Presentation on theme: "9/23 & 9/24 The peace treaties of"— Presentation transcript:
19/23 & 9/24 The peace treaties of 1919 - 1920 Do Now: Review Peace PlanOPVL ~ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen PointsIcebreaker ~ Summarize with a partner each of the 14 points…what does EACH point mean?
2Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points were first outlined in a speech Wilson gave to the American Congress in January Wilson's Fourteen Points became the basis for a peace program and it was on the back of the Fourteen Points that Germany and her allies agreed to an armistice in November 1918
3Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").2. Free navigation of all seas.3. An end to all economic barriers between countries.4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers.5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up.7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.
4Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace- Lorraine9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to be "along clearly recognizable lines of nationality."10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary.11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states.12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves.13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea.14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states.
5Main terms of the Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Conference began on January9 weeks after signing the armisticeDelay….USA & President Wilson had the State of Union speech…Britain David Lloyd George had election to win
6Early discussions from January - March 32 nations were presentLittle progress due to organizational difficultiesCountries more concerned over immediate problems (food shortages, financial challenges )Time also spent on whether or not Allies should intervene in Russian Civil War
7Terms of the treaty June 28th, 1919 Treaty of Versailles was final The treaty focused on five main areasFormation of League of NationsResponsibility for the outbreak of the warReparations for the cost and damage caused by warRedistribution of territories in Europe and coloniesDisarmament
8League of nationsWilson proposed the formation of the League in his 14 pointsUSA’s view – believed League could serve as a platform for nations to discuss their differencesWanted it to operate like a world parliamentBritish & French view – preferred a loose organization…only would meet when there was an emergencyFrance imagined League as a military alliance – enforce treaties, ensure security, prevent Germany from recovery
9ResponsibilityClause 231 of the Treaty of Versailles became known as the ‘War Guilt’ clauseLegal argument for Germany to pay for the cost of the warClause 232 stated Germany must compensate the Allies for damage done to the civilian populationThis implied in addition to physical damage Germany was accountable for war pensions – money given to those injured during the war and now unable to work
10Reparations Nobody knew exactly how much damage the war had caused France wanted to use reparations to prevent German economic recoveryBritain wanted German economic recovery…thought it was essential for reconstruction of Europe & important for tradeUSA refused to cancel the Allied war debtsBritain & France sought maximum reparation payments
11Reparations Germany was forced to pay 6.6 billion The German Central Bank did not have enough gold reservesMuch of the payment would take the form of goods – coal, cattle, timber, and even fishing boats
13Redistribution of Territory Collapse of empires – German, Austro-Hungarian, & Turkish empire provided opportunity for redistribution of landWestern Europe – Alsace Lorraine returned to France (lost during Franco – Prussian war)Saarland - placed under League of Nation control for 15 years (rich in coal & industry)Rhineland – demilitarized zone – Anglo – American Treaty promised France protection in case of attackPoland – creation of independent Poland state important – needed access to the sea to main economic independence = creation of Polish CorridorThis resulted in Germany being split in two
14Former German colonies All German colonies seized during the war should not be returnedMandate System – Proposed by Wilson – territories belonging to Germany or Turkey would be taken and placed under admin of another country (Britain or France) & under supervision of League of NationsAim was to prepare country for independence
15Mandates A 3 Tiered system was agreed upon: A) Virtual independence, but with military and administrative assistance – used in the case of Arab areas taken from Turkey.B) Administration by a western country to protect the natives.C) Administration as a virtual colony of the mandated power – to be used in the case of thinly populated
16DisarmamentWidely accepted that the arms race leading up to war contributed to WWIAllies agreed that Germany must reduce armed forces to lowest internal security levelGermany allowed an army of 100,000 soldiersOnly could serve for 12 years (prevent establishment of highly trained soldiersRestrictions on size of guns, no armored vehiclesGermany navy restricted to 6 battleshipsNO military aircraft allowedThe allies imposed these restrictions to make it possible for armament limitations for all nations
17Other elements of treaty of Versailles Germany could not make alliance with Austria (hurt Austria economically more then Germany)War criminals – Kaiser Wilhem II fled to the NetherlandsList of alleged criminals drew up for blame of the start of the war…most were never arrested