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Chapter 7 Human Growth and Development Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Human Growth and Development Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 7 Human Growth and Development Health Care Science Technology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3 Chapter 7 2 From Conception through the Teenage Years 7-2 Conception to Full Term The Neonate: Birth to One Month The Infant: One Month to One Year The Toddler: One to Three Years of Age The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years CLICK A DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL TO GO DIRECTLY TO THAT SECTION.

4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 3 Conception to Full Term First Trimester – Begins with conception, when 1 sperm penetrates the ovum (egg) in the outer third of the fallopian tube. – The zygote (fertilized ovum) travels through the fallopian tube toward the uterus, dividing along the way. – At the back of the group of cells, or morula, is a rootlike projection that will eventually become the placenta.

5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 4 Conception to Full Term (cont.)

6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 5 Conception to Full Term (cont.) – By 21 to 25 days from conception, a rudimentary heart is beating and a nervous system is forming. – At 4 weeks, the embryo is about ¼ inch long and has arm buds, a head, body, and tail. Eyes can be discerned. – At 5 weeks, the nose can be seen.

7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 6 Conception to Full Term (cont.) – At 6 weeks, the embryo is a little less than ½ inch long and leg buds can be seen.

8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 7 Conception to Full Term (cont.) – At 7 weeks, the embryo is about ¾ inch long and can move its hands. – At 8 weeks the embryo is almost 1 inch long, has a large liver, and bones are forming. – At 10 weeks, the fetus is about 1½ to 2 inches long, the kidneys are making urine, and lower trunk muscles are developing.

9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 8 Conception to Full Term (cont.) Second Trimester – At 12 weeks, the head of the fetus is about one-third the size of its outstretched length and the ribs can be seen. Soft, downy hair begins to appear.

10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 9 Conception to Full Term (cont.) – At 16 weeks, the fetus is about 4½ inches long and weighs 3 to 4 ounces. – At 20 to 24 weeks, the fetus is about 12 inches long, major systems continue to develop, and bones continue to form.

11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 10 Conception to Full Term (cont.) Third Trimester – At 26 weeks, the pregnancy begins the third trimester. – At 28 weeks, the fetus is about 14 inches long and weighs about 2½ pounds. Survival is possible if born at this stage. – 38 to 40 weeks – labor begins.

12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 11 The Neonate: Birth to One Month Physical Development – weight usually 7 to 9 pounds, and length 18 to 22 inches. – The newborn’s head is large in comparison with rest of body.

13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 12 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) – Bones in skull are not fixed, but can slide over one another. This is called molding. – Head has 2 soft spots, or fontanels, which are tough cartilage.

14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 13 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) The Skin of the Newborn – Loose, wrinkled, and red. – At birth, hands and feet may be bluish, but will pinken after a few breaths. – Activity, temperature, and circulatory changes during the first few days can affect skin color. – Peeling during the first week is not unusual or harmful. – Vernix caseosa, a white waxy substance, may be found in the folds of the skin.

15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 14 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) – Milia, small white bumps on the chin and nose may appear, but go away naturally. – The remaining part of the umbilical cord is about 1 to 1½ inches long and usually falls off after the 10 th day of life. – Neonatal jaundice, a yellowish color of the skin caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, can occur.

16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 15 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) Other Physical Characteristics of the Newborn: – Eyes – may appear swollen, due to the passage through the birth canal. – Lips – may have blisters from thumb sucking in the uterus. – Breast tissue and genitalia – may appear swollen. – Fists – tightly closed.

17 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 16 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) – Reflexes – blinking, a normal reflex. Some other reflexes are due to an immature nervous system. – Crying – may be from hunger or other reasons. – Eating – 7 or 8 times a day for the first few weeks. – Sight – infants can see objects within 8 inches of their eyes. – Hearing – seem to prefer high-pitched tones.

18 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 17 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – Newborns will become calm when picked up and held firmly. – Disturbing stimulation is tuned out by sleeping. Social Development – Infants respond to a soft, gentle voice. – Newborns can show excitement and distress.

19 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 18 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) Aspects of Care: – Keep warm, especially right after birth. – Vitamin K shot given to prevent bleeding. – Medicated eye drops to prevent infection. – Umbilical cord is “painted” with antibacterial. – Give small amounts of water to ensure swallowing. – Blood sample checks metabolic disorders. – Tepid water sponge baths until the umbilical cord has fallen off.

20 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 19 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) Feeding – by breast, bottle, or both. Parents must be told about the frequency and duration of the feedings.

21 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 20 The Neonate: Birth to One Month (cont.) Treatment of jaundice – make sure the infant is well hydrated with breast or bottle milk. Ultraviolet light may be used, but make sure to protect the infant’s eyes. Blood tests should be done frequently. Arrange follow-up care.

22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 21 The Infant: One Month to One Year Physical Development – Weight triples in the first year. – 3 weeks – the infant can focus on objects. – 4 weeks – the infant can follow a bright object with eyes and make eye contact. – 2 months – an infant can follow objects with eyes, listen to sounds, bat at objects, and respond to sound.

23 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 22 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Physical Development (cont.) – 3 months – infants may raise head and shoulders while on abdomen. – 4 months – infant can roll from stomach to back, may play with rattle placed in the hand. Teething may begin. – 5 months – may transfer rattle hand to hand. – 6 months – may roll back to stomach, may be able to sit momentarily, can transfer objects hand to hand. Can retrieve dropped object. Two bottom teeth are probably visible.

24 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 23 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) – 9 months – infant can sit well, creep, build tower with 2 blocks. Infant uses pincer grasp, can put consonants with vowels and make repetitive sounds. – 12 months – child can “cruise” by holding onto the edge of a piece of furniture and moving around. Infant can begin self- feeding. Physical Development (cont.)

25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 24 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – 1 month – eye contact. – 4 to 5 months – makes faces. – 6 months – makes babbling sounds. – 9 months – can play peek-a-boo games. – 12 months – can follow simple directions.

26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 25 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Psycho-Emotional Development – 1 month – smiles at another smiling face. – 3 months – smiles spontaneously and displays pleasure in making sounds. – 4 months – vocalizes moods. – 6 months – abrupt mood changes. – 9 months – displays pleasure playing simple games. – 12 months – can express many emotions.

27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 26 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Social Development – 1 month – smiles. – 3 months – responds to voices. – 6 months – “babbles” and is interested in own voice. – 9 months – begins to develop words.

28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 27 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Aspects of Care: One Month to One Year – Regular health check-ups and immunizations. – Tactile stimulation, such as physical contact and cuddling, as well as attention to needs, is required for appropriate growth and development. – Food – breast milk or formula is sufficient for the first 6 months. Obtain guidance from health care provider about solid foods.

29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 28 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) Safety – must be considered at all times. Take the following safety measures: – Keep emergency phone numbers available. – Ensure the crib meets federal safety standards. – Use an appropriate car seat. – Do not allow pillows, comforters, or plush toys in bed with the child.

30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 29 The Infant: One Month to One Year (cont.) – Prevent falls. – Prevent choking. – Remove hanging toys from the crib when the child begins to reach, pull, and roll over. – Never leave the child unattended in the car. – Secure and keep out of reach all cords on window blinds, lamps, and electrical equipment. Safety (cont.)

31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 30 The Toddler: One to Three Years Physical Development – Arms and legs grow faster than the trunk. – Most walk by 15 months, run by 2 years. – At 3 years, they are very agile and active. They can throw a ball, draw simple shapes, and use child’s scissors.

32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 31 The Toddler: One to Three Years (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – Child tries to imitate actions like raking, sweeping, etc. – Speech 12 to 15 months – speaks single words. Second year – makes sentences of 6 to 20 words. Third year – repeats nursery rhymes. – May always ask “Why?”

33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 32 The Toddler: One to Three Years (cont.) Psycho-Emotional Development – 1 year – many emotions available. – 1 to 3 years – child gains some control over ways to express feelings. – 18 months to 2½ years – temper tantrums become an issue, child begins to resist authority. – 3 years – child becomes sensitive to the feelings of others and may be characterized as affectionate.

34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 33 The Toddler: One to Three Years (cont.) Social Development – 1 to 2 years – child unable to play well with others, may be aggressive. – 2 to 3 years – child learns sharing and becomes aware of appropriate behavior when playing with others.

35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 34 The Toddler: One to Three Years (cont.) Aspects of Care – Work on motor skills with crayons. – Patient explanations and patience provide a positive environment for growth. – Health care monitoring and vaccinations are needed. – Toilet training may be encouraged when child demonstrates signs of readiness.

36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 35 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age Physical Development – Height – heredity becomes apparent in variations among children. – Respiratory and heart rates begin to slow. – Bones – begin to ossify. Activity and calcium are important in developing strong bones.

37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 36 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age (cont.) – Nighttime bladder and bowel control achieved by 3 to 4 years of age. – Large muscle development should enable the child to navigate stairs using alternating steps. – At 5 years a child can hop, skip, and participate in team sports. Physical Development

38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 37 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – Nervous system – many connections, called synapses, are made, enabling more skillful play. – Language – great strides are made. Vocabulary may reach 900 words by 3 years, and 1600 by 4 years. At age 5, vocabulary exceeds 2000 words.

39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 38 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age (cont.) Psycho-Emotional Development – 3 years – usually pleasant, enjoys music, has a sense of self. – 4 years – child tests limits, becomes more negative. – 5 years – child should be more self- assured, adjusted, and home-centered. Child can accept some responsibility.

40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 39 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age (cont.) Social Development – 3 years – children know what gender they are; they like to “help.” – 4 years – very social. Enjoy games. – 5 years – enjoy games with more rules.

41 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 40 The Preschooler: Three to Five Years of Age (cont.) Aspects of Care – Maintain regular checkups, including a complete preschool physical. – Immunizations must be kept up to date. – Nighttime routines help a child feel secure.

42 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 41 The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years Physical Development – Girls tend to be taller and heavier than boys at this stage. – Bones continue to ossify. – Reproductive systems begin developing slowly. – Postural habits are developed.

43 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 42 The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – Progresses from brief attention span to being able to focus for extended periods of time. – Moves from block letters to cursive handwriting. – Speech may differ between peers and adults. – Recognizes time concepts, differentiates between fantasy and reality, and develops a sense of right and wrong.

44 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 43 The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years (cont.) Psycho-Emotional Development – Parental influence decreases while peer influences increase as child approaches 10 years. – Concerns shift from self to others. – Child may become very sensitive to criticism.

45 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 44 The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years (cont.) Social Development – School becomes very important to the child, along with group activities. – Appropriate social behaviors are learned.

46 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 45 The Elementary School Child: Six to Ten Years (cont.) Aspects of Care – Structure, schedule, and consistent daily activities are important. – Activities must be monitored to prevent physical injury. – Health and dental care and immunizations must be maintained.

47 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 46 The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years Physical Development – Puberty – occurs in girls at 12 to 13 years, but may start as early as 9. In boys, it starts around 14 years of age. – Fusion of some bones occurs. – Skin problems may begin, and appetite increases.

48 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 47 The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years (cont.) Intellectual-Cognitive Development – Physical and psychological changes divert energy from academics. – Child begins to think abstractly and critically. – Exaggeration and fibbing may occur.

49 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 48 The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years (cont.) Psycho-Emotional Development – Accurate information about their changing bodies should be given by a reliable source. – Child may be temperamental or moody.

50 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 49 The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years (cont.) Social Development – Becoming part of a group becomes important. – Girls become interested in male-female relationships earlier than boys.

51 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 50 The Middle School Child: Eleven to Thirteen Years (cont.) Aspects of Care – Reassure the child that he or she is loved. – Avoid being hypercritical. Don’t make too many demands. – Monitor friendships and associations. – Maintain immunizations and regular health care checkups. – Allow some quiet time in the schedule.

52 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 51 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years Physical Development – Females attain their adult height and weight, while males continue to grow until age 25. – Poor diet and exercise in this stage can lead to problems later in life. – Education about sexual behavior should be provided by trusted, well-informed adults.

53 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 52 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Cognitive-Intellectual Development – Reasoning and critical and abstract thinking are developing. Psycho-Emotional Development – Although aware of acceptable behavior, teens are prone to angry outbursts. – Adolescents can feel both alone and conspicuous. – Often, teens feel immortal or invulnerable.

54 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 53 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Social Development – Teens should learn effective interpersonal skills, resolve conflicts and become comfortable with their style of communicating. – They tend to get involved in community service projects. – They are more comfortable relating to their parents.

55 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 54 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Problems Faced by Teens – Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa – self-starving, more common in females. Bulimia – binge eating, followed by purging through vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, abuse of diuretics, or excessive exercise.

56 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 55 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) – Substance Abuse Signs Change in personality, friends, health habits, and appearance. Withdrawal from family and group activities. Sliding school grades. At-risk teens are those who have: – Family history of substance abuse. – Low self-esteem. – Depression. – A sense of “not fitting in.”

57 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 56 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) – Violence Poverty is considered a leading cause of violence in teens. Bullying in school is increasingly recognized as a cause of violence. Depressed students may harbor resentment for a long time.

58 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 57 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) – Sexually Transmitted Diseases – STDs that threaten long-term health and well- being include: Chlamydia. Syphilis. Gonorrhea. Hepatitis B. Herpes type II. Papilloma virus. HIV.

59 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 58 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) – Pregnancy – problems associated with teen pregnancy include: Low birth weight. Prematurity. Cesarean delivery. Child abuse. Growing up in poverty.

60 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 59 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) – Suicide – the third leading cause of death for people 15 to 24 years of age. Warning signs include: – Depression. – Anger, directed inward. – Alcohol and/or other substance abuse. – Changes in habits. – Giving away personal possessions. – Giving verbal hints about committing suicide.

61 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 60 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Actions to take if you suspect someone is contemplating suicide: – Listen. – Take the person seriously. – Get help from a responsible adult. – Do not promise to “keep the secret.” – Never assume it’s “just talk.”

62 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 61 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Aspects of Care – Provide adequate calcium and weight-bearing exercise. – Provide sex education and information about sexually transmitted diseases. – Encourage friendships, sporting events, and social events. – Listen to them. – Give them the facts.

63 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 62 The Adolescent: Fourteen to Nineteen Years (cont.) Aspects of Care (cont.) – Trust them. – Provide them with firm and friendly discipline. – Be consistent. – Educate them, with their independence in mind. – Set limits and stick to them. – Set examples of good behavior and taste. – Remember how it felt to be an adolescent.

64 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 63 Section 7-2 Apply Your Knowledge List three suicide warning signs. Answer: Suicide warning signs are: 1.Depression. 2.Anger, directed inward. 3.Alcohol and/or other substance abuse. 4.Changes in habits. 5.Giving away personal possessions. 6.Giving verbal hints about committing suicide.


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