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9/23 & 9/24 The peace treaties of

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1 9/23 & 9/24 The peace treaties of 1919 - 1920
Do Now: Review Peace Plan OPVL ~ Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Icebreaker ~ Summarize with a partner each of the 14 points…what does EACH point mean?

2 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points were first outlined in a speech Wilson gave to the American Congress in January Wilson's Fourteen Points became the basis for a peace program and it was on the back of the Fourteen Points that Germany and her allies agreed to an armistice in November 1918

3 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points
1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at"). 2. Free navigation of all seas. 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop     her own political set-up. 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war.

4 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points
8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recover Alsace- Lorraine 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to be "along     clearly recognizable lines of nationality." 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living in Austria-Hungary. 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for        the Balkan states. 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in        the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea. 14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial        independence of all states.

5 Main terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference began on January 9 weeks after signing the armistice Delay….USA & President Wilson had the State of Union speech…Britain David Lloyd George had election to win

6 Early discussions from January - March
32 nations were present Little progress due to organizational difficulties Countries more concerned over immediate problems (food shortages, financial challenges ) Time also spent on whether or not Allies should intervene in Russian Civil War

7 Terms of the treaty June 28th, 1919 Treaty of Versailles was final
The treaty focused on five main areas Formation of League of Nations Responsibility for the outbreak of the war Reparations for the cost and damage caused by war Redistribution of territories in Europe and colonies Disarmament

8 League of nations Wilson proposed the formation of the League in his 14 points USA’s view – believed League could serve as a platform for nations to discuss their differences Wanted it to operate like a world parliament British & French view – preferred a loose organization…only would meet when there was an emergency France imagined League as a military alliance – enforce treaties, ensure security, prevent Germany from recovery

9 Responsibility Clause 231 of the Treaty of Versailles became known as the ‘War Guilt’ clause Legal argument for Germany to pay for the cost of the war Clause 232 stated Germany must compensate the Allies for damage done to the civilian population This implied in addition to physical damage Germany was accountable for war pensions – money given to those injured during the war and now unable to work

10 Reparations Nobody knew exactly how much damage the war had caused
France wanted to use reparations to prevent German economic recovery Britain wanted German economic recovery…thought it was essential for reconstruction of Europe & important for trade USA refused to cancel the Allied war debts Britain & France sought maximum reparation payments

11 Reparations Germany was forced to pay 6.6 billion
The German Central Bank did not have enough gold reserves Much of the payment would take the form of goods – coal, cattle, timber, and even fishing boats

12 Germany after WWI

13 Redistribution of Territory
Collapse of empires – German, Austro-Hungarian, & Turkish empire provided opportunity for redistribution of land Western Europe – Alsace Lorraine returned to France (lost during Franco – Prussian war) Saarland - placed under League of Nation control for 15 years (rich in coal & industry) Rhineland – demilitarized zone – Anglo – American Treaty promised France protection in case of attack Poland – creation of independent Poland state important – needed access to the sea to main economic independence = creation of Polish Corridor This resulted in Germany being split in two

14 Former German colonies
All German colonies seized during the war should not be returned Mandate System – Proposed by Wilson – territories belonging to Germany or Turkey would be taken and placed under admin of another country (Britain or France) & under supervision of League of Nations Aim was to prepare country for independence

15 Mandates A 3 Tiered system was agreed upon:
A) Virtual independence, but with military and administrative assistance – used in the case of Arab areas taken from Turkey. B) Administration by a western country to protect the natives. C) Administration as a virtual colony of the mandated power – to be used in the case of thinly populated

16 Disarmament Widely accepted that the arms race leading up to war contributed to WWI Allies agreed that Germany must reduce armed forces to lowest internal security level Germany allowed an army of 100,000 soldiers Only could serve for 12 years (prevent establishment of highly trained soldiers Restrictions on size of guns, no armored vehicles Germany navy restricted to 6 battleships NO military aircraft allowed The allies imposed these restrictions to make it possible for armament limitations for all nations

17 Other elements of treaty of Versailles
Germany could not make alliance with Austria (hurt Austria economically more then Germany) War criminals – Kaiser Wilhem II fled to the Netherlands List of alleged criminals drew up for blame of the start of the war…most were never arrested

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