Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality."— Presentation transcript:
WORLD WAR I SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. c. Explain Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations.
WORLD WAR I United States History Unit “Isolation vs. Globalization” Elaborated Unit Focus The focus of this unit is the development of World War I, II and the Cold War. This unit will examine the changes caused by the conflicts that involved much of the world. These changes not only involved how we looked at our world but also how our beliefs and ideals changed as a result. It also involved taking a closer look at individuals, groups, and institutions to see how improvements could be made to create a better United States and world. Technological innovations created the need for people to move and migrate to new areas.
WORLD WAR I ORAL PRE-TEST, WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT WORLD WAR I? AKA, THE GREAT WAR THE WAR TO END ALL WARS THE WAR TO MAKE THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY 1914-1918 REMEMBER THESE YEARS? 1775- 1783, 1861-1865
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I MAIN MM AA II NN MILITARISM ALLIANCES IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM
WORLD WAR I MILITARISM 1.MILITARY BUILDUP, ARMY, NAVY 2.MILITARY ARMS RACE, FR, IT, JA, US, UK, GE, AU-HU 3.SEE HANDOUT
WORLD WAR I ALLIANCES, P. 585 DURING WAR ALLIED POWERS FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM RUSSIA ITALY USA CENTRAL POWERS GERMANY AUSTRIA- HUNGARY BULGARIA OTTOMAN EMPIRE (LATER, TURKEY)
WORLD WAR I IMPERIALISM 1.EMPIRE BUILDING 2.COMPETITION FOR COLONIES IN MAINLY IN ASIA AND AFRICA 3.COMPETITORS: UK, GE, IT, FR, JA, US 4.DESIRE FOR RAW MATERIALS IN COLONIES 5.COLONIES PROVIDED MARKETS
WORLD WAR I, NATIONALISM 1.DEVOTION BY PEOPLE TO A NATION AND A NATION’S CULTURE, HISTORY, RELIGION, AND LANGUAGE 2.ETHNIC GROUPS (NATIONALITIES) WANTED LAND, INDEPENDENCE, AND PROTECTION 3.FOR EX., RUSSIA, PROTECTOR OF SLAVS, SCATTERED ACROSS BALKAN PENINSULA CONTROLLED BY AU-HU 4.BALKAN PEN., “POWDER KEG” OF EUROPE
IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF WORLD WAR I 1. ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE, AND HEIR TO THE THRONE OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, FRANZ FERDINAND
IMMEDIATE CAUSE FACTS THE ASSASSINATION… 1.BY WHOM? GAVRILO PRINCIP 2.FOR WHAT TERRORIST GROUP? THE BLACK HAND 3.WHERE? SARAJEVO, BOSNIA IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY “THE SPARK” WHICH IGNITED THE “POWDER KEG”
“THE SPThe Black Hand was founded by former members of a semi-secret society named Narodna Odbrana (Defense of the People) dedicated to achieving Pan-Slavism and nationalism by means of assassination.Narodna OdbranaPan-Slavismnationalism The Black and nationalism by means of assassination. The Black and nationalism by means of assassination.
WORLD WAR I, THE WAR BEGINS 1.WHERE? THE WESTERN FRONT 2.TRENCH WARFARE
WORLD WAR I, THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES 1.UNTIL 1917, POLICY OF NEUTRALITY 2.POLICY OF NOT TAKING SIDES 3.USA, EXAMPLE OF PEACE 4.DIVIDED LOYALTIES IN USA
REASONS FOR USA INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I 1.TO ENSURE PAYMENT OF ALLIED WAR DEBTS 2.TO PROTECT USA SHIPPING 3.UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE BY GERMANY a.SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA, 5.1915 b.ZIMMERMAN NOTE, 1.1917 c.INCREASED SUB WARFARE BY GER/LOSS OF AMERICAN LIFE d.RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 3.1917
(1) DEMOCRACIES V. MONARCHIES (2) PRESIDENT WILSON, “MAKE THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY”
ENTRY OF USA SWINGS BALANCE OF POWER 1.MOBILIZATION OF ARMY/NAVY 2.RESULT: ALLIED VICTORY 3.HOW? a.SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT, 1917, REQUIRED MEN TO REGISTER W/ GOVT TO BE RANDOMLY SELECTED FOR MILITARY SERVICE (DRAFT) b.NAVAL IMPROVEMENTS TO MOVE WAR GOODS C.NEW WEAPONS: MACHINE GUNS, AIRPLANES, ZEPPELINS, POISON GAS, TANKS
The German military made extensive use of Zeppelins as bombers and scouts.
TOTAL WAR AND THE END OF THE WAR… Total war is a conflict of unlimited scope in which a belligerent engages in a total mobilization of all available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise, in order to entirely destroy or render beyond use their rival's capacity to continue resistance.conflictbelligerenttotal mobilization resources
TOTAL WAR…USA 1.A NATION’S USE OF ALL RESOURES FOR WAR EFFORT 2.SHIFT IN ECO., CONSUMER GOODS TO WAR GOODS 3.WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD, RR ADMIN, FUEL ADMIN, FOOD ADMIN 4.USE OF PROPAGANDA
DOMESTIC (HOME-USA) IMPACT OF WWI 1.ANTI-IMMIGRANT HYSTERIA 2.ESPIONAGE AND SEDITION ACTS, 1917-1918; 2 LAWS, IMPOSED HARSH PENALTIES ON PERSONS WHO SPOKE AGAINST U.S.A. BEING IN WWI (VIOLATION OF FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS) a.EX. EUGENE DEBS, AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY FOUNDER, 10YR. PRISION SENTENCE…ANTI-WAR AND DRAFT 3.GREAT MIGRATION, MOVEMENT OF MANY SOUTHERN BLACKS TO NORTH (ESCAPE JIM CROW)
Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), candidate for President of the United States as a member of the Social Democratic Partyunion Industrial Workers of the WorldPresident of the United StatesSocial Democratic Party Debs was imprisoned once more after being arrested and convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 during the First Red Scare for speaking against American involvement in World War I. He was later pardoned by President of the United States Warren G. Harding, and died not long after being admitted to a sanitarium.Espionage Act of 1917 First Red Scare President of the United StatesWarren G. Hardingsanitarium
The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses.
REASONS, GREAT MIGRATION, EARLY 1900S 1.ESCAPE JIM CROW, RACE DISCRIMINATION 2.FIND JOBS a.LESS IMMIGRATION DUE TO WAR MEANT MORE OPPORTUNITY FOR BLACKS 3.BLACK NEWPAPERS PRINTED ARTICLES CONTRASTING NORTHERN OPPORTUNITIES WITH SOUTHERN LYNCHINGS
DOMESTIC IMPACT, CONTINUED 4. INCREASED PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE 5. FLU EPIDEMIC, 1918, MILLIONS DIED THROUGHOUT WORLD 1918 – 1920: avian flu: Spanish flu: more people were hospitalized in World War I from this epidemic than wounds. Estimates of the dead range from 20 to 100 million worldwide (WHO)avian fluSpanish fluWorld War I
WOODROW WILSON’S PLAN FOR PEACE, POSTWAR THE FOURTEEN POINTS 1.NO SECRET TREATIES 2.FREEDOM OF THE SEAS FOR ALL 3.ABOLISH OR LOWER TARIFFS FOR FREE TRADE 4.REDUCTION OF MILITARIES 5.POLICIES ABOUT COLONIES SHOULD CONSIDER NATIVES (NATIONALITIES) AND IMPERIALIST POWERS.(SELF- DETERMINATION)
FOURTEEN POINTS, CONTINUED 6-13. BOUNDARIES FOR NATIONS BASED ON SELF-DETERMINATION (RIGHT OF NATIONALITIES TO CHOOSE); NATIONALITIES FORM NATIONS OR CHOOSE NATION TO WHICH TO BELONG 14. A LEAGUE OF NATIONS, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION TO MAINTAIN WORLD PEACE
FOURTEEN POINTS The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. This speech was intended to assure the country that the war was being fought for a moral cause and for peace in Europe after World War I.President Woodrow WilsonUnited Statesjoint sessionUnited States CongressJanuary 81918EuropeWorld War I
LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations (LoN) was an international organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919– 1920. At its greatest extent, from 28 September 1934, to the 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. international organizationTreaty of Versaillesdisarmamentwarcollective securitycountriesnegotiation diplomacyquality of life
REJECTION OF WILSON’S PLAN 1.PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE 2.BIG “4”, FR, IT, UK, US a.PUNISH GERMANY 3.TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919 a.GERMANY HAD TO PAY REPARATIONS b.GERMANY HAD TO TAKE BLAME FOR WAR, WAR GUILT CLAUSE. 4.FOURTEEN POINTS IGNORED, EXCEPT THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
TREATY OF VERSAILLES 5.U.S SENATOR, HENRY CABOT LODGE, LED OPPOSITION TO TREATY. US SENATE REJECTED THE TREATY; SIGNED SEPARATE TREATY 6.USA NEVER JOINED THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 7.US SENATE FEARED BEING INVOLVED IN FUTURE CONFLICTS IN EUROPE.
Wilson claimed that he could "predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it.“ (referring to US rejection of the Treaty and not joining the League of Nations)
TREATY OF VERSAILLES The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919.peace treatiesWorld War Istate of warGermanythe Allied Powers The USA signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921.
RESULTS OF WORLD WAR I 1.DESTRUCTION/LOSS OF LIFE 2.RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 3.DEFEAT OF CENTRAL POWERS 4.TREATY OF VERSAILLES 5.FORMATION OF MANDATES (TEMPORARY COLONIES) 6.LEAGUE OF NATIONS
RESULTS OF WORLD WAR I, LONGTERM 1.SOCIAL CHANGE, USA, BLACK FLIGHT NORTH 2.EMERGENCE OF USA AS ECO. POWER 3.EMERGING MILITARY POWER OF USA 4.ENTRANCE OF WOMEN INTO WORKFORCE 5.BREAKUP OF EMPIRES 6.USA POLICY OF ISOLATION 7.RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM IN EUROPE AND JAPAN 8.WORLD WAR II