Presentation on theme: "Multiple Trunk ( Low Cordon) Trellising System. Yield, Quality, Cost are important in that order. If you don’t have a minimum yield you are not in business."— Presentation transcript:
Yield, Quality, Cost are important in that order. If you don’t have a minimum yield you are not in business because you have no product for sale. Average “Cold” area, i.e. Watertown, could be 3-4 tons of grapes per acre, 6-8 pounds per vine, or 20-30 bunches per vine for Frontenac.
8 ½ foot cedar end posts, set 2 ½ feet deep 8 foot Metal “Manworks” stakes set 2 feet in ground 48 inch earth anchors Low wire 11.5 gauge crimped, 18 inches above ground Two more sets of catch wires, 12.5 gauge set at 18 inches above first wire Small gripple and gripple tool to secure low wire Thick cable with larger gripple to secure to earth anchor Nails for securing catch wire to end of posts Wire crimpers and tool to connect chain links to catch wires In the Beginning…….
15 inch Blue Vine Shelters ( come in 30 inch, can cut in two) 36 inch Bamboo or Metal stakes to secure to trellis Biodegradable ties to connect to trellis (optional) Spacing range, 5-9 feet apart
First Year Growth Let them grow, fertilize lightly with Miracle Grow
Second Year Prune back after extreme cold portion of our winter (March) To first wire (18 inch)
Why Multiple Trunks? Train multiple trunks of different ages to allow renewals to replace trunks potentially killed by cold temperatures or Crown Gall This does not eliminate Crown Gall, but it helps insure crop and allows management at a tolerable level. Begin process of training multiple trunks on low wire with ties to form and grow horizontally. Quick daily walks to remove suckers sprouting from base keeps labor at a minimum (can be mechanized) Vine Symmetry is the name of the game. Makes spraying, pruning, cultivation etc. easier, thus less labor that is more effective.
Begin directing shoots vertically into catch wires Again keep suckers removed through daily walks If you need a new trunk, look for a sucker positioned directly under the wire and connect to low wire, remove all others.
Third Year Leaf ratio and Hedging to optimize ripening in cold hardy variety Four mature leaves wide Fourteen leaves high (Hedge after this) For larger operations, can be mechanized Removal maintenance of suckers will slow since now established canopy will shade their vigor. 20-30 bunches per vine (remove excess)
Leave dormant vines untouched until after the coldest phase of our North Country Winter. Late February through March is time to begin pre-pruning
Begin process by removing all wood over the 4 th bud. Wait until May when winter damage can be evaluated and threat of late Spring frost has past. Two-Stage Winter Pruning
On pre-pruned vines buds exhibit Apical Dominance Upper buds open first and inhibit buds from opening lower on the pruned area Also shoots near base of vine will begin to open and grow
May 29 th A Major Frost Hits Jefferson County Shoots over 7 inches long are leveled along with flower clusters Suckers at Base also fried
On pre-pruned vines there is extra bud count New buds and flower buds open further down and crop is not destroyed for the year Suckers at base also start to reemerge at base of vine Remove suckers unless needed for a replacement trunk
In event late spring frost does not occur there will be no loss on these upper buds. However a situation of the vines being over-cropped can occur A stressed vine, even if cold hardy may not harden correctly and can lead to damage the next winter.
Pre-pruned vines need to be evaluated and finish pruning to balance crop level desired. Remember 20-30 bunches per vine for varieties like Frontenac Also constant attention to suckers at base need to be removed while small and tender. Failure to remove either manually or mechanically will result in more labor since they lignify and become more difficult to remove.
Continue to keep vine canes pushed into catch wires and use ratio of 4 mature leaves wide by 14 high as a visual guide for symmetry Keep hedged on top and removal of suckers at base. Less work to remove suckers later in season since canopy shad and vine energies are directed elsewhere
Finger Lake Trellis Supply system for protecting grapes from fruit predators. Easy to apply on VSP system since symmetrical layout of foliage does not catch on fine netting. Observations by local growers suggest at least some protection from fruit and leaf damaging insects. Minimizes labor installation since can be rolled up and suspended off hooks on top wire. (last 15 years in the field)
Mini-J Applicable to tender varieties like Reliance, Candice etc. Use push pins to force young vine to grow in a horizontal position Gradually it will sweep up onto trellis At this point, train to two cordon arms In fall the elongated trunk is easy to cut off trellis and pin to ground Snow will insulate it
Arbors- First year Functional, adds dappled shade effect to a gathering area Provides fruit in the fall Same training just takes longer for trunk to reach top of arbor Use stake and wire to train to top of arbor