Presentation on theme: "Jain Agam Literature Pravin K. Shah"— Presentation transcript:
1Jain Agam Literature Pravin K. Shah Jain Study Center of North Carolina (Raleigh)509 Carriage Woods CircleRaleigh NCand faxWebsite:
2Index Jain Agam (Canonical) Literature Commentary on Jain Agams DefinitionClassificationListings of SutrasSummary of Agams by JainsectsHistory of PreservationAgam substitute Literature of DigambarAuthors of Agam LiteratureAgam Sutras based on Fourteen PurvasCommentary on Jain AgamsNiryuktiBhasyaChurniTikaSummary of Jain LiteratureVarious Subjects / LanguagesJain AuthorsImportant Jain scriptures
3Jain Agam (Canonical) Literature (Shrut, Sutra, Dvadsangi, Ganipitikas, Siddhant)DefinitionAbsolute Point of View (Reader/Listener)Enhances Spiritual LifeFinds Happiness withinReduces kashays (greed, anger, lust, ego etc.) withinEmpirical Point of View (Author/Speaker)Teaching of Jina (Aapt, Tirthankar, Arihant, Arhat) who has conquered attachment and aversionPreach Universal TruthConduct - Equanimity, Universal affection, FriendshipThought - Principle of RelativityLanguageArdha-maghadhi to 100 B.C.Jain Maharachtri 100 to 500 AD.
5Jain Agam Literature Jain Agam Literature (Jain Scriptures) Ang-agams 12 Scriptures (all sects)GanadharsAngbahya-agams14/34/21 Scriptures14/10 Purvi Acharyas11 Ang-agamsSwetambar - all survivedDigambar - all extinct12th Ang-agamDrastivad14 Purvas - all extinctDigambar Angbahya-agams14 scriptures (all sects)All extinctSwetambar Angbahya-agams34/21 ScripturesAll survivedFive ParikarmasUpang12 Murtipujak12 Non-murtipujakSutraChhed-sutra6 Murtipujak4 Non-murtipujakPrathamanuyogMool-sutra4 Murtipujak3 Non-murtipujakFourteen Purva-gatasChulika2 Murtipujak2 Non-murtipujakFive ChulikasPrakirna10 Murtipujak0 Non-murtipujak
6Ang-pravistha Agam Direct Teachings of Lord Mahavir Composed by Ganadhars12 Ang-pravishta AgamsDigambar (all sects)All 12 Ang-agams are extinct during 364 B.C. to 157 AD.Shwetambar (all sects)11 Ang-agams are survived12th Ang Agam is extinct during 356 BC to 474 AD.
7Ang-pravistha Agams Acharang Sutra-kratang Sthanang Samavay-ang Vhakhya-prajnapti or BhagavatiJnata-dharma-kathangUpasaka-dashangAntahkra-dashangAnuttaroupa-patika-dashangPrashna-vyakranVipaka-sutraDrishti-pravada or Drishtivad
8Drishti-pravada-anga 12th Ang-agamDivided into Five Parts:Five ParikarmasSutraPratham-anuyogaFourteen Purva-gatas or PurvasFive Chulikas
9Drishti-pravada-anga Five ParikarmasChandra-prajnaptiSurya-prajnaptiJambu-dvipa-prajnaptiDvip-prajnaptiVyakhya-prajnaptiSutraAn account of 363 false creedsPratham-anuyogaLife stories of 63 great Leaders24 Tirthankars12 Chakra-vartis9 Narayans or Vasudevs9 Prati-narayans or Prati-vasudevs9 Bal-bhadras or Baldevs
10Listings of 14 Purvas Utpada-purva describes the origination, destruction, and permanance nature of substancesAgraya-niyadescribes seven tattvas, and six dravyasViryanu-vaddescribes the power and qualities of living and nonliving substances.Asti-nasti-pravadSeven ways (saydvad) of considering things and their usage.Jnana-pravadEight types of knowledge (Jnana)Satya-pravadDescription of truth, silence, speakersAtma-pravadDescription of soul (Atma) from Nischaya and Vyavahar point of view
11Listings of 14 Purvas (Cont..) Karma-pravadBondage and its modification of karma to the soulPratya-khyanDescription of vows, penances, repentances, and renounciation of bad things.Vidyanu-vadAcquiring special power by learning various Mantras and other knowledgeKalyan-vadDescription of the grand celebrations of great events (Kalyanak)Prana-vadknowledge about removal of pains caused by spirit, ghost, snake etc.Kriya-visalDescription 72 arts of man and 64 arts of womanTriloka-bindu-saraWay of attaing Moksha and glory and hapiness of it.
12Chulika knowledge acquires extra ordinary power Five ChulikasChulika knowledge acquires extra ordinary powerJala-gatapower to walk on water, staying in the water, passing through fire etcSthala-gatatravel to mount Meru, Mahavideh etcMaya-gatapower to perform miraclesRupa-gatatransformation of body into various forms.Akasa-gatatravel into space
13Ang-bahya Agams: Composed by Sthaviras. Digambar Shwetambar 14 or 10 Purvi AcharyasDigambarAll sects - 14ShwetambarMurti-pujakNon-murti-pujak - 21
14Digambar's Ang-bahya Agams 1. Samayik2. Samstava3. Vandana4. Prati-kraman5. Vinaya6. Kriti-karma7. Das-vaikalik8. Uttar-adhyayan9. Kalpa-vyavahara10. Kalpa-kalpa11. Mahakalpa-sanjnaka12. Pundarika13. Maha-pundarika14. NishidikaAll 14 Ang-bahya Agams are extinct during 364 B.C. to 157 A.D.
16Shwetambar's Ang-bahya Agams Upang AgamsAupa-patikaRaja-prasniyaJivabhigamPrajnapanaJambu-dvipa-prajnaptiSurya-prajnaptiChandra-prajnaptiNirayavali or KalpikaKalpa-vatansikaPushpikaPushpa-chulikaVrashni-dashaAccepted by Murti Pujak and Non-murti Pujak sects.
17Shwetambar's Ang-bahya Agams: Chhed-sutra Agams:NishithaMaha-nishithaVyavahara*Das-sruta-skandhaBrahat-kalpaPanch-kalpa (now extinct) or Jit-kalpa*Mul-sutra AgamsAvasyakaDasha-vaikalikaUttara-dhyanOgha-niryukti or Pinda-niryukti*Chulika-sutra AgamsNandi-sutraAnuyoga-dvara* Not accepted by Non-murti pujak sect
18Shwetambar's Ang-bahya Agams: Prakirna AgamsChatuh-saranaSamstarakAtura-pratya-khyanaBhakti-parijnaTandul-vaitalikaChandra-vedhyakaDevendra-stavGanit-vidyaMaha-pratya-khyanVir-stavaNone are accepted by Non-murti pujak sect
19Agam Summary by Jain Sects Digambar (all sects)12th Ang Agam (14 Purvas) extinct by 356 BCRemaining 11 Angs and 14 Ang-bahya extinct by 157 ADAgam Substitute LiteratureSatkhand AgamKashay-pahudFour AnuyogsShwetambar (all sects)12th Ang Agam (14 Purvas) extinct by 474 AD11 Ang-pravishta Agams SurvivedShwetambar MurtipujakAccepts 34 Ang-bahya AgamsShwetambar NonmurtipujakAccepts 21 Ang-bahya Agams
20History of Preservation First Recension (226 BC)Patali-putra by Sthulibhadra11 Ang Agams orally complied14 Purvas not rememberedLater Sthulibhadra complied 10 PurvasSecond Recension (374 AD to 387 AD)Mathura by SkandilValabhi by NagarjunAgams and Anuyogs documentedThird Recension (527 AD)Valabhi by Devardhi-ganiPrakirnas documentedAgams and Anuyogs reviewed/preservedDifferences documented in ChurniAgam works settled (Catalog in Nandi Sutra)Current StatusDeviation from Nandi SutraMany Prakirnas are extinctVir-stava and Pind-niryukti added afterwords
21Commentary Literature To study Jain agams, one requires to study complete Panchagini of each Agam.Panchagini (Five Types)Original SutrasNiryuktiBhasyaChurniTika
22Niryukti Literature Written on Agam sutras Prakrit Language Poetic Form and ShortProvides General MeaningContainsHistorical IncidencesOld Traditions, Stories, and ExamplesPhilosophy, Principles, and ConductsAuthor - Bhadrabahu-swami (second)Written on 10 Agams before 600 ADIndependent NiryuktiesSanstarak NiryuktiGovind Niryukti or Darshan Prabhavak ShastraAradhana Niryukti
23Bhasya Literature Written on Agam and Niryukti Prakrit Language Poetic FormProvides Specific MeaningContainsPrachin (old) AnushrutiesJatak StoriesProvides Good Understanding ofHistory of JainismConducts and Behavior of MonksAuthorsSanghdas-ganiJinbhadra-ganiWritten to 600 A.D.
24Churni Literature Written on Agam, Niryukti, Bhasya Prakrit mixed Sanskrit LanguageProse FormContains Jatak and Religious StoriesProvides Good UnderstandingSocial CustomsBusinessFood HabitsFestivalsClothing of peopleAuthor - Jindas-gani Mahattar600 AD
25Tika Literature Written on Agam sutras, Niryukti, Bhasya, and Churni Sanskrit mixed with Prakrit storiesMost Important to understand Agam literatureProminent Tika AuthorsHaribhadra-suri (705 to 755 A.D.)Prajnapana, Avasyaka*, Nandi, Dasha-vaikalika*, Anuyoga-dvaraShilanka-suri (8th century)Acharang, Sutra-kratangAbhaydev (11th century)9 of 11 Ang agamsMalladhari Hemchandra (11th century)AnuyogdvarAcharya Malay-giri (11th century)Nandi, Prajnapana, Jiva-bhigama, Brahat-kalpa, Rajpashniya, Chandra-pragnapti, Avasyak*Shanti-suri (1563 A.D.)Uttara-dhyan Sutra Vrahat Tika*
26Jain Literature Classification Code English Name Prakrit NameA Metaphics TattvajnanB Spiritual/Philosophy AdhyatmaC Meditation Yoga, DhyanD Karma KarmaE Logic Darshan, Naya, PramanF Conduct CharnanuyogaG Morality Niti, UpadeshH Astronomy Lok SvarupJ Story, Biography Puran, Katha, Rupak, VyangK Ritual and Sutras Stotra, Mantra, PujaM Drama and Poetry Lalit Kavya, Kavya Shastra, NatakN Figures of speech AlankarP Dictionary Dictionary, Kosha, LokjnanQ Grammar VyakaranR Mathematics GanitS Astrology JyotishT Physics Padarth VijnanU Politics Rajniti