called on everyone to join the war effort. To help pay for the war, he launched 4 drives to sell Liberty bonds. The bonds (like today’s savings bonds) were a form of loan to the government. Campaigns to sell the bonds were intense. Celebrities from movie stars to baseball players to opera singers appeared at bond rallies. Artists and advertising experts produced slogans and colorful posters. They appealed to patriotism, fear, or sympathy for war victims in Europe to urge people to buy bonds. In all, the bond drives brought in almost $17 billion
4Review Questions What were Liberty Bonds? Describe some of the campaigns that were used to help sell Liberty Bonds?
5Mobilizing the Economy Going to war was an expensive undertakingIn 1917 Congress passed the War Revenue Act which established high taxes especially for the rich.This increased federal revenues by 400% within 2 yearsGovernment also borrow money, increasing national debt from $1.2 billion to $25.5 billion within 3 years, most in the form of Liberty bonds
9Regulating IndustryJobs were created to regulate industry and agricultural production and distributionWIB (War Industries Board) headed by Bernard Baruch regulated all materials needed for the war effortAll goods were used by military first, then leftovers were for civilians
10Regulating Food Congress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act Gave the government the power to set prices and control the production of food and fuels needed for the militaryHerbert Hoover (future President) was appointed head of Food Administration, whose goal was to increase food production, and conserve food supplies
11Hoover asked farmers to increase food production, Asked civilians to plant victory gardens, participate in meatless Mondays, and wheatless WednesdaysResulted in a surplus of foodAlso started a prohibition on alcohol (because it is made from grapes or wheat)Eighteenth Amendment was ratified banning the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol in the U.S.
13Regulating FuelFuel Administration was established to set production goals and prices for fuelsIt introduced daylight savings time, to increase daylight hours for those who worked long shifts in factories.Promoted gasless Sundays and heatless Mondays
14Reading Focus Question #1 How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort?Raised taxes, borrowed money through war bonds, regulated industry, food, and fuel in order to supply troops
15Supplying U.S. and Allied troops Creating boards and agencies helped the U.S. produce and collect the supplied it needed for the warAlso supplied Allied troops besides American troopsProvided a boost for Allied powers and boost to U.S. economy
16Mobilizing WorkersDuring the war, wages for workers increased, however the cost of food and housing went up as wellLaborers were working longer hours to increase productionWorkers began joining unions and more than 6,000 strikes were held during the war
17National War Labor Board Wilson creates the National War Labor Board in 1918 to judge disputes between workers and managementAlso set policies to improve working conditions such as 8 hour work day, equal pay for women,
18Women’s war effortsAs men left for war, women moved into their production jobsWorked in factories, at docks, and on railroadsAlso worked as teachers and nursesSome volunteered to sell liberty bonds or dig victory gardens
19Reading Focus Question #2 How did workers mobilize on the home front?Laborers worked long hours to produce war materials. Women moved into jobs vacated by men who were sent to the front
20Influenza Epidemic on the Home Front 50% of American loss of life resulted from a serious flu epidemicBack in the U.S. an army private complained of flu like symptoms. By the end of the week more than 500 soldiers had the flu.This was a deadly flu. In one month more than 200,000 Americans diedPublic events were cancelledGermans were blamed for spreading the flu
21Influencing Public Opinion Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) headed by George CreelStarted a nationwide campaign of propaganda- newspapers stories, posters, speeches and other materials used to influence public opinionAmericans not only supported the war, also began to distrust everything GermanOpened up discrimination to German Americans
22Reading Focus Question #3 How did the Government try to influence public opinion about the war?It created the Committee on Public Information to oversee a nationwide campaign of propoganda
23Limiting Anti-War speech Some Americans, such as Jane Adams, spoke out against the warWilson tried to limit anti-war speechIn 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military dutyNext year it passed the Sedition Act which made it illegal to utter, print, or publish any disloyal or abusive language criticizing the government, military, or the flagResulted in more than 1000 people being jailed
24Some believed the Sedition Act violated the 1st Amendment Others believed the Sedition Act was needed to protect military secrets and for the safety of soldiersCharles Schenck was a socialist who published 15,000 pamphlets criticizing the war. He was jailed. He challenged his conviction as a violation of his Right to Free Speech.Supreme court upheld his conviction.
25Review Questions for Section #3 What was the War Revenue Act of 1917?What was the function of the War Industries Board?What steps did the fuel administration take to encourage fuel conservation?What were some policies set by the National War Labor Board?How did war demands lead to an increase in in union membership?How did the infulenza epidemic affect American life?What is propaganda?
26Section 4: Peace without Victory Main Idea: The Allies determined the terms for peace in the post-war world
27Learing Objectives for Section 4 Identify President’s Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan for peaceLearn what was resolved at the Paris Peace ConferenceRealize why Congress fought over the treatyDescribe the Impact of World War I on the United Stated and the World
28Bell Ringer /Preview Section 4 Will the treaty pass? President Wilson had to make compromises in writing the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. The treaty did however, include his greatest dream, a League of Nations that would work to ensure peace. Although he was exhausted, Wilson decided to go to the American people to win support for Senate approval of the treaty. In 3 weeks, he traveled from city to city, speaking several times a day. On Sept. 25th 1919, Wilson collapsed after speaking. After returning to Washington, he suffered a stroke. He refused to compromise on changes and the treaty was defeated. The U.S. never joined the League of Nations.
29Review QuestionsWhat part of the Treaty of Versailles was most important to Woodrow Wilson?What was the purpose of the trip that preceded Wilson’s stroke?
30The Fourteen PointsFirst 4 points called for open diplomacy, freedom, freedom of the seas, removal of trade barriers, and reduction of military arms5th point called for proposed a fair system to resolve disputes over colonies8-13 dealt with self-determination- or the right of people to decide their own political status14th point called for establishment of a League of Nations- an organization of Nations that would work together to solve disputes, protect democracy, and prevent war
31Reading Focus Question #1 What was President Wilsons Fourteen point plan for peace?A plan that applied the principles of progressivism to foreign policy to help ensure that another war like the Great War would never happen again
32Paris Peace Conference President Wilson was the 1st President to visit EuropeLed the American negotiators to the Paris Peace ConferenceBegan on Jan 12, 191932 nations attendedLeaders of U.S. Britain, France, and Italy became known as the Big 4.Central Powers were not invited to attend
33Conflicting needs Wilson had a vision of a better world Other nations wanted to punish GermanySome nations wanted their independenceSome wanted to build new nations
34Outcomes of the Treaty of Versailles: forcing Germany must disarm,Germany to pay reparations,Germany had to accept sole responsibility for starting the war,establishment of League of Nations,Right to self-determination for Germany, Russia, and Austria-HungaryCreation of 9 new nations including Czechoslovakia, Poland,& YugoslaviaGermany strongly opposed the conditions but signed anyway
35Reading Focus Question #2 What was resolved at the Paris Peace Conference?Germany had to disarm, pay reparations, take blame, and League of Nations was established
36The Fight over the Treaty When president Wilson returned to the U.S. he presented the treaty to CongressCongress was split into 3 groupsDemcrats who wanted to ratify itIrreconcilibles who refused itReservationists who would ratify it only if changes were made
37Wilson refused to compromise the treaty and instead went to the American people. Made 32 speeches in 22 days urging public support for the treatyHe suffered a stroke and spent the rest of his term living in the White House cut off from the publicAfter Wilson left office in 1921, the U.S. entered into separate peace treat with Austria, Germany and Hungary
38The Impact of World War I 14 million deaths7 million permanently disabled peopleResulted in overthrow of monarchies in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman EmpireDevastated European economiesU.S. emerged as the world’s leading economic powerLed women into the workforceWomen granted the right to votePeriod of rapid inflation in the United States
39Reading Focus Question #3 What was the impact of WW I on the United States and the world?It left millions of people dead; cost billions of dollars; monarchies were overthrown; European economies were devastated;
40Review Questions Section 4 What was President Wilson’s purpose for going to Europe?Who were the Big Four?How was Congress divided over the Treaty of Versailles?What casualties resulted from World War I?How did World War I have a lasting effect on American society?
41CST Practice QuestionDuring World War I, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in Schenck vs. United States thatExpanded civil libertiesUpheld limits to free speechOverturned limits to free speechMade it illegal to refuse military duty
42AnswerDuring World War I, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in Schenck vs. United States thatExpanded civil libertiesUpheld limits to free speechOverturned limits to free speechMade it illegal to refuse military duty
43CST Practice QuestionTo conserve food during World War II, the U.S. governmentIntroduced daylight savings timeEncouraged Americans to buy war bondsLimit the alcohol content of wine and beerEncouraged Americans to plant victory gardens
44Answer To conserve food during World War II, the U.S. government Introduced daylight savings timeEncouraged Americans to buy war bondsLimit the alcohol content of wine and beerEncouraged Americans to plant victory gardens