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Year 11 Evening Revision Information Session

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1 Year 11 Evening Revision Information Session
AQA iGCSE Literature Year 11 Evening Revision Information Session

2 What does the paper look like?
Section A Section B Analyse and write about an unseen poem from the 20th or 21st century, normally from the Literary Canon, e.g. Plath, Duffy, Lawrence and so on. Choose ONE essay question from a choice of two on your exam text. Total exam time: 1 hour 30 minutes

3 Exam Texts Romeo and Juliet Journey’s End A View from the Bridge The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time

4 Section A Unseen poetry

5 What is the ‘UNSEEN’ section of the exam?
It forms Section A of your Literature exam (Section B is the essay question on the set exam text you have studied in class) You have 45 minutes for the task The task is to look at a poem you haven’t seen before, annotate it and write up your answer using PEE/PQA/PQE In A-level, it is called ‘practical criticism’.

6 Top Tips Read the question FIRST as it will tell you the topic of the poem The wording of the question is always the same: WHAT are the key points and HOW is this achieved? It will always be a MODERN poem

7 Key Poetic Terms

Writing using ‘I’, ‘you’ or ‘he/she/it/they’ ALLITERATION Use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse. ALLUSION Hinting or referring to (normally) another piece of literature or an historical event. ASSONANCE The repetition of similar or identical vowel sounds in words which follow one another FREE VERSE A poem with no rhyme scheme or metre. IAMBIC PENTAMETER A line made up of five pairs of short/long, or unstressed/stressed, syllables IMAGERY Words or phrases that appeal to any sense or any combination of senses JUXTAPOSITION A technique where different and opposing ideas are within the same stanza or poem. METAPHOR Two different things or ideas fused together: one thing is described as the other. E.g. The car park IS an ice rink. METRE The basic rhythmic structure of a verse ONOMATOPOEIA The use of words which imitate sound. E.g. Crash, pop, crack. OXYMORON A technique where two opposing ideas are written right next to each other, e.g. ‘loving hate’. PERSONIFICATION A figure of speech which endows animals, ideas, or inanimate objects with human traits or abilities. PETRARCHAN SONNET A lyric poem of fixed form: fourteen lines but with a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA (octet) then CDCDCD (sestet). There is normally a change in perspective, tone or theme after the octet, this is called a volta. RHYME SCHEME The sequence in which the rhyme occurs. The first end sound is represented as the letter “a”, the second is “b”, etc. Examples include: rhyming couplets and alternate line rhyme. SEMANTIC FIELDS A group of words or phrases that can be linked under a common theme, e.g. a semantic field of love. SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET A lyric poem of fixed form: fourteen lines of iambic pentameter rhymed. Rhyme scheme: ABABCDCDEFEFGG SIBILANCE ‘S’ ‘Z’ ‘SH’ sounds repeated. A type of Alliteration. SIMILE When one thing is compared to another using ‘like’ or ‘as’.

9 EAT LOIS! An acronym (a word that stands for another word) will help you achieve success in your unseen poetry question

10 Emotions + Feelings = MOOD/ATMOSPHERE
How can we tell the mood or emotions within a poem? Let’s look at the lyrics to this song What emotion would you use to describe HOW the person in this song is feeling? How do you know? What language techniques are being used? Four letter word just to get me along It's a difficulty and I'm biting on my tongue and I I keep stalling, keeping me together People around gotta find something to say now Holding back, everyday the same Don't wanna be a loner Listen to me, oh no I never say anything at all But with nothing to consider they forget my name (ame,ame,ame) They call me 'Hell' They call me 'Stacey' They call me 'her' They call me 'Jane' That's not my name That's not my name That's not my name That's not my name

11 ABOUT How do we know what a poem is about?
Link to song: Some top tips for discovering the enigma of a poem: Work your way through all the other letters (except for ‘O’) FIRST Look at the first lines and the last line as they OFTEN but NOT ALWAYS contain the key idea of the poem DO NOT stress if you cannot ‘work it out’. Remember, you are told the topic or idea of the poem in the question – all you need to do after that is work out what the poet is trying to say about the topic/idea. Scaramouche, is a roguish clown character of the Italian commedia dell'arte who wears a black mask and black trousers, shirt and hat. He is usually portrayed as a buffoon or boastful clown. Fandango is a lively couple's dance, usually in triple metre, traditionally accompanied by guitars and castanets or hand-clapping. Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. According to Stephen Hawking, "Galileo, perhaps more than any other single person, was responsible for the birth of modern science". Figaro – central character in Italian comedies who conspires to embarrass the Count and expose his scheming, thus undermining the aristocracy. The play was banned when it was first made. Bismillah - is the opening word in the Qu'ran (Koran) and literally means "In the name of Allah."

12 Bohemian Rhapsody Is this the real life? Is this just fantasy? Caught in a landslide, No escape from reality. Open your eyes, Look up to the skies and see, I'm just a poor boy, I need no sympathy, Because I'm easy come, easy go, Little high, little low, Any way the wind blows doesn't really matter to me, to me. What do the first two rhetorical questions suggest? What tone or atmosphere does it create? How is the narrator feeling in the 3rd line? What about the 4th line? What does this final line suggest? Why is the narrator talking about the ‘way the wind blows’?

13 THEMES What words might you group together?
I wanna hold em' like they do in Texas please Fold em' let em' hit me raise it baby stay with me (I love it) LoveGame intuition play the cards with Spades to start And after he's been hooked I'll play the one that's on his heart I wanna roll with him a hard pair we will be A little gambling is fun when you're with me (I love it) Russian Roulette is not the same without a gun And baby when it's love if it’s not rough it isn't fun, fun What words might you group together? When you group words together like this, it’s called a SEMANTIC FIELD! What impact does this group of words have on the theme of love? What’s the message Gaga is trying to get across?

14 LANGUAGE What language devices are being used in this song?
Oh, how about a round of applause? Yeah, standing ovation? Ooh, oh yeah Yeah y-yeah yeah You look so dumb right now Standing outside my house Trying to apologize You’re so ugly when you cry Please, just cut it out Don’t tell me you’re sorry 'cause you’re not And baby when I know you’re only sorry you got caught But you put on quite a show, really had me going But now it’s time to go, curtain’s finally closing That was quite a show, very entertaining But it’s over now (But it’s over now) Go on and take a bow Grab your clothes and get gone You better hurry up before the sprinklers come on Talking? 'bout, ? Girl, I love you," "You’re the one" This just looks like a rerun Please, what else is on? What language devices are being used in this song? Aim to find AT LEAST 3 What is the effect of each language technique on the reader?

15 Key Language Devices Exaggeration/hyperbole
1st (I) or 3rd (he/she/it) person Rhetorical questions Triples/rule of three Repetition Oxymoron Juxtaposition Emotive Language Listing Verbs Adjectives Nouns Lexis You may wish to colour code your terminology sheet into: LANGUAGE techniques, IMAGERY techniques and STRUCTURAL techniques.

16 OPINION What is your opinion of the song? Do you agree?
Do you disagree? The best answers will incorporate a bit of both! If I were a boy even just for a day I'd roll out of bed in the morning And throw on what I wanted And go drink beer with the guys And chase after girls I'd kick it with who I wanted And I'd never get confronted for it 'Cause they stick up for me If I were a boy I think I could understand How it feels to love a girl I swear I'd be a better man

17 IMAGERY What figurative language is being used in the song/poem?
She's like the wind through my tree She rides the night next to me She leads me through moonlight Only to burn me with the sun She's taken my heart But she doesn't know what she's done I feel her breath on my face Her body close to me Can't look in her eyes She's out of my league Just a fool to believe I have anything she needs She's like the wind I look in the mirror and all I see Is a young old man with only a dream Am I just fooling myself That she'll stop the pain Living without her I'd go insane I feel her breath on my face Her body close to me Can't look in her eyes She's out of my league Just a fool to believe I have anything she needs She's like the wind What figurative language is being used in the song/poem? What is the effect on the reader?

18 Imagery Techniques Similes Metaphors Alliteration Onomatopoeia
Personification Assonance

19 STRUCTURE Quickdraw I wear the two, the mobile and the landline phones, like guns, slung from the pockets on my hips. I’m all alone. You ring, quickdraw, your voice a pellet in my ear, and hear me groan. You’ve wounded me. Next time, you speak after the tone. I twirl the phone, then squeeze the trigger of my tongue, wide of the mark. You choose your spot, then blast me through the heart. And this is love, high noon, calamity, hard liquor in the old Last Chance saloon. I show the mobile to the Sheriff; in my boot, another one’s concealed. You text them both at once. I reel. Down on my knees, I fumble for the phone, read the silver bullets of your kiss. Take this … and this … and this … and this … and this … Is concerned with rhyme, rhythm, stanzas, enjambment, end stopped lines and sentencing. It can also include: caesura, ellipsis and parenthesis. You are not expected to know certain metre patterns, however you can count the syllables per line and see if there is a REGULAR pattern or an IRREGULAR pattern

20 What if I’m REALLY struggling with EAT LOIS?
Aim to identify and write about 4-5 key language techniques and write these up as paragraphs. The reason that there are 7 letters is because they each relate to a strand of the mark scheme. If you decide not to use EAT LOIS, please ensure that you still refer to all the elements of this acronym in your answer!

21 Example Poem Look at this poem and see if you can identify the key elements of this poem using EAT LOIS

22 What does the narrator of the poem feel about the birth of her child and how does the poet present these feelings? (35 marks)

23 Is the FOUNDATION tier any different?
Not really! The question is broken into TWO parts In addition to this, the poem is normally a little bit easier.


25 How do I write my answer? You DO NOT need to include an introduction or conclusion You can write a PEE/PQA paragraph per EAT LOIS letter or combine 2 letters if you wish Use PEE/PQA POINT: Answer the question using a FULL sentence QUOTE: Support your point with a quote ANALYSIS/EXPLANATION: Explain the effect on the reader

26 Example POINT: Firstly, the narrator of the poem feels as though the baby is a separate person and as though she is distanced from the baby or that the idea of motherhood overwhelms her. Try to answer the question in a full sentence.

27 Example QUOTE The quote that shows this is “I’m no more your mother /Than a cloud that distils a mirror to reflect its own slow/Effacement at the wind’s hand” EMBEDDED QUOTE (POINT AND QUOTE TOGETHER) The narrator feels as though the baby is a separate entity and that she is ‘no more your mother/Than a cloud…hand”.

This quote suggests that the narrator feels as though motherhood is beyond her grasp and that it is not tangible. In addition to this, the imagery suggests that such an idea is futile, ‘than a cloud that distils a mirror to reflect its own slow/Effacement at the wind’s hand’. The words ‘effacement’ and ‘distils’ are almost set up in juxtaposition to each other to connote how out of control and unfamiliar the narrator feels about motherhood. The use of enjambment further emphasises this point, perhaps imitating this fragmented state of mind. Finally, the use of natural imagery not only acts as a cohesive device within the poem but also underpins the idea of a new life both literally and metaphorically.


30 Top Tips for Writing using PQA
Point: answer the question in a full sentence and add your point THINK: “What is my point in relation to the question?” Quote Add in a quote from the book that shows and supports this point Use quotation marks “…” DO NOT just write the quote, instead use this sentence starter (or one of your own): The quote that shows this is… If you are looking to get the top bands, try EMBEDDING the quote THINK: “Where is the evidence?” Analysis This is where you explain how your quote and point answer the question Top Tips and Sentence Starters: This quote suggests/shows/implies/proposes/advocates… The words “…” suggest… The use of a (insert language technique such as simile) here suggests… This quote could also show… This links to the structure of the text because… This links to the genre or form of the text because… The writer’s intentions in creating this character/relationship/setting/atmosphere are… This idea is still relevant today because… THINK: How does my point and quote answer the question? How does the writer use language, form and structure to create characters, relationships, atmosphere, settings and themes/ideas?

31 Unseen Question Mark Scheme
Have I…? Written an insightful and exploratory response to the poem? Closely analysed quotes to support my interpretations using PQA/PEE? Evaluated/assessed the writer’s uses of language, and structure and the effects on readers? Given convincing/imaginative interpretations of the ideas and themes in the poem?

32 The Next Step? Write it up as a practice question and hand it to your class teacher for marking and feedback Complete another practice question but time yourself for 45 minutes You could however build up to this by doing it in stages: FIRST try to analyse/label/read the poem in minutes THEN aim to get your writing up time down to minutes.

33 Section B Set Text

34 What is Section B of the exam?
A choice of TWO essay questions; you choose ONE. You need to answer the question using an essay structure.

35 The format is a CHOICE between TWO essay questions (40 marks; 4 marks are for SPAG)
EITHER How does Miller present ideas about justice and the law in A View from the Bridge? OR What is the significance of Marco in A View from the Bridge and how does Miller present him?

36 The format is a CHOICE between TWO essay questions (40 marks; 4 marks are for SPAG)
EITHER Remind yourself of the end of Act 2 scene 1 (from ‘RALEIGH: Right. [He crosses towards the door and turns.] Where do we put the letters to be collected?’ to the end of the scene). Using this as a starting point, explore the way Sherriff presents the relationship between Stanhope and Raleigh in Journey’s End. OR How does Sherriff present ideas about courage in Journey’s End?

37 The format is a CHOICE between TWO essay questions (40 marks; 4 marks are for SPAG)
EITHER What do you find interesting about the ways Shakespeare presents female characters in Romeo and Juliet? OR In the prologue Shakespeare describes Romeo and Juliet as “star-crossed lovers”. What is the role of fate in the play?

38 The format is a CHOICE between TWO essay questions (40 marks; 4 marks are for SPAG)
EITHER Christopher says: ‘I find people confusing.’ How does Haddon present this confusion? OR How does Haddon use features of murder mysteries in The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time?

39 What do I do next? Choose the question you feel most comfortable answering Quickly plan 5 key points in response to the question – with quotes if you can! Write up your 5 points as 5 PEE/PQA paragraphs You will need to include a brief introduction and a brief conclusion as the examiner is looking for an essay answer

40 What does a PQA/PEE paragraph look like?
Firstly, Marco is an important character in the play because he is the only one who stands up to Eddie, despite their family connections and ties. In the play, Marco lifts the chair ‘like a weapon’. This quote shows very clearly that Marco is intimidating Eddie and that he does not agree with the way that Eddie treats Rodolpho in particular. The use of a simile in the stage direction, further implies that this is an act of aggression and threat rather than a fight. It is the implied violence that makes it all the more disturbing for the audience. In addition to this, it also foreshadows the end of the tragedy where Marco kills Eddie for being dishonourable. Although Marco says very little, his actions are very clear.

41 Key Sentence Starters Key Sentence Starters Point
Answer the question in a FULL sentence, e.g. Miller/Sherriff/Shakespeare/Haddon presents the idea of justice and law/confusion/courage/fate in this play by/through the use of… Quote/Evidence The quote that shows this is… Romeo (or a different character) states… REMEMBER TO USE QUOTATION MARKS Analysis/Explanation This quote shows/implies/suggests/proposes… The use of (insert writing technique here) emphasises… The word ‘responsibility’ suggests… This links to the genre… This links to the context of the time… This quote could also show…

42 Success Criteria Analyse quotes rather than tell the story
Comment on STRUCTURE and FORM and how they shape the text Discuss the setting and key themes/ideas DO NOT describe characters – use quotes to support your points and analyse the language they use. What is each character’s purpose? Explore the writer’s intentions in creating this text and its characters Use PQA/PEE/PQC Use close word analysis, e.g. The word “…” suggests… Use evaluative comments, e.g. This quote could also mean… Include the context of the time, if relevant, e.g. This links to context because… Comment on the messages of the text Your ability to write coherently does form part of the mark scheme

43 Introductions It is a good idea for each person to create a model introduction to use in the exam. Answer the following questions: What is the form and structure of the text? What are the key points in answer to the question? What are 2-3 key context issues you need to consider when analysing the text?

44 Conclusions Start with In Conclusion… Sum up your answer to the essay
Discuss the writer’s intentions in creating the play

45 Top tips! Use the clock – timing is an issue for almost everyone
Revise thoroughly so you don’t waste time looking for quotes Use PQA throughout and ensure you complete AT LEAST 4 of these for each question Comment on form and structure and why it’s used as well as the effect on the reader Use phrases such as: Haddon/Shakespeare/Sherriff/Miller describes the protagonist as… Link context into your answer

46 Revision Ideas

47 Take a single or double page in your exercise book…
Firstly… Secondly… At the top, write the title of your text Underneath the title, sum up the text in no more than 10 words Then list the key events and why they are important Space the following subheadings out around your double page and add 5 key points to each (apart from characters): Themes and quotes Characters – who are they and what is their role? What do they symbolise? The underdog? Attitudes to racism? Form and structure Context Symbolism (and dramatic devices for plays) Writer’s intentions

48 Symbolism/Dramatic Devices
Continued… Themes and Quotes Characters Context Form and Structure Symbolism/Dramatic Devices Writer’s intentions

49 Past Papers From the AQA website:
From the drop down box choose: ENGLISH – iGCSE (Paper 1) On the Central Resource Library or the 2015 Revision part of the VLE

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