Presentation on theme: "Global Peacemaker What expectations did Wilson and the Allies bring to the Paris Peace Conference? What were the important provisions of the peace treaty?"— Presentation transcript:
Global Peacemaker What expectations did Wilson and the Allies bring to the Paris Peace Conference? What were the important provisions of the peace treaty? How did the federal government and ordinary Americans react to the end of war?
President Wilson “The War to End all Wars” “Peace Without Victory” “Making the World Safe for democracy.
President Wilson’s Proposals As the war neared an end, President Wilson developed a program for peace around the world known as the Fourteen Points, named for the number of provisions it contained. Wilson’s Fourteen Points called for 1.an end to entangling alliances 2.a reduction of military forces. 3.The right of Austria-Hungary’s ethnic groups to self-determination, or the power to make decisions about their own future.
The Allies want the spoils of victory Although both Wilson and the German government assumed that the Fourteen Points would form the basis of peace negotiations, the Allies disagreed. During peace negotiations, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were discarded one by one.
The Paris Peace Conference Wilson Forced to Compromise Wilson was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, but his Allied colleagues were. – The Central Powers must pay for war damages (reparations). – former German colonies should be up for grabs.
The Paris Peace conference The League of Nations One of Wilson’s ideas, the formation of a League of Nations, was agreed upon at the Paris Peace Conference. The League of Nations was designed to bring the nations of the world together to ensure peace and security. But…
Wilson doesn’t get support at Home Republicans in Congress, however, were concerned about Article 10 of the League’s charter, which contained a provision that they claimed might draw the United States into unpopular foreign wars.
The Peace Treaty They redrew the map of Europe to the Allies’ advantage. 1.Nine new nations were created from territory taken from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany. most borders were drawn with the division of ethnic minorities in mind, the redivisions created new ethnic minorities in several countries.
Redrawing the Map of Europe At the Paris Peace Conference, Britain, France, and the United States redrew the map of Europe.
Seeing Wilson as Politically weak at home the Allies try to stick it to Germany France insisted that Germany be humiliated and financially crippled. –Germany must pay billions of dollars in reparations, or payment for economic injury suffered during the war. Wilson, opposed this plan, claiming that these demands would lead to future wars. On June 28, 1919, the peace treaty, which came to be known as the Versailles Treaty, was signed at Versailles, outside of Paris.
Reactions at Home Congress and the Treaty of Versailles Despite Wilson’s intensive campaign in favor of the Versailles Treaty, Congress voted against ratifying it in November The United States declared the war officially over on May 20, It ratified separate peace treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary. However, the United States did not join the newly formed League of Nations.
Difficult Postwar Adjustments The war had given a large boost to the American economy, making the United States the world’s largest creditor nation. Soldiers returned home to a hero’s welcome but found that jobs were scarce. African American soldiers, despite their service to their country, returned to find continued discrimination. Many American artists entered the postwar years with a sense of gloom and disillusionment.
The war end & a peace treaty is signed The ends & a peace is signed
The Road to War—Assessment 1. Which of the following was a cause of World War I? (A)Rising nationalism in European nations (B)Decrease in militarism among European powers (C)Pro-German propaganda in Britain (D)United States support of the Central Powers 2. Why did the United States proclaim its neutrality in August 1914? (A)To please supporters of both sides (B)To protect its overseas investments (C)To allow time for preparedness (D)To aid Great Britain
The United States Declares War—Assessment 3. What was the significance of the Lusitania? (A)Its sinking brought America closer to entering the war. (B)The weapons it carried helped Britain gain an advantage. (C)Its crew delivered the Zimmermann note. (D)It inspired the Sussex pledge. 4. Why did the Russian Revolution help bring America into the war? (A)It helped the German navy sink British ships. (B)It caused the deaths of many Americans. (C)It set up a republican government in Russia, an Allied nation. (D)It promised American lands to Mexico in exchange for an invasion.
Americans on the European Front—Assessment 5. What was the convoy system? (A)A pattern of tank and airplane use (B)A method of transporting American troops across the Atlantic (C)A strategy for German advancement into France (D)A means of training new soldiers 6. Which of the following proved to be a turning point in the war? (A)The enactment of a Selective Service Act (B)The breakup of Austria-Hungary (C)The work of Red Cross volunteers in saving lives (D)The actions of General Pershing’s troops
Americans on the Home Front — Assessment 7. Which of the following best describes Hoover’s strategy for food conservation? (A)Creation of new government agencies (B)Price controls and rationing (C)Sale of Liberty Bonds (D)Voluntary restraint and increased efficiency 8. Why did the war provide new opportunities for women and minorities? (A)Many white men were away fighting the war. (B)Women proved to be better farm workers than men. (C)African Americans were less likely to be guilty of sedition. (D)Radical labor organizers gained popularity.
Global Peacemaker— Assessment 9. What was the League of Nations? (A)The reassignment of lands in Europe (B)A demand to Germany to pay war reparations (C)A global organization to maintain peace and security (D)A new secret alliance system 10. Why did Wilson oppose French demands for German war reparations? (A)He thought that Germany should be forced to pay more. (B)He felt that these demands would lead to future wars. (C)He did not think that France needed the money. (D)He wanted other nations to pay reparations instead.
Quiz answers 1.= A 2.= B 3.= A 4.= C 5.= B 6.= D 7.= B 8.= A 9.= C 10.= B