Presentation on theme: "The Passion and Resurrection of Jesus, according to Matthew Religious Education Congress Session 1-15 Felix Just, S.J. Friday, February 29, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
The Passion and Resurrection of Jesus, according to Matthew Religious Education Congress Session 1-15 Felix Just, S.J. Friday, February 29, 2008
Welcome! Thanks to John Flaherty & Musicians Does everyone have two handouts? One two-sided page of notes One half-sheet of music FJ’s Website: http://catholic-resources.org
One Jesus, Four Portraits How do we use the Gospels? Usually pick & choose, mix & match? Value in studying each one separately. Study the emphases of each Evangelist! Jesus in the New Testament: The Jesus of Matthew’s Gospel The Jesus of Mark’s Gospel The Jesus of Luke’s Gospel The Jesus of John’s Gospel
One Jesus, Four Portraits Titles emphasized in MARK (cf. 1:1) Christ/Messiah (anointed one, chosen) Son of God (authority over demons) Miracle-worker (power over nature) Son of Man (suffering servant) Crucified (yet risen from the dead) First Event in Public Ministry Exorcism at Capernaum (Mk 1:21-28) Shows Jesus’ power & authority
Mark’s Jesus On the Way to Jerusalem 8:31 – “Son of Man must suffer, be rejected, be killed, and rise after three days.” 9:31-32 – “Son of Man will be betrayed, be killed, but rise after three days.” 10:32-34 – “Son of Man will be handed over, condemned to death, mocked, spat upon, scourged, put to death, but will rise after three days.”
One Jesus, Four Portraits Titles stressed in MATTHEW Uses same titles for Jesus as Mark does: Son of God, Christ/Messiah, Son of Man But some are new; some stressed more: Son of Abraham, Son of David Emmanuel (“God with us”), King of the Jews Great Teacher, a “New Moses” Can’t be “Son of Moses,” since Moses was in Tribe of Levi, while Jesus is in Tribe of Judah
Matthew’s Jesus Five Great Teachings/Speeches 1) Sermon on Mount: Matt 5–7 2) Missionary Instructions: Matt 10 3) Parables Collection: Matt 13 4) Community Instructions: Matt 18 5) Eschatological Sermon: Mt 23–25
One Jesus, Four Portraits Actions of Jesus stressed in LUKE Many more miracles, esp. healings Many more parables, esp. about money Many more episodes of Jesus interacting with the poor, children, sick, sinners Reaching out to Samaritans & Gentiles Many more women in healings, parables, and among Jesus’ friends.
Luke’s Jesus Inaugural Sermon at Nazareth "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free, and to proclaim a year (“Jubilee”) acceptable to the Lord." (Luke 4:18-19)
One Jesus, Four Portraits Images emphasized in JOHN The Divine Logos / Word made Flesh The Only-begotten Son The One Sent from the Father “Equal to God” “I Am” = YHWH Bread of Life, Light of the World, Good Shepherd, Resurrection & Life, Way-Truth-Life, True Vine…
John’s Jesus Gospel Prologue (1:1-18) 1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be… 14 And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father's only-begotten Son, full of grace and truth… 18 No one has ever seen God. The only-begotten Son, God, who is at the Father's side, has revealed him.
Mark’s Portrait of Jesus Diego Velasquez (ca. 1630)
Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus? Gustave Doré (1860’s)
Luke’s Portrait of Jesus? Mathieu Ignace van Brée (1773-1839)
Matthew’s Gospel in the Lectionary for Mass Sundays of Ordinary Time (Year A): semi-continuous readings from Matthew selections from Chapters 3 to 25 Sundays of Advent (Year A): 1 st Sunday - Matt 24 :37-44 (Apocalyptic) 2 nd Sunday - Matt 3 :1-12 (John the Baptist) 3 rd Sunday - Matt 11 :2-11 (John the Baptist) 4 th Sunday - Matt 1 :18-24 (Joseph’s dreams)
Matthew’s Gospel in the Lectionary During the Christmas Season: Christmas Vigil (ABC) - Matt 1 :1-25 Holy Family (A) - Matt 2 :13-15, 19-23 Epiphany (ABC) - Matt 2 :1-12 Baptism of Lord (A) - Matt 3 :13-17 Early in the Season of Lent (Year A): 1 st Sunday - Matt 4 :1-11 (Temptations) 2 nd Sunday - Matt 17 :1-9 (Transfiguration)
Matthew’s Gospel in the Lectionary Holy Week (Year A): Palm Sunday: Procession with Palms Matt 21:1-11 “Son of David” enters into Jerusalem Palm Sunday: Passion Proclamation Matt 26:14–27:66 (or Matt 27:11-54) Most of Matthew’s Passion Narrative
Matthew’s Gospel in the Lectionary Easter Triduum (Year A): Easter Vigil – Matt 28:1-10 Women go the tomb, find it empty; Jesus appears to them on the way back Easter Season (Year A): Ascension of the Lord – Matt 28:16-20 Jesus’ appears to the disciples, on a mountain in Galilee (but doesn’t ascend!)
Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus Son of Abraham, Son of David legitimate “King of the Jews” unlike the Herodians (family of King Herod), who are not “Davidic” (family of King David) King of the Jews In Mark, used only at Jesus’ trial (Mk 15) In Matt (already in 2:2), the Magi ask, “Where is the newborn king of the Jews?” many more parables involving kings; more royal allusions as Jesus enters Jerus.
Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus Matthew’s Genealogy (1:1-17) “The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham… Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Messiah, fourteen generations.” (1:1, 17) Why 14? Why recall Babylonian exile?
Matthew’s Portrait of Jesus Hebrew Numerology (“Gematria”) Each letter has an associated number; most common system (for 22 Hebrew letters) : Alef = 1; Bet = 2; Gimel = 3; Dalet = 4; Hey = 5; Vav = 6; etc. Hebrew omits vowels: "David" = DVD dalet-vav-dalet = 4+6+4 = 14 ! Babylonian Exile? 587 BC = Babylonians conquer Jerusalem and kill the last Davidic king’s sons!
Jesus: King of the Jews Matthew’s Genealogy “Thus the total number of generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations; from David to the Babylonian exile, fourteen generations; from the Babylonian exile to the Messiah, fourteen generations.” (1:1, 17) Davidic Monarchy: ca. 1000 – 587 BC People hoping for its restoration, for a “Son of David” to be “Messiah” (“anointed king”)
Jesus: Beloved Son of God Voice from heaven at Baptism: “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased” (3:17) Devil tempts Jesus in the desert: “ If you are the Son of God…” (4:3, 6) Voice from heaven at Transfiguration: “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased” (17:5) People taunt Jesus on the cross: “ If you are the Son of God…” (27:3, 6) Strange incidents at Crucifixion: Temple veil torn; earthquake; tombs open (27:51-53)
Jesus: Great Teacher Rabbi/Teacher, with Disciples: Explains “Torah” (God’s Instructions/Teachings/Precepts) Teacher, prophet, law-giver, like Moses: Both are saved as babies, while other boys killed Both flee to/from Egypt when in danger Both go up a mountain to deal with Torah/Law Both fast for 40 days and 40 nights First 5 books of Hebrew Bible attributed to Moses In Matthew, 5 long speeches attributed to Jesus Jesus explicitly upholds the teachings/laws of Moses; doesn’t abolish them (Matt 5:17-20; 22:35-40; etc.)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Passion Proper: Matt 26:1–27:66 Jesus enters Jerusalem (Matt 21:1-11) Matthew’s emphasis on Jesus as King: "Tell the daughter of Zion, Look, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.“ (Matt 21:5) “Rejoice greatly, O daughter Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” (Zech 9:9)
Jesus enters Jerusalem Emphasis on Jesus as King (cont.) “Hosanna to the Son of David” (Matt 21:9) Contrast Mark 11: “Hosanna!... Blessed is the kingdom of our father David that is coming!” Reaction of crowds in Jerusalem: “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee” (Matt 21:10-11) Jesus teaches in Jerusalem (Matt 21—25)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Authorities plot to kill Jesus (26:1-5) Two days before Passover Jesus foretells his passion a fourth time; vs. only three times in Mark: Mark 8:31 = Matt 16:21 Mark 9:31 = Matt 17:22-23 Mark 10:32 = Matt 20:17-19 Priests & elders want to arrest & kill Jesus High Priest, Caiaphas, named here (v. 3) Not named in Mark or Luke; earlier in John
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus is anointed at Bethany (26:6-13) Anonymous woman (not called a “sinner” – contrast Luke 7) Anoints Jesus’ head (not his feet) Disciples complain about the waste Jesus defends woman: “In pouring this ointment on my body, she has done it to prepare me for burial… Wherever the gospel is preached…, what she has done will be told…” (vv. 12-13)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Passion Sunday reading begins here: Judas Iscariot plans to betray Jesus (26:14-16) Judas goes to chief priests (also in Mark & Luke) Only Matthew mentions the thirty pieces of silver Meaning not interpreted here, but later (cf. 27:3-10)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Disciples prep for Passover (26:17-20) First day of Unleavened Bread Jesus sends disciples into Jerusalem, brief instructions: “The Teacher says, ‘My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at your house with my disciples.” In evening (after sunset), he sat at table with the twelve disciples.
Jesus’ Last Supper Jesus foretells his betrayal by Judas (Matt 26:21-25) As they were eating, Jesus says, “One of you will betray me.” All ask him, “Is it I, Lord?” Jesus: “The one who has dipped his hand in the dish with me…” Judas: “Is it I, Rabbi?” Jesus: “You have said so!”
Jesus’ Last Supper (cont.) Jesus blesses bread & wine Jesus took bread and blessed, broke it and gave it to the disciples: “Take, eat; this is my body.” And he took a cup, gave thanks, gave it to them: “Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I shall not drink again…” (Matt 26:26-29)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus foretells Peter’s denial (26:30-35) After singing a hymn (end of Passover meal), they go to Mount of Olives. Jesus: “You will all fall away… this night…” Peter: “…I will never fall away.” Jesus: “Truly… you will deny me 3 times.” Peter: “Even if I must die with you, I will not deny you.” (so said all the disciples)
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus prays at Gethsemane (26:36-46) [Matthew is longest; Luke is shortest] 1)“My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet not as I will, but as you will.” 2)“My Father, if this cannot pass unless I drink it, your will be done.” 3)He prayed the third time, saying the same words.
Matthew’s Passion Jesus is arrested (26:47-56) Judas arrives, with an armed crowd: “Greetings, Rabbi!” Jesus: “Friend, why are you here?” They seize Jesus; HP’s slave’s ear is cut off Jesus: “Put your sword back… for all who take the sword will perish by the sword…” “Can’t I ask my Father, and he’ll send more than twelve legions of angels?”; “How should the scriptures be fulfilled?”
Matthew’s Passion Jesus led to Caiaphas’ house (26:57-68) Many false witnesses; Jesus remains silent High Priest: “I adjure you by the living God, tell us if you’re the Christ, the Son of God” Jesus: “You have said so. But I tell you, you’ll see the Son of Man…” HP: “He has uttered blasphemy… You have heard his blasphemy…” (twice) Others: “He deserves death…” “Prophesy for us, Christ! Who struck you?”
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Peter denies knowing Jesus (26:69-75) Maid 1: “You were with Jesus the Galilean.” Peter: “I don’t know what you mean.” Maid 2: “He was with Jesus of Nazareth.” Peter: “I don’t know the man.” Bystanders: “Certainly you are also one of them, for your accent betrays you.” Peter: “I don’t know the man.”
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus is condemned & taken to Pilate (27:1-2) At dawn, chief priests & elders assemble; decide to have Jesus put to death; bind him & deliver him to Pilate. [Very brief in Matthew & Mark.] [Much longer morning trial in Luke.]
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Judas repents & hangs himself (27:3-10) Only in Matthew (very different in Acts 1) Judas returns 30 pieces of silver: “I’ve sinned in betraying innocent blood.” Priests: “What is that to us?” Judas departs; hangs himself. Priests discuss “blood money”; decide to buy “Field of Blood” Fulfill prophecy of Jer 32:6-15: “They took 30 pieces of silver…”
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus is tried before Pilate (27:11-23) [Similar in Matt & Mark; longer in Luke & John] Pilate: “Are you the King of the Jews?” “Do you want me to release Barabbas, or Jesus who is called Christ?” Pilate’s wife reports her dream: “Have nothing to do with that righteous man…” Chief priests, elders, and people want Barabbas released, and Jesus crucified.
Trial before Pilate Concludes Jesus is convicted, scourged (27:24-26) To prevent a riot, Pilate washes his hands: “I’m innocent of this man’s blood…” All the people reply: “His blood be on us and on our children!” Historical effect of this line? Jesus is mocked (27:27-31) Soldiers gather; scarlet robe; crown of thorns; reed in hand; kneel; “Hail, King of the Jews!”
Matthew’s Passion Narrative Jesus is crucified (27:32-37) Simon of Cyrene carries cross Golgotha = “Place of the skull” Wine mixed with gall Jesus’ garments divided Soldiers sit & keep watch Charge put over his head: “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews”
On the Cross Various groups taunt Jesus (27:38-44) Passersby: “…save yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross” Chief priests, scribes, elders: “He saved others; he cannot save himself. He’s the King of Israel; let him come down now from the cross & we’ll believe in him. He trusts in God; let God deliver him now… for he said, “I am the Son of God.’” The two robbers also reviled him similarly.
On the Cross Jesus’ Final Words (Matt 27:45-50) Darkness from 6 th hour to 9 th hour Jesus cries, “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?” = “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” (Matt 27:46; also Mark 15:34) Reactions: Calling Elijah? Sponge of Vinegar? Wait! Jesus cries again loudly, and yields up his spirit.
Seven Last “Words” of Jesus 1)" Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." (Luke 23:34) 2)" Woman, here is your son "; " Here is your mother " (John 19:26-27) 3)" Truly I tell you, today you’ll be with me in Paradise." (Luke 23:43) 4)" Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani? " which means, " My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? " (Mark 15:34; cf. Matt 27:46) 5)" I am thirsty." (John 19:28) 6)" It is finished." (John 19:30) 7)" Father, into your hands I commit my spirit." (Luke 23:46)
Matthew’s Passion After Jesus’ Death (27:51-53) Temple curtain torn in two Earthquake, rocks split Tombs opened; bodies of saints raised (appear to many after his resurrection) Witnesses to Jesus’ Death (27:54-56) Centurion and those with him see it all: “Truly, this was the Son of God.” Many Galilean women, looking from afar, incl. Mary Magdalene, two others
Matthew’s Passion (end) Jesus is buried (27:57-61) Brief account: Joseph of Arimathea, disciple, buries Jesus in his own new tomb. Mary Magdalene & another Mary observe. Jesus’ tomb is guarded (27:62-66) Chief priests ask Pilate to guard the tomb. Impostor said: “After 3 days I’ll rise again.” Disciples might steal his body. The last fraud will be worse than the first. So they seal the entrance & place a guard.
Emphases in Matthew’s Passion Portrayal of Jesus: Cruelly Mistreated: suffering, scouring & crucifixion Royal Son of David: the only legitimate “King of the Jews” Great Teacher (like Moses) : faithful to God & to his disciples Beloved Son of God: as attested by divine signs & scriptures
Emphases in Matthew’s Passion Roles of Characters (as role models?) Caiaphas & Pilate – political schemers, avoiding responsibility Judas & Peter – betrayer & denier; but both repentant Other male disciples – play only minor roles; flee Mary Magdalene & other women – faithful witnesses Joseph of Arimathea – courageous, charitable disciple
Episodes NOT in Matthew In Luke & John, but not Mark or Matthew: Longer dialogues (Jesus & disciples) at the Last Supper Luke 22:24-38 John 13–16 Pilate stresses Jesus’ innocence several times Luke 23:4, 13-16, 22 John 18:38b; 19:4, 6, 12
Episodes NOT in Matthew Only in Luke: Jesus is tried before Sanhedrin at dawn (22:66-71) Jesus taken & questioned before Herod (23:6-12) Jesus speaks with women on the Way (23:26-33a) Jesus forgives those crucifying him (23:34a) Jesus speaks with the “repentant thief” (23:39-43)
Episodes NOT in Matthew Only in John: Jesus washes his disciples’ feet (13:1-20) Jesus’ long prayer to the Father (17:1-26) Much longer trial before Pilate (18:29–19:16) Jesus’ last words on the cross (19:26-27, 28, 30) Jesus’ side is pierced, but his bones are not broken (19:31-37)
Resurrection Accounts in Matthew’s Gospel Overview of Matthew 28:1-20 Empty Tomb narrative (vv. 1-8) Jesus appears to two women (vv. 9-10) Guards report to the authorities (vv. 11-15) Jesus appears on a mountain in Galilee, a.k.a. “The Great Commission” (vv. 16-20) “Empty Tomb” story is in other Gospels; the rest is only in Matthew! Not in Matthew: Emmaus, Thomas, Fishing, Peter & the Beloved Disciple, etc.
Resurrection in Matthew 28 Empty Tomb story (vv. 1-8) Around dawn, first day of week “Mary Magdalene & the other Mary” Earthquake; angel descends, rolls back the stone; guards fear, “like dead men” Angel to women: “Do not be afraid… I know you seek Jesus, who was crucified. He is not here; for he has risen. Come, see…; then go, tell his disciples… he is going before you to Galilee”
Resurrection Narrative in Matthew 28 Jesus appears to the women (vv. 9-10) [ They leave tomb “with fear & great joy”; run to tell the disciples - v. 8 ] Jesus meets them, “Greetings!” They come, grab his feet, worship him. “Do not be afraid; go, tell my brothers to go to Galilee; there they will see me.” Not in Mark or Luke; expanded in John as longer dialogue of Jesus & Mary Magdalene
Resurrection Narrative in Matthew 28 Report of the Guards (vv. 11-15) Guards go into city, report to chief priests Elders decide to pay off guards: “Tell people, ‘His disciples came by night, stole him away while we slept.’ If governor hears of it, we’ll protect you.” Guards leave; do as they were told. Narrator: “This story has been spread among the Jews to this day.” Effect of this story?
Resurrection in Matthew 28 Risen Jesus appears to his disciples (“The Great Commission”; vv. 16-20) The eleven go to the mountain in Galilee. Saw him, worshiped him; some doubted. “All authority has been given to me… Go, make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in name of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit [Trinitatian formula], teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”
“Great Commission” Jesus’ Final Words in Matthew: “Behold, I am with you always, until the end of the ages” (28:20) Recall: “Emmanuel” (“God with us”) Contrast Luke: Ascension Did Jesus leave? Or is he still here?
Application: What Can We Learn from Matthew? How can I apply this in my own life as a Christian, as a disciple of Jesus? How can this help me in my ministry as a Catechist or Religious Educator? Your Questions? http://catholic-resources.org