World War I 1914- 1918 World War I 1914- 1918 Total War
“No Man’s Land” “ The War to End All Wars” “ The War to End All Wars” “The World must be made safe for Democracy” “All quiet on the Western Front” “All quiet on the Western Front” “The Yanks Are Coming” “The Yanks Are Coming” “The Great War” “Rape of Belgium” “Stalemate” “Stalemate” “Doughboys” “Peace, Land and Bread” “Doughboys” “Peace, Land and Bread”
Causes of WW I Causes of WW I 19 th and early 20 th century nationalism, industrialism, imperialism and militarism led European nations to develop unstable alliances in order to strengthen and protect their worldly possessions.
Tension in the Balkans Tension in the Balkans The Balkan Peninsula nations were gaining their independence from the declining Ottoman Empire. Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria were extremely nationalistic. The Balkan nation of Bosnia was under the control of Austria ( in 1909) and Austria had imperialistic aims against Serbia.
Russia had warned Austria it would protect Balkan Slavic nations. Because of the alliance system, extreme nationalism and ethnic differences; the Balkans were called the “Powder Keg of Europe” It only required a “spark” to start a major world crisis. world crisis.
Pan-Slavism ( pro Slavic) The Balkans, 1914 Pan-Slavism ( pro Slavic) The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The Spark that started WW I On June 28, 1914 – the Arch Duke to the Austrian Throne, Franz Ferdinan d and his wife Sophie, were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrillo Princip, an extreme Serb nationalists supported by a group called the Black Hand. Franz Ferdinand and his family
The assassination at Sarajevo The assassination at Sarajevo June 28, 1914
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The Assassin: Gavrillo Princip Gavrillo Princip
WW I Begins - 1914 WW I Begins - 1914 Austria soon declared war on Serbia with a” blank check” ( total support) from Germany. Austria soon declared war on Serbia with a” blank check” ( total support) from Germany. Diplomacy failed as nations under alliance agreements declared war. Diplomacy failed as nations under alliance agreements declared war. By August of 1914, European nations were at war. “ The Guns of August” By August of 1914, European nations were at war. “ The Guns of August”
Which Nations? Which Nations? Central Powers Central Powers Germany Germany Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Ottoman Turks Ottoman Turks Allied Powers Allied Powers Britain Britain France France Italy ( in 1915) Italy ( in 1915) Russia (to 1917 Russia (to 1917 USA ( in 1917) USA ( in 1917)
Aviation German Ace: The Red Baron Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger.
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
1914 August 4- Germany invades France through neutral Belgium.August 4- Germany invades France through neutral Belgium. ( called the Rape of Belgium) ( called the Rape of Belgium) The Schlieffen Plan
1914 August 26-30 German victory over Russia on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg.August 26-30 German victory over Russia on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg. German advance into France is stopped at the Battle of the Marne.German advance into France is stopped at the Battle of the Marne. Both sides dig in and Trench Warfare begins.Both sides dig in and Trench Warfare begins. Trenches
1915 January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on EnglandJanuary 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England February 4 Germany declares an unrestricted submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate targetFebruary 4 Germany declares an unrestricted submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target April 22-May 5 Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weaponsApril 22-May 5 Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in TurkeyApril 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915 Allies withdraw April, 1915 Allies begin assault of the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey. Result is a military disaster for the allies and they are forced to withdraw from Gallipoli.
1916 February 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualtiesFebruary 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties July 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the AlliesJuly 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies
1916 – War at Sea Battle of Jutland off of the coast of Norway between German and British Navy. Terrible losses for both sides in men and ships.
1917 Czar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates the throne. A Provisional Government is established in Russia. Czar Nicholas II and family
1917 Russian Revolution November ( October) Bolshevik ( Reds) socialists, led by Vladimir I. Lenin, overthrow the Kerensky government. Lenin promises the Russian people “Peace, Land, Bread”November ( October) Bolshevik ( Reds) socialists, led by Vladimir I. Lenin, overthrow the Kerensky government. Lenin promises the Russian people “Peace, Land, Bread” The new Russian government signs a humiliating treaty with Germany- Treaty of Brest- Livosk. Russia pulls out of WW I.The new Russian government signs a humiliating treaty with Germany- Treaty of Brest- Livosk. Russia pulls out of WW I. Civil war rages in Russia between the Reds and Whites Civil war rages in Russia between the Reds and Whites Vladimir Lenin
US Enters WW I – 1917 Events that lead the US to War US Enters WW I – 1917 Events that lead the US to War Sinking of the Lusitania Sinking of the Sussex Zimmerman Telegram Germany sinks three US ships
May 7,1915- German U-Boat sinks Lusitania German U-Boat sinks British Passenger ship, killing over 1200, including 126 Americans
America Remains Neutral Presidential Election of 1916, President Woodrow Wilson is reelected on the slogan, “He kept us out of War”
The Zimmerman Telegram US intercepted a telegram from German Minister Zimmerman to Mexico, in which Germany pledged support for an invasion of the United States.
The Sussex German U-Boat sinks French passenger ship, the Sussex, killing Americans. President Wilson threatens to break diplomatic relations with Germany. Germany promises not to fire on passenger ships in the Sussex Pledge.
US joins Allies Germany sinks three US Ships April 6, 1917- The US declares war on Germany. President Woodrow Wilson asks for a declaration of War
US Mobilizes and enters WW I Selective Service Act, a national draft, was passed in May, 1917. US Troops ( called Doughboys) enter France and fight in major offensives. John J. “Blackjack” Pershing is US Commander
US opinions are divided US opinions are divided To unify public opinion, the government created the CPI, Committee on Public Information. It distributed printed material to unify public opinion to support the war effort. The Espionage Act and the Sabotage Act gave the government new tools to stop spying and sabotage. The Espionage Act and the Sabotage Act gave the government new tools to stop spying and sabotage.
More Changes on the Homefront US government sold” Liberty Bonds” and increased taxes to support the war effort. Women went to work in factories producing weapons and war materials. New government agencies were created to help organize and support the war effort: WIB- War Industries Board- fixed prices and regulated production. CND- Council of National Defense CAC- Civilian Advisory Commission
US Troops Battle in Europe US troops fight in major Allied offensives including: Chateau-Thierry Belleau-Wood Meuse Argonne Forest Sergeant York- US Hero
WW I Ends WW I Ends 11/11/1918- On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918- an Armistice ( end of fighting) was signed. The fighting ends! Basically a German surrender.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson proposes a peace plan, a “just and stable peace” plan in 1918 known as the Fourteen Points. The plan was in three major parts. President Wilson “The World Must be Made Safe For Democracy” Questions 9-18
Fourteen Points- Part I Wilson’s Plan : Self – determination for nations . Freedom of the Seas Armament Reductions Free Trade Impartial negotiations League of Nations
Fourteen Points Part II Fourteen Points Part II II. Recommended boundaries in conquered Austria and Ottoman Empire Fourteen Points Part III III. League of Nations- an association or covenant of nations were to be established for future world peace.
The Fourteen Points Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognisable lines of nationality. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. Point 14 – The League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Paris Peace Treaty that officially ended WW I- held at the Versailles Palace in France is known as the Treaty of Versailles. The Big Four The Big Four Lord George- Britain Orlando- Italy Clemenceau- France Wilson-USA
The French and English insisted on punishing Germany. Only Wilson’s last point, the 14 th Point – The League of Nations was finally accepted.
Terms of Treaty of Versailles Germany forced to: Accept War Guilt Clause Reduce its army to 100,000 Give up its navy Give up territorial possessions to be governed as mandates by other nations Pay reparation payments Have its industrial area occupied
More Terms: Austria- Hungary lands were divided New nations were created Britain and France divide up Middle East and Far East territories to be governed as mandates. European nations accepted the covenant of a League of Nations ( the one idea of Wilson accepted )
US Rejects Treaty US Rejects Treaty Woodrow Wilson returns to the US with the Versailles Treaty including the League of Nations. The US Senate, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, refuse to ratify the treaty and reject the league of nations. Many did not want the US to become involved in another European conflict. The US begins a policy of isolationism.
US Retreat from Idealism After the war, the world stated it will follow if America leads. Yet, the US rejected world leadership and American society moved from a sense of idealism to disillusionment to isolationism. In the Presidential election of 1920, Warren G. Harding won a landslide victory on a campaign of “Normalcy”.
Toll of the War Toll of the War 18 million deaths 37 million wounded 20 billion spent on war Questions 19-25.