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Honors Western Civilization Mrs. Civitella

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1 Honors Western Civilization Mrs. Civitella
WWI Honors Western Civilization Mrs. Civitella

2 I. Causes of WWI: M.A.I.N. Militarism Alliance system Imperialism Nationalism

3 Militarism Glorification of the military
Social Darwinism- survival of the fittest Romanticized war Industrial powers invested money and resources into building up their armies and navies Countries needed larger navies to protect their overseas empires Arms race that led to suspicion and distrust Biggest rivalry was between Great Britain and Germany With the increase in the size of the military

4 Alliance System In 1882, Bismarck of Germany formed the Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy This alliance became the Central Powers In 1894, France signed a military alliance with Russia In 1904, Great Britain joined what would be called the Triple Entente France Russia Great Britain This alliance became the Allied Powers

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6 Imperialism Competition for imperial claims brought France and Germany close to war in 1905 and 1911 Competition for territory in North Africa brought France and Great Britain closer together Competition for colonies in Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands

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11 Nationalism German pride in military and industry
French anger toward Germany for earlier losses Russian loyalty to all Slavic people (Pan-Slavism)

12 Pan Slavism Pan-Slavism- nationalist theory that all Slavic people shared a common nationality Russia Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro Bosnia Herzegovinian

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14 The Balkans- “The Powder Keg of Europe”
1908- Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina Serbia attacked the Ottoman Empire Bulgaria attacked its former partners Serbia & Greece

15 Assassination in Sarajevo
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary went to visit Sarajevo Sarajevo was the capital of Bosnia Bosnia was ruled by Austria-Hungary but pan Slavism was very strong there June 28, Garvillo Princip, a Bosnian nationalist, shot the Archduke and his wife in Sarajevo

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17 Retaliation for the assassination
Austria-Hungary’s reaction was to invade Serbia If A-H invaded Serbia, Russia was likely to defend Serbia (militarily) Austria-Hungary turned to Germany for help Germany pledged to A-H that if Russia attacked A-H it would help A-H to defend Russia. (called the “blank check”)

18 Austria’s Ultimatum to Serbia
Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum (final set of demands) to Serbia: A-H must be allowed to participate in the investigation into the assassination A-H wanted the guilty to face the justice system in their country instead of Serbia They demanded that Serbia end all Anti-Austrian terrorism Serbia agreed to all but the criminal process demand

19 War begins A-H considered the partial refusal of their ultimatum as a declaration of war July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and began firing on the Serbian capital of Belgrade July 30, 1914: Russia began to mobilize its troops Germany began to mobilize against Russia

20 War begins- the alliance system
Russia asked France for help, France agreed Germany demanded that France stay out of the conflict France refused August 3, Germany declared war on France Italy and Belgium remained neutral

21 The Schlieffen Plan Originally drafted in 1905
Plan for Germany to avoid war on two fronts at the same time Germany would invade France (through Belgium) and take France quickly The plan was to invade France first because it would take Russia longer to mobilize their troops against Germany in the East

22 Timeline June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo July 5, 1914: Austria requests and receives Germany’s “Blank check”, pledging unconditional support if Russia enters the war July 25, 1914: Austria declares war on Serbia France promises support to Russia in the event of war July, : Russia orders general mobilization of troops August 1, 1914: Germany declares war on Russia August 3, 1914: Germany declares war on France August 3, 1914: Germany invades neutral Belgium August 4, 1914: Britain declares war on Germany August 4, 1914: Wilson issued a proclamation of American neutrality

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24 The Western Front Both sides dug trenches and tunnels where the soldiers slept with rats, lice, wet, cold, hot “no man’s land” was the name for the distance between two enemy trenches “over the top” the order for a soldier to leave the trench and advance the line Each side would wait months to advance a hundred yards Considered a stalemate- a deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other

25 The Eastern Front August 1914, Russian armies advanced into Germany
Eventually the German army pushed the fighting back to Russian soil Russia was the least industrialized country in the war leading to the highest number of casualties They fought a war of attrition, sending more and more men into battle

26 Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
Germany failed to take Paris The Russians were able to engage Germany on her eastern front The Germans were forced to send troops to the Eastern front before they had planned

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28 British Blockade Making use of its large navy, Britain set up a blockade along the German coast to prevent weapons and other supplies from getting through The British also put mines in the North Sea to attack German shipping All neutral ships were required to go to a British port for inspection

29 German U-boat By 1915, the British blockade had almost eliminated the flow of military supplies to Germany from neutral nations Kaiser Wilhelm II announced a counter-blockade by U-boat (submarine) Wilhelm ordered any ship found in the waters around Britain to be subject to sinking by German U-boat

30 Effect of the blockade and the U-boat declaration
The importation of food and chemical fertilizers to grow food fell dramatically The German government was forced to use the nitrates that it could produce for munitions for the war effort By 1915, the German government started rationing food By 1917, 750,000 Germans starved to death as a result of the food shortage

31 The Russian Revolution
War efforts led to food shortages in Russia too Casualties were high The war became extremely unpopular in Russia March 17, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne Germany helped revolutionary Vladimir Lenin get back to Russia

32 The Bolshevik Revolution
November 6, The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, seized control of the Russian government The next day Lenin announced Russia to be at peace Lenin followed the communist philosophy of Karl Marx Marx encouraged class war (workers vs. business owners) rather than world war between capitalist nations

33 The Russian Revolution continued
Lenin blamed capitalism for starting the war He preached that the workers of the world were the victims Lenin negotiated peace with Germany closing the Eastern Front Germany could now send 1 million troops from the Eastern Front to fight on the Western Front It looked as if the Central Powers could now defeat the Allies on the Western Front

34 Reasons for U.S. Involvement
Unrestricted submarine warfare May 1915, sinking of the Lusitania killed 128 Americans December 1916, Germany broke its pledge not to sink ships without warning Cultural ties- Americans felt a close alliance to Great Britain and France The Zimmerman Note

35 Lusitania sketch of disaster
Passengers were travelling from New York to Liverpool, England Lusitania sketch of disaster Though New York newspapers carried warnings from the German embassy about the dangers of transatlantic travel, the passengers who boarded the Lusitania on May 1, 1915, probably did not imagine themselves in serious danger from submarine attack. The ship was sunk on May 7. Of the 1,959 passengers and crewmembers, 1,198 died, including 128 Americans. (Culver Pictures) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

36 Lusitania warning Lusitania warning Though New York newspapers carried warnings from the German embassy about the dangers of transatlantic travel, the passengers who boarded the Lusitania on May 1, 1915, probably did not imagine themselves in serious danger from submarine attack. The ship was sunk on May 7, Of the 1,959 passengers and crewmembers, 1,198 died, including 128 Americans. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

37 The Zimmerman Note March 1, 1917 British intelligence intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram or note. Sent from the German foreign secretary to the German ambassador to Mexico the Zimmerman telegram suggested that Mexico enter the war against the U.S. in return for a German pledge to aid in the restoration of Mexico’s former territories of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. Germany also promised to help Japan if Japan went to war against the U.S. The telegram and continued aggression towards US ships convinced Wilson to break US neutrality and call for war.

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39 Wilson’s Declaration of War
Took an idealistic approach to why the U.S. was entering the war “to make the world safe for democracy” Self-determination- the right of people to choose their own form of government

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41 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points were Wilson’s goals for the terms of peace after the war Why were the Fourteen Points issued before the end of the war? Issued to Congress on January 8, 1918 The war ended on November 11, 1918 Wilson saw the momentum of the Bolsheviks growing

42 Why were the Fourteen Points issued before the end of the war
Why were the Fourteen Points issued before the end of the war? Continued… He did not want the tired, angry, poor Europeans leaning toward bolshevism Wilson’s Fourteen Points were a counter-argument to Lenin’s claims regarding the war It was a message of hope that peace could be achieved without a class war

43 What were the Fourteen Points?
Wilson’s proposals contained specific recommendations for adjusting boundaries and for establishing new nations, all reflecting his belief in the right of all peoples to govern themselves called self-determination It also listed general principles such as: Freedom of the seas Removal of trade barriers Orderly disarmament An international peacekeeping organization, The League of Nations

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47 Mobilization Wilson took the following steps to mobilize the country for sending troops to Europe: Raised income taxes Organized a Liberty Bond campaign to raise money Initiated conscription (a draft) Called on the American public to conserve and support the war effort

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49 Coal poster in seven languages: "Mine More Coal"
During the First World War, the United States Fuel Administration promoted economic mobilization at home with this poster printed in several languages. (National Park Service Collection, Ellis Island Immigration Museum. Photo: Chermayeff and Geismar MetaForm.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

50 Douglas Fairbanks at New York City bond rally, WWI
Movie star Douglas Fairbanks at a New York City war-bond rally. (Brown Brothers) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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52 I Didn't Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier
This popular song of 1915 conveys the antiwar sentiment that swept America after the European war began in () Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

53 Poster: "Stenographers We Need You"
Many government agencies used posters to appeal to the American people for help in winning the war. This one, from the U.S. Employment Service, encouraged women to enter the work force. (National Archives) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

54 Changes in the American Workforce
Two groups who benefitted from the war effort: Women- new job opportunities, creating a new sense of independence African Americans- new job opportunities, creating a migration from the South to northern cities

55 Woman workers on the Union Pacific Railroad, May 29, 1918
Labor shortages attracted new people into the labor market and opened up some jobs to women and members of racial minorities. In May of 1918, these women worked in the Union Pacific Railroad freight yard in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Most of them seem delighted to have their picture taken in their work clothes. (Wyoming State Museum) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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59 Committee for Public Information poster, 1917: "Don't Talk, Spies are Listening"
Through its concerted propaganda efforts, the Committee on Public Information helped sell U.S. participation in the First World War to the American people. In this 1917 poster, the committee also warned against German spies, perhaps even German American spies, who might pick up secrets from unsuspecting citizens. (Private Collection) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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64 Fighting “Over There” June, The first doughboys with the American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F)arrived in France More than 2 million American soldiers fought at: Chateau-Thierry Cantigny Second Battle of the Marne St. Mihiel

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66 Wounded marine near Toulon, France
A wounded U.S. marine receives first aid in a trench near Toulon, France, in March () Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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69 Armistice- November 11, 1918 November 11, at 5:10 am the armistice with Germany was signed Hostilities officially ended at 11:00 am. (eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918) It was the prospect of endless US troop reserves rather than America’s actual military successes that forced the Germans to surrender

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71 The Paris Peace Conference
1. Wilson wanted “peace without victory” 2. No country was blamed, humiliated or made to pay for a war that everyone had started 3. Meeting at Versailles lased 5 months 4. 60 countries in the war are reduced to the “Big Four” United States- Woodrow Wilson Great Britain- David Lloyd George France- George Clemenceau Italy- Vittorio Orlando

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75 The Paris Peace Conference
Most of the Fourteen Points are negotiated away as the Allies want the Central Powers to pay for the war France, Great Britain, & Italy insisted on excluding any German representatives The Big Four excluded Russia because they could not decide what to do about the Bolsheviks

76 Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919 For Germany this was a day of complete humiliation Effects on Germany: 1. Losses of territory Germany was forced to give up the regions of Alsace-Lorraine Most of present day Poland Could keep the Rhineland, but was forbidden to develop the area militarily Germany’s overseas colonies were turned over to the League of Nations The League established these colonies as mandates Britain and France received German colonies in Africa German colonies in Asia and the Pacific were given as mandates to Japan, Australia, and New Zealand  2. Limited the size of the German army and required Germany to turn its fleet over to the Allies

77 Effects on Germany continued
 3. Reparations Reparations committee required that Germany pay $33 billion to the Allies 4. War guilt Germany was forced to publicly acknowledge and accept full responsibility for the entire war

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79 Italy leaves the conference disappointed
A.  Italy was determined to claim the Austrian territories that it had been promised by secret treaty with the Allies in 1915 It also wanted the city of Fiume, which it had seized during the war Italy did not get what it was promised, left the conference feeling scorned Italian nationalism eventually leads to fascism under Bandito Mussolini

80 Japan left the Paris Peace Conference disappointed
Japan joined the Allies in WWI During the war Japan seized Germany’s sphere of influence in China and German islands in the Pacific Although it was granted these possessions, Japan felt they had been denied rewards due them did not receive region in China with large coal reserves

81 Legacy of the Treaty of Versailles
Left the German people humiliated and impoverished  Germany became a nation of extremes with groups on both the right and the left promising an escape from their horrible situation  History has decided that the Allies went too far with the punishments that they inflicted on Germany Paris Peace Conference created the conditions to put Europe right back into another war

82 The Treaty of Versailles
As stated in the Constitution the Senate must ratify all treaties with foreign nations Wilson signed the Treaty of Versailles Senate isolationists refused to sign the treaty because joining the League of Nations required that the U.S. commit troops to protect other league members The U.S. did not want to commit troops to foreign conflicts

83 Battle over the League of Nations
Wilson took the fight to the American people. The strain of a speaking tour resulted in Wilson suffering a stroke on September 25, 1919  The Senate refused to sign the treaty in 1919 and again in 1920.  The US signed a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921.  The US never joined the League of Nations. Instead, the nation turned its attention to domestic issues.


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