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Jain Agam Literature Pravin K. Shah Jain Study Center of North Carolina (Raleigh) 509 Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh NC and fax Website:
Index Jain Agam (Canonical) Literature ƒDefinition ƒClassification ƒListings of Sutras ƒSummary of Agams by Jainsects ƒHistory of Preservation ƒAgam substitute Literature of Digambar ƒAuthors of Agam Literature ƒAgam Sutras based on Fourteen Purvas Commentary on Jain Agams ƒNiryukti ƒBhasya ƒChurni ƒTika Summary of Jain Literature ƒVarious Subjects / Languages ƒJain Authors ƒImportant Jain scriptures
Jain Agam (Canonical) Literature (Shrut, Sutra, Dvadsangi, Ganipitikas, Siddhant) Definition ƒAbsolute Point of View (Reader/Listener) –Enhances Spiritual Life –Finds Happiness within –Reduces kashays (greed, anger, lust, ego etc.) within ƒEmpirical Point of View (Author/Speaker) –Teaching of Jina (Aapt, Tirthankar, Arihant, Arhat) who has conquered attachment and aversion –Preach Universal Truth –Conduct - Equanimity, Universal affection, Friendship –Thought - Principle of Relativity Language ƒArdha-maghadhi 400 to 100 B.C. ƒJain Maharachtri 100 to 500 AD.
Jain Agam Literature (Jain Scriptures) Ang-agams 12 Scriptures (all sects) Ganadhars 11 Ang-agams Swetambar - all survived Digambar - all extinct 12th Ang-agam Drastivad 14 Purvas - all extinct Five Parikarmas Sutra Prathamanuyog Fourteen Purva-gatas Five Chulikas Angbahya-agams 14/34/21 Scriptures 14/10 Purvi Acharyas Digambar Angbahya-agams 14 scriptures (all sects) All extinct Swetambar Angbahya-agams 34/21 Scriptures All survived Upang 12 Murtipujak 12 Non-murtipujak Chhed-sutra 6 Murtipujak 4 Non-murtipujak Mool-sutra 4 Murtipujak 3 Non-murtipujak Chulika 2 Murtipujak 2 Non-murtipujak Prakirna 10 Murtipujak 0 Non-murtipujak Jain Agam Literature
Ang-pravistha Agam Direct Teachings of Lord Mahavir Composed by Ganadhars 12 Ang-pravishta Agams Digambar (all sects) ƒAll 12 Ang-agams are extinct during 364 B.C. to 157 AD. Shwetambar (all sects) ƒ11 Ang-agams are survived ƒ12th Ang Agam is extinct during 356 BC to 474 AD.
Ang-pravistha Agams 1.Acharang 2.Sutra-kratang 3.Sthanang 4.Samavay-ang 5.Vhakhya-prajnapti or Bhagavati 6.Jnata-dharma-kathang 7.Upasaka-dashang 8.Antahkra-dashang 9.Anuttaroupa-patika-dashang 10.Prashna-vyakran 11.Vipaka-sutra 12.Drishti-pravada or Drishtivad
Drishti-pravada-anga 12th Ang-agam Divided into Five Parts: 1Five Parikarmas 2Sutra 3Pratham-anuyoga 4Fourteen Purva-gatas or Purvas 5Five Chulikas
Drishti-pravada-anga Five Parikarmas ƒChandra-prajnapti ƒSurya-prajnapti ƒJambu-dvipa-prajnapti ƒDvip-prajnapti ƒVyakhya-prajnapti Sutra ƒAn account of 363 false creeds Pratham-anuyoga ƒLife stories of 63 great Leaders –24 Tirthankars –12 Chakra-vartis –9 Narayans or Vasudevs –9 Prati-narayans or Prati-vasudevs –9 Bal-bhadras or Baldevs
Listings of 14 Purvas 1.Utpada-purva 1. describes the origination, destruction, and permanance nature of substances 2.Agraya-niya 1. describes seven tattvas, and six dravyas 3.Viryanu-vad 1. describes the power and qualities of living and nonliving substances. 4.Asti-nasti-pravad 1. Seven ways (saydvad) of considering things and their usage. 5.Jnana-pravad 1. Eight types of knowledge (Jnana) 6.Satya-pravad 1. Description of truth, silence, speakers 7.Atma-pravad 1. Description of soul (Atma) from Nischaya and Vyavahar point of view
Listings of 14 Purvas (Cont..) 8.Karma-pravad 8. Bondage and its modification of karma to the soul 9.Pratya-khyan 8. Description of vows, penances, repentances, and renounciation of bad things. 10.Vidyanu-vad 8. Acquiring special power by learning various Mantras and other knowledge 11.Kalyan-vad 8. Description of the grand celebrations of great events (Kalyanak) 12.Prana-vad 8. knowledge about removal of pains caused by spirit, ghost, snake etc. 13.Kriya-visal 8. Description 72 arts of man and 64 arts of woman 14.Triloka-bindu-sara 8. Way of attaing Moksha and glory and hapiness of it.
Five Chulikas Chulika knowledge acquires extra ordinary power 1Jala-gata ƒ power to walk on water, staying in the water, passing through fire etc 2Sthala-gata ƒ travel to mount Meru, Mahavideh etc 3Maya-gata ƒ power to perform miracles 4Rupa-gata ƒ transformation of body into various forms. 5Akasa-gata ƒ travel into space
Agam Summary by Jain Sects Digambar (all sects) ƒ12th Ang Agam (14 Purvas) extinct by 356 BC ƒRemaining 11 Angs and 14 Ang-bahya extinct by 157 AD ƒAgam Substitute Literature –Satkhand Agam –Kashay-pahud –Four Anuyogs Shwetambar (all sects) ƒ12th Ang Agam (14 Purvas) extinct by 474 AD ƒ11 Ang-pravishta Agams Survived Shwetambar Murtipujak ƒAccepts 34 Ang-bahya Agams Shwetambar Nonmurtipujak ƒAccepts 21 Ang-bahya Agams
History of Preservation First Recension (226 BC) ƒPatali-putra by Sthulibhadra ƒ11 Ang Agams orally complied ƒ14 Purvas not remembered ƒLater Sthulibhadra complied 10 Purvas Second Recension (374 AD to 387 AD) ƒMathura by Skandil ƒValabhi by Nagarjun ƒAgams and Anuyogs documented Third Recension (527 AD) ƒValabhi by Devardhi-gani ƒPrakirnas documented ƒAgams and Anuyogs reviewed/preserved ƒDifferences documented in Churni ƒAgam works settled (Catalog in Nandi Sutra) Current Status ƒDeviation from Nandi Sutra –Many Prakirnas are extinct –Vir-stava and Pind-niryukti added afterwords
Commentary Literature To study Jain agams, one requires to study complete Panchagini of each Agam. Panchagini (Five Types) ƒOriginal Sutras ƒNiryukti ƒBhasya ƒChurni ƒTika
Niryukti Literature Written on Agam sutras Prakrit Language Poetic Form and Short Provides General Meaning Contains ƒHistorical Incidences ƒOld Traditions, Stories, and Examples ƒPhilosophy, Principles, and Conducts Author - Bhadrabahu-swami (second) ƒWritten on 10 Agams before 600 AD Independent Niryukties ƒSanstarak Niryukti ƒGovind Niryukti or Darshan Prabhavak Shastra ƒAradhana Niryukti
Bhasya Literature Written on Agam and Niryukti Prakrit Language Poetic Form Provides Specific Meaning Contains ƒPrachin (old) Anushruties ƒJatak Stories ƒProvides Good Understanding of –History of Jainism –Conducts and Behavior of Monks Authors ƒSanghdas-gani ƒJinbhadra-gani ƒWritten to 600 A.D.
Churni Literature Written on Agam, Niryukti, Bhasya Prakrit mixed Sanskrit Language Prose Form Contains Jatak and Religious Stories Provides Good Understanding ƒSocial Customs ƒBusiness ƒFood Habits ƒFestivals ƒClothing of people Author - Jindas-gani Mahattar 600 AD
Tika Literature Written on Agam sutras, Niryukti, Bhasya, and Churni Sanskrit mixed with Prakrit stories Most Important to understand Agam literature Prominent Tika Authors ƒHaribhadra-suri (705 to 755 A.D.) –Prajnapana, Avasyaka*, Nandi, Dasha- vaikalika*, Anuyoga-dvara ƒShilanka-suri (8th century) –Acharang, Sutra-kratang ƒAbhaydev (11th century) –9 of 11 Ang agams ƒMalladhari Hemchandra (11th century) –Anuyogdvar ƒAcharya Malay-giri (11th century) –Nandi, Prajnapana, Jiva-bhigama, Brahat- kalpa, Rajpashniya, Chandra-pragnapti, Avasyak* ƒShanti-suri (1563 A.D.) –Uttara-dhyan Sutra Vrahat Tika*
Jain Authors Kundkunda-charya (1st century) ƒAshta Pahud B ƒBaras Anuvekkha (Anupreksha) B ƒDas Bhakti Granth B ƒNiyamsar B ƒPanchastikaya B ƒPravachansar B ƒSamaysar B Umaswati or Umaswami (2nd century) ƒTattvarth Sutra A ƒPrashama-rati Prakarana B ƒTattvarth Bhasya A Siddhasen Divakar or Gandh-hasti (5th century) ƒDvatrishika Stotra K ƒKalyan Mandir Stotra (S) K ƒNyayavatar E ƒSanmati-tark (prakaran) E ƒTattvarth Bhasya A
Jain Authors Samant-bhadra (5th century) ƒApta Mimansa (Devagma Stotra) E ƒRatna Karand Shravakachar F ƒStuti Vidya K ƒSvayambhu Stotra K Pujyapad or Devanandi (6th century) ƒIshtopadesh G ƒJainendra Vyakaran Q ƒSamadhi Sataka ƒSamadhi Tantra C ƒSarvarth Siddhi (Tattvarth tika) A ƒSiddhi Priya Stotra K Akalank (7th century) ƒAshtashati (Apta Mimansha tika) E ƒLagiyasraya E ƒNyaya Vinishchaya E ƒPraman Sangraha E ƒSiddhi Vinishchaya E
Jain Authors Haribhadra-suri (8th century) ƒAnekant Jaya Pataka E ƒAnuyogadvara C ƒAsada-kavikrata UpadeshaF ƒDharma Bindu F ƒDharma Samgrahani F ƒDhurta-khyan J ƒJambudvipa Prajnaapti R ƒJiva-bhigam A ƒKandati C ƒLalit Vistra M ƒNandi P ƒNyaya Pravesh (tika-non Jain text E ƒSamaraicchakaha J ƒSavay Pannitti ƒShad-darshan Samuccaya A
Jain Authors Haribhadra-suri (8th century) cont... ƒTattvarth Sloka Vriti A ƒUpadesha Pada G ƒYoga Bindu C ƒYoga Drasti Samucchaya C ƒYoga Shataka C Vidyananda (8th century) ƒApta ParikshaE ƒAshta Sahasri (Apta Mimansa tika)E ƒNaya-vivarnam E ƒPatrapariksa E ƒPraman Pariksha E ƒSatya Shasan Pariksha E ƒTattvarth Shloka Vartika (tika)A
Jain Authors Nemichandra Siddhant Chakravarti (10th century) ƒBrahat Dravya Sangraha A ƒGomatsar Jivakanda D ƒGomatsar Karmakanda D ƒKshetra Ganita L ƒLabdhisar (Gomatsar purak) D ƒRaghava Pandaviya Kavya M ƒTriloksar H Somdev (10th century) ƒAdhyatma Tarangini C ƒNitivakyamrit U ƒSyadvad Upanishad C ƒUpasak Addhayan F ƒYashastilak Champu I
Jain Authors Hemchandra (12th century) ƒAbhidhana Chintamani P ƒAlankar Chudamani N ƒAnaya-yoga Vyavachchedika E ƒAnekartha Namamala P ƒArhan-niti U ƒChhandonu-shasana M ƒDeshi Namamala P ƒDhvayashrya Mahakavya M ƒKavyanu Shashana M ƒMahadev Stotra K ƒNighantukosha P ƒParamatma Prakaran C
Jain Authors Hemchandra (12th century) cont.. ƒParishishta Parva J ƒPraman Mimansa E ƒShesha Namamala P ƒSiddha Hemachandra VyakaranaO ƒSiddhahema Shabdanu Shasan O ƒTrishishta Shalaka Purush I ƒVadanu Shasan E ƒVitarag Stotra K ƒYoga Shastra C ƒYoga Shastra Vratti C ƒYoga Vinshikas C
Jain Authors Yashovijayji (18th century) ƒAdhyatma Pariksa B ƒAdhyatma Sara B ƒAdhyatma Upanishad B ƒAshta Sahasri VivaranE ƒDharma Pariksha F ƒDvatrimshad K ƒJain Tark Paribhasha E ƒJnan-bindu-sara B ƒKarma-prakrati Tika D ƒNaya-pradip E ƒNaya-rahasyaE ƒNayamrit Tarangini E ƒNyaya Khandan KhadyaE ƒNyayalok E ƒTattvarth Sutra Vriti A ƒUpadesha Rahasya F