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World War I Chapter 11 US History. Section 1: Road to War Objectives I. What were the main causes of World War I? II. How did most of Europe become involved.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 11 US History. Section 1: Road to War Objectives I. What were the main causes of World War I? II. How did most of Europe become involved."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I Chapter 11 US History

2 Section 1: Road to War Objectives I. What were the main causes of World War I? II. How did most of Europe become involved in the war? III. Where was the early fighting in the war and what were the results?

3 I. Main Causes of World War I Nationalism – the feeling that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior to all others. Nationalism – the feeling that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior to all others. Imperialism – nations compete to gain territories and build overseas empires. Imperialism – nations compete to gain territories and build overseas empires. Militarism – a policy of aggressive military preparedness Militarism – a policy of aggressive military preparedness

4 II. Europe becomes involved in the War Russia’s mobilization led other countries to fulfill their own alliance obligations Russia’s mobilization led other countries to fulfill their own alliance obligations In support of Austria-Hungary, Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 and on France on August 3, 1914 In support of Austria-Hungary, Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 and on France on August 3, 1914 Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914 leading Britain into the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary Germany invaded Belgium on August 3, 1914 leading Britain into the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary Eventually 30 nations would fight in WWI Eventually 30 nations would fight in WWI

5 III. Early Fighting & Result of the War On the western front, most fighting took place along a battle line that extended from Switzerland to the North Sea On the western front, most fighting took place along a battle line that extended from Switzerland to the North Sea The Russians attacked the Central Powers on the eastern front, which extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea The Russians attacked the Central Powers on the eastern front, which extended from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea The result was that both the Central Powers and the Allied Powers realized that the war would not be a short one The result was that both the Central Powers and the Allied Powers realized that the war would not be a short one

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7 Ch. 11 Section 2: Wilson & Neutrality Objectives I. What was trench warfare like? II. How did new weapons affect the fighting in WWI? III. How did the US try to remain neutral in the war, and what events forced the US to enter the war?

8 I. Characteristics of Trench Warfare Trench Warfare – the strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches Trench Warfare – the strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches Ranged from simple holes to complex networks that were six to eight feet deep with rooms for sleeping and eating Ranged from simple holes to complex networks that were six to eight feet deep with rooms for sleeping and eating Cold, wet, and dirty Cold, wet, and dirty Health problems and diseases Health problems and diseases

9 II. New Technology New technology made the war even more dangerous New technology made the war even more dangerous Machine and other types of big guns launched deadly artillery shells and poison gas Machine and other types of big guns launched deadly artillery shells and poison gas Tanks were used to support infantry attacks and were difficult to destroy Tanks were used to support infantry attacks and were difficult to destroy Airplanes were used to gather information, shoot down enemy planes, and fire on trenches Airplanes were used to gather information, shoot down enemy planes, and fire on trenches

10 III. Neutrality & War President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of neutrality reflected the nation’s policy of isolationism President Woodrow Wilson’s declaration of neutrality reflected the nation’s policy of isolationism Most Americans viewed the war as a European conflict Most Americans viewed the war as a European conflict US neutrality did not prevent Americans from trading with warring European nations US neutrality did not prevent Americans from trading with warring European nations The sinking of the Lusitania infuriated the American public The sinking of the Lusitania infuriated the American public

11 III. Neutrality & War (cont) The German violation of the Sussex Pledge on February 1, 1917, led to America breaking diplomatic relations with Germany The German violation of the Sussex Pledge on February 1, 1917, led to America breaking diplomatic relations with Germany The Zimmerman Note led to an American war declaration on Germany on April 6, 1917 The Zimmerman Note led to an American war declaration on Germany on April 6, 1917 Zimmerman Note – telegram sent to Germany’s foreign minister to Mexico during WWI proposing an alliance between the two countries

12 SECTION 3 OLD- Section 3: America Prepares for War Objectives I. How did the US government prepare the military for war? II. What contributions did women and African Americans make to the war effort? III. How did the war affect industry and labor?

13 I. Government prepares for War May 18, 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act – Required all men between the ages of to register to be drafted into the armed forces May 18, 1917, Congress passed the Selective Service Act – Required all men between the ages of to register to be drafted into the armed forces Army built training camps to train soldiers for the war Army built training camps to train soldiers for the war

14 II. Contributions of Women & African Americans Some 250,000 female volunteers served as nurses, signalers, typists, interpreters, translating calls and sending battle orders Some 250,000 female volunteers served as nurses, signalers, typists, interpreters, translating calls and sending battle orders On the home front, women filled important industrial jobs in factories On the home front, women filled important industrial jobs in factories Pressure from the NAACP led the military to create some combat units and one officer-training camp for African Americans Pressure from the NAACP led the military to create some combat units and one officer-training camp for African Americans

15 Section 4: America “Over There” Objectives I. What were the experiences of US soldiers in World War I? II. How did the final battles of the war progress? III. Why did Germany finally agree to an armistice?

16 I. US Soldiers in World War I US troops served as individual units and were knows as the American Expeditionary Force US troops served as individual units and were knows as the American Expeditionary Force Doughboys trained in specially dug trenches and practiced with real shells and rifles and were trained for victory and not stalemate Doughboys trained in specially dug trenches and practiced with real shells and rifles and were trained for victory and not stalemate Doughboys – nickname for American soldiers in World War I

17 II. The Final Battles In the spring of 1918, Germany launched a series of attacks to break the stalemate on the western front In the spring of 1918, Germany launched a series of attacks to break the stalemate on the western front March 21, 1918, the Germans launched an attack on the Somme River that ended up costing the Germans 250,000 casualties March 21, 1918, the Germans launched an attack on the Somme River that ended up costing the Germans 250,000 casualties The other battles, Germany advances were halted at northwestern France, the Marne, and the town of Chateau-Thierry, the turning point of the war had finally come The other battles, Germany advances were halted at northwestern France, the Marne, and the town of Chateau-Thierry, the turning point of the war had finally come

18 III. Reasons for an Armistice German people and army were weary of war German people and army were weary of war Civilians were without food or supplies and deaths from starvation were intense Civilians were without food or supplies and deaths from starvation were intense German soldiers rebelled and the Germans did not have enough soldiers to continue fighting German soldiers rebelled and the Germans did not have enough soldiers to continue fighting

19 Section 5: Establishing Peace Objectives I. What were the human & economic costs of the war? II. What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? III. How did Americans respond to the Treaty of Versailles?

20 I. Human costs of the War Allies lost more than 5 million soldiers and 116,000 American troops died Allies lost more than 5 million soldiers and 116,000 American troops died Central Powers lost about 3.4 million soldiers Central Powers lost about 3.4 million soldiers More than 20 million soldiers on both sides were wounded More than 20 million soldiers on both sides were wounded Thousands of civilians were wounded Thousands of civilians were wounded

21 Economic cost of the War Economic cost of the War Economies of nations involved in the war were ruined Economies of nations involved in the war were ruined War destroyed the land itself War destroyed the land itself Cost of the war estimated at more than $145 billion for the Allies and $63 billion for the Central Powers Cost of the war estimated at more than $145 billion for the Allies and $63 billion for the Central Powers More than $30 billion in property destroyed and $1 billion in relief More than $30 billion in property destroyed and $1 billion in relief War debts War debts

22 II. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles The treaty included some of the Fourteen Points such as self-determination The treaty included some of the Fourteen Points such as self-determination Fourteen Points – President Wilson’s plan for organizing post-WWI Europe and for avoiding future wars. People of some nations won the right to decide their own political situation People of some nations won the right to decide their own political situation New nations were formed and old ones were restored such as Czechoslovakia and Poland New nations were formed and old ones were restored such as Czechoslovakia and Poland

23 III. Americas response to the Treaty Congress did not approve of the Treaty of Versailles Congress did not approve of the Treaty of Versailles Congress negotiated peace treaties with Austria, Germany, and Hungary Congress negotiated peace treaties with Austria, Germany, and Hungary The United States never joined the League of Nations The United States never joined the League of Nations

24 QUICK REVIEW President Wilson proposes the Fourteen Points at Paris Peace Conference in 1919 Thirty-nine U.S. Senators sign petition against US entry into League of Nations The US refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles


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