Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Simple Version. As it became obvious that the allies would win, many in the world looked to America for post-war leadership. Woodrow Wilson declared America’s.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Simple Version. As it became obvious that the allies would win, many in the world looked to America for post-war leadership. Woodrow Wilson declared America’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Simple Version

2 As it became obvious that the allies would win, many in the world looked to America for post-war leadership. Woodrow Wilson declared America’s goals self-determination – ‘all culture groups should have a right to rule themselves’ Peace without victory- ‘the winners of WWI won’t seek revenge on the losers- meant to prevent future anger Part I. The U.S. and WWI

3 Quote from Wilson’s 14 Points speech to congress “…we are willing to fight and to continue to fight until they [the 14 points] are achieved; but only because we wish the right to prevail and desire a just and stable peace such as can be secured only by removing the chief provocations to war, which this program does remove. We have no jealousy of German greatness, and there is nothing in this program that impairs it.”“…we are willing to fight and to continue to fight until they [the 14 points] are achieved; but only because we wish the right to prevail and desire a just and stable peace such as can be secured only by removing the chief provocations to war, which this program does remove. We have no jealousy of German greatness, and there is nothing in this program that impairs it.”

4 To Achieve His Goals, Woodrow Wilson Published an Outline for Peace He described fourteen steps (the Fourteen Points) that would need to be taken to ensure future peaceHe described fourteen steps (the Fourteen Points) that would need to be taken to ensure future peace

5 No secret treatiesNo secret treaties The Key Points (less than Fourteen)

6 Freedom of travel in international waters

7 reduction of all militariesreduction of all militaries

8 Self-Determination of land (with an international group to listen to decide difficult borders)Self-Determination of land (with an international group to listen to decide difficult borders)

9 A League of Nations should be formed.A League of Nations should be formed. This international group would solve international disputes non-violentlyThis international group would solve international disputes non-violently

10 You Should Notice That the Fourteen Points Were Mostly Attempts to … …eliminate the stresses that led to World War I in the first place.…eliminate the stresses that led to World War I in the first place.

11 Part II. Wilson’s Plans for Peace Were Rejected In Exchange for Vengeance Some wanted Germany treated much more ruthlesslySome wanted Germany treated much more ruthlessly –Who? –Britain and especially France –Why??? What would they say to the U.S.? (Answer)- The fighting occurred in France. Britain and France lost millions of people and their economies were badly damaged. You don’t understand. You only lost 250,000 people(Answer)- The fighting occurred in France. Britain and France lost millions of people and their economies were badly damaged. You don’t understand. You only lost 250,000 people –France’s Special Point We’ve been under the German guns repeatedly. We have no real protection from Germany. Anyone across an ocean or channel can afford to be generous. We can’t.We’ve been under the German guns repeatedly. We have no real protection from Germany. Anyone across an ocean or channel can afford to be generous. We can’t.

12 Wilson was forced to compromise all of his points except the League of Nations Self Determination Was Also Accepted to Some DegreeSelf Determination Was Also Accepted to Some Degree

13 Germany Was Punished As a result of the French and British, the Germans had to sign the Treaty of Versailles and…As a result of the French and British, the Germans had to sign the Treaty of Versailles and… 1)…take full responsibility for the war. 2)…give up land 3) …pay over $30 billion in reparations 4) …to largely disarm themselves 5) …give up all of their colonies

14 Europe’s Borders were Redrawn With Self Determination in Mind Pre WWI Post WWI

15 How could you argue that the Treaty of Versailles was a bad call even for the French and British?

16 The U.S. didn’t even join the League of Nations The Senate refused to ratify it because they felt like they would be pulled into future European problems.The Senate refused to ratify it because they felt like they would be pulled into future European problems. The League was set up, though. It was the first international attempt to avoid international conflicts. Fairly powerless because it had no military!!!The League was set up, though. It was the first international attempt to avoid international conflicts. Fairly powerless because it had no military!!!

17

18 The Colonies Africans and Asians and Middle Easterners were inspired by Wilson’s idea of self-determination.Africans and Asians and Middle Easterners were inspired by Wilson’s idea of self-determination. –Why? These people, hopeful for independence, were disappointed. England and France decided that they needed the colonies to provide money to rebuild their countriesThese people, hopeful for independence, were disappointed. England and France decided that they needed the colonies to provide money to rebuild their countries –They gobbled up Germany’s colonies. –Wilson’s self-determination had meant that whites deserved self rule, not non-whites.

19 The Colonies (cont.) The French and British created the manipulative mandate system.The French and British created the manipulative mandate system. –“You (the colonies) deserve independence. But you aren’t ready to rule yourselves yet. We’ll just keep ruling you until you are ready to be free.” –The trick: Who decides when that will be? [SEEDS OF THE VIETNAM WAR!] [SEEDS OF THE VIETNAM WAR!]

20 Hansen WWII The End of World War I- The Folly of the Victors Note-Taking Guide Part I. The U.S. and WWI As it became obvious that ____________________, many in the world looked to________for post-war leadership. Woodrow Wilson declared America’s goals – ________________________ – ‘all culture groups should have a right to __________________________’ –___________________- ‘the winners of WWI won’t___________________________________’ - meant to ________________________________ To Achieve His Goals, Woodrow Wilson Published an ____________________________________ –He described fourteen steps _________________________________ that would need to be taken to ensure _________________ –Some sample points: ____________________________ _____________________________ ____________________________ –You Should Notice That the Fourteen Points Are Mostly Attempts to __________________________________ _________ That Led to __________________ Part II. Wilson’s Plans _________ Were ________In Exchange for ________ Some wanted Germany treated much ___________________ Who? –___________ and especially ____________ Why??? What would they say to the ________? –(Answer)- The fighting _____________________ ______. Britain and France ___________________________and their ________________________________. You don’t understand. You only ________________________. Wilson was forced to compromise all of his points except ____________________________________________________ Germany was _______________ –As a result of the French and British, the Germans had to sign the Treaty of Versailles and… 1)…take full ______________________for the war. 2)…____________ land 3) …pay over ________________________________ 4) …to largely _______________________ 5) …give up all __________________________ Europe’s Borders were __________________________________ –Examples ________________________________________ ______________________________________________ How could you argue that the Treaty of Versailles was a bad call even for ___________________? –Answer: _____________________________________ _____________________________________________ The U.S. didn’t even join the __________________ –The _____________________________________because they felt like they would be pulled into _____________________________________________. –The League ____ set up, though. It was the first international attempt ___________________________. Fairly powerless because it had __________________!!! The Colonies –Africans and Asians and Middle Easterners were ______ by Wilson’s idea of __________________________. Why?_____________________________________ –These people, hopeful for independence, were ___________________. England and France decided that they __________________________________________ ______________________________________________ They gobbled up __________________________. –Wilson’s self-determination had meant that ____________________________________________ _______________, not non-whites. –The French and British created the manipulative _____________________. –“You (the colonies) deserve __________________. But you aren’t _______________________________yet. We’ll just keep ruling you _____________________ _________________________.” –The trick: _______________________________? ______________________________________

21 The End of World War I A More Complex Version ???

22 What Needed Fixin’? Prevent another ‘Great War’.

23 Obstacles to The Goal of Future Peace Desire for Revenge –Born out of the horrific losses of the war (France) Democracy Has Shortcomings –‘the mob’ doesn’t understand (or rejects) complex truths For example, war reparations make no sense –Defeated country has just lost a total war –Currency is worthless without goods backing it up –Carrying off their goods to your country displaces local industry But war reparations sound great –‘We will build a country worthy of our heroes’ Thus, democracy may produce the wrong policy Idealism Versus Realism –The U.S. (and Britain to some degree) pursued an idealistic policy All Europeans should be granted self determination –Why? –Liberal Enlightened policy –Reality Germany is the largest population group in Europe If this remains unchanged, it is just an issue of mathematics before they are powerful again Self Determination (resulting in the break-up) of the Austro-Hungarian Empire sounds inspiring. Leaves independent, BUT HIGHLY VULNERABLE nation- states

24 Because of These Foibles of the Human Psyche and Real Politics… Germany is treated neither harshly nor leniently enough –Not harsh enough in what way? Keep Rhineland –What is the Rhineland? (see next slide) –Why had France wanted it? –Why were the Germans allowed to keep it? Not lenient enough in what way? –Germans have been humiliated and are in debt –Dream of Payback »Reminds of pre-WWI France, no? Weimar Republic is not a ‘German’ gov. –Set up by the victors –Germans weren’t used to democracy- might have rallied behind a king Self-Determination in central and southeastern Europe is ‘beautiful’ but foolish German Reparation payments are Impossible and the Germans Refuse to Pay In the Second Year of Their Agreed Upon Decades of Repayments –More on this later!

25

26

27 Even Those Ideas That Might Have Worked Were Abandoned Or Fatally Weakened U.S. abandoned the League of Nations –Why? U.S. Promise to safeguard France was not ratified –Why? Britain Refuses to Enforce Treaty of Versailles –Why?

28 Actual Territorial Settlement of the Versailles Treaty Polish Corridor issue!!!

29 Marshall Foch “This is not a peace. It is an armistice for 20 years.”

30 Single Hope Germany’s Military has been reduced –100,000 long term soldiers –No heavy weaponry


Download ppt "Simple Version. As it became obvious that the allies would win, many in the world looked to America for post-war leadership. Woodrow Wilson declared America’s."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google