Presentation on theme: "The End of WWI The arrival of U.S. troops under Gen. John J. Pershing helped turn the tide of the war."— Presentation transcript:
The End of WWI The arrival of U.S. troops under Gen. John J. Pershing helped turn the tide of the war.
Germany, with its soldiers mutinying and civilians rioting for food, asks for armistice terms.
The Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson asks scholars to advise him on terms for a lasting peace. Using their work, Wilson developed the Fourteen Points
Nine of the Fourteen Points dealt with the issue of self- determination - or the right of people to govern themselves - to avoid the territorial disputes that started the war.
Other points focused on what were seen as the causes of the war at the time: Secret diplomacy (the alliance system) The arms race (militarism) Violation of freedom of the seas (unrestricted U- boat warfare) Trade barriers (imperialism)
The League of Nations The final point - establishing a League of Nations - was the heart of the program. Wilson believed this would prevent offensive wars.
The Treaty of Versailles Wilson traveled to Paris to discuss the terms of peace with European leaders
Allied leaders insisted that Germany take the blame for the war and bear the financial burden of it - being forced to pay huge reparations. This went against Wilson’s plan of “Peace without victory”.
Paris 1919 After six months of debate, the leaders signed the Treaty of Versailles, which was very harsh towards Germany.
Germany’s colonies were divided among the Allied nations, Germany was disarmed, forced to admit responsibility for the war and made to pay billions of dollars in reparations.
Once the Treaty of Versailles was agreed to in Paris, Wilson had to return to the U.S. and get the Senate to approve it. The Senate did not want a League of Nations, which they thought would involve the U.S. in future European wars. Once again, the U.S. is isolationist!
Wilson goes on a public tour, making speeches to the people in order to get support for the League of Nations. This has a serious affect on his failing health and he eventually suffers two strokes and dies.
The Roaring Twenties After WWI, the American economy soared. America’s gross national product (GNP) climbed from $70 billion in 1922 to $100 billion in 1929. Businesses were expanding and people were earning more.
Henry Ford developed the assembly line to make his Model-T Ford cars faster and cheaper.
Ford was inspired by the organization of Chicago slaughterhouses.
The assembly line made a reliable and affordable car for many Americans. Ford said people could buy the Model-T “in any color, as long as it’s black”. Ford also shortened his workers workdays and raised their wages.
In the 1920’s, the automobile industry became the U.S.’s biggest business.
Prohibition Progressive reformers thought that alcohol created social and moral problems. The 18th Amendment was passed, prohibiting the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol.
Congress also passed The Volstead Act to enforce the amendment.
In many parts of the country, especially the cities, prohibition was very unpopular and widely ignored. People frequented speakeasies, or bars where liquor was sold illegally.
Recipe for Bathtub Gin 78 drops Oil of Juniper 12 drops Oil of Coriander 30 drops Oil of Orange 5 drops Oil of Cinnamon Prepare separately: 25 drops Oil of Angelica Use 2 ounces of glycerin per gallon of alcohol Add 2 drops of mixture #1 and 2 drops of mixture #2 per gallon of alcohol Use 4 parts alcohol to 5 parts water In my grandmother’s handwriting at the bottom: “It looks awful! Milky white!”
Bootlegging alcohol became one of the most profitable businesses in the U.S. during prohibition. Al Capone ruled Chicago’s underworld and bootlegging ring.
Lawmakers soon realized that prohibition was putting money and power in the hands of criminals Eliot Ness
Entertainment More wealth during the 20s allowed people to spend more money on entertainment. The radio became a huge part of American life, broadcasting news, music, shows, sports and church services.
More Americans started going to movie theaters during the 20s.
Sports became more popular. Radio and the movies made athletes like Babe Ruth national heroes
More magazines and books were being printed during the 20s as well.
The New Woman During the 20s, radio, movies, magazines and literature started discussing the concept of the “new woman”. The new woman enjoyed going against traditional standards of female behavior.
“Flappers” wore less restrictive clothes, short hair, drove cars, played sports and enjoyed outgoing social lives.