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Do Now: Review Peace Plan OPVL ~ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Icebreaker ~ Summarize with a partner each of the 14 points…what does EACH point mean?

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now: Review Peace Plan OPVL ~ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Icebreaker ~ Summarize with a partner each of the 14 points…what does EACH point mean?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Now: Review Peace Plan OPVL ~ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Icebreaker ~ Summarize with a partner each of the 14 points…what does EACH point mean?

2  Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points were first outlined in a speech Wilson gave to the American Congress in January Wilson's Fourteen Points became the basis for a peace program and it was on the back of the Fourteen Points that Germany and her allies agreed to an armistice in November 1918 Woodrow Wilson's

3  1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").  2. Free navigation of all seas.  3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.  4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.  5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial  6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up. Russia  7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.

4  8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace- Lorraine  9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to be "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality."  10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.  11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states.  12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves.  13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.  14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.League of Nations

5  Paris Peace Conference began on January  9 weeks after signing the armistice  Delay….USA & President Wilson had the State of Union speech…Britain David Lloyd George had election to win

6  32 nations were present  Little progress due to organizational difficulties  Countries more concerned over immediate problems (food shortages, financial challenges )  Time also spent on whether or not Allies should intervene in Russian Civil War

7  June 28 th, 1919 Treaty of Versailles was final  The treaty focused on five main areas  Formation of League of Nations  Responsibility for the outbreak of the war  Reparations for the cost and damage caused by war  Redistribution of territories in Europe and colonies  Disarmament

8  Wilson proposed the formation of the League in his 14 points  USA’s view – believed League could serve as a platform for nations to discuss their differences  Wanted it to operate like a world parliament  British & French view – preferred a loose organization…only would meet when there was an emergency  France imagined League as a military alliance – enforce treaties, ensure security, prevent Germany from recovery

9  Clause 231 of the Treaty of Versailles became known as the ‘War Guilt’ clause  Legal argument for Germany to pay for the cost of the war  Clause 232 stated Germany must compensate the Allies for damage done to the civilian population  This implied in addition to physical damage Germany was accountable for war pensions – money given to those injured during the war and now unable to work

10  Nobody knew exactly how much damage the war had caused  France wanted to use reparations to prevent German economic recovery  Britain wanted German economic recovery…thought it was essential for reconstruction of Europe & important for trade  USA refused to cancel the Allied war debts  Britain & France sought maximum reparation payments

11  Germany was forced to pay 6.6 billion  The German Central Bank did not have enough gold reserves  Much of the payment would take the form of goods – coal, cattle, timber, and even fishing boats


13  Collapse of empires – German, Austro-Hungarian, & Turkish empire provided opportunity for redistribution of land  Western Europe – Alsace Lorraine returned to France (lost during Franco – Prussian war)  Saarland - placed under League of Nation control for 15 years (rich in coal & industry)  Rhineland – demilitarized zone – Anglo – American Treaty promised France protection in case of attack  Poland – creation of independent Poland state important – needed access to the sea to main economic independence = creation of Polish Corridor  This resulted in Germany being split in two

14  All German colonies seized during the war should not be returned  Mandate System – Proposed by Wilson – territories belonging to Germany or Turkey would be taken and placed under admin of another country (Britain or France) & under supervision of League of Nations  Aim was to prepare country for independence

15  A 3 Tiered system was agreed upon:  A) Virtual independence, but with military and administrative assistance – used in the case of Arab areas taken from Turkey.  B) Administration by a western country to protect the natives.  C) Administration as a virtual colony of the mandated power – to be used in the case of thinly populated

16  Widely accepted that the arms race leading up to war contributed to WWI  Allies agreed that Germany must reduce armed forces to lowest internal security level  Germany allowed an army of 100,000 soldiers  Only could serve for 12 years (prevent establishment of highly trained soldiers  Restrictions on size of guns, no armored vehicles  Germany navy restricted to 6 battleships  NO military aircraft allowed  The allies imposed these restrictions to make it possible for armament limitations for all nations

17  Germany could not make alliance with Austria (hurt Austria economically more then Germany)  War criminals – Kaiser Wilhem II fled to the Netherlands  List of alleged criminals drew up for blame of the start of the war…most were never arrested

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