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ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 ADVANCING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

2 Unit One: Chapter 2 collaborate rudimentary despondent scoff instigate squelch resilient venerate retrospectzealot

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 collaborate Collaborate means A. to compete. B. to stop work. C. to act as a team. When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together. Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills. – verb Navy trainees collaborating on a task Photo: U.S. Navy

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Collaborate means A. to compete. B. to stop work. C. to act as a team. When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together. Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills. The words work together suggest that collaborate means “to act as a team.” In the second item, since the writers and editors shared their skills, they acted as a team. 1 collaborate – verb Navy trainees collaborating on a task Photo: U.S. Navy

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 despondent – adjective Despondent means A. ill. B. depressed. C. angry. Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school. For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer him up.

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 despondent – adjective Despondent means A. ill. B. depressed. C. angry. Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school. For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer him up. If Devon loses all hope, he must become depressed. Since Mr. Craig’s family and friends could not cheer him up, he was depressed. 2 despondent – adjective

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 instigate An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in 1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear.” The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the audience. – verb Instigate means A. to prevent. B. to predict. C. to cause.

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 instigate An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in 1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear.” The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the audience. – verb Instigate means A. to prevent. B. to predict. C. to cause. Since the British declared war, Jenkins caused the war by claiming his ear was cut off by a Spanish patrol. A rock group’s violent performance could cause the audience to riot. 3 instigate – verb

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal cheerful selves. Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were growing in the ashes. 4 resilient Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Resilient means A. widespread. B. slow to recover. C. quick to recover. – adjective

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal cheerful selves. Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were growing in the ashes. 4 resilient Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Resilient means A. widespread. B. slow to recover. C. quick to recover. – adjective In the first item, the words bounce back suggest that resilient means “quick to recover.” In the second item, since the flowers were growing again in only a few weeks, plant life must be quick to recover. 4 resilient – adjective

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Retrospect means A. looking back. B. looking for excuses. C. looking ahead. 5 retrospect – noun After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear she should have gotten help sooner. When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me more than anyone else.

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Retrospect means A. looking back. B. looking for excuses. C. looking ahead. 5 retrospect – noun After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear she should have gotten help sooner. When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me more than anyone else. Looking back, it is clear that Maethen might not have needed surgery if she had gotten help sooner. Similarly, looking back, it is clear the teacher who seemed too demanding was actually teaching the speaker a lot. 5 retrospect – noun

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rudimentary means A. basic. B. intermediate. C. advanced. A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as identifying nouns and verbs. I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical calculations on my own. 6 rudimentary – adjective 2 + 1 = 3 A rudimentary math problem

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rudimentary means A. basic. B. intermediate. C. advanced. A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as identifying nouns and verbs. I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical calculations on my own. 6 rudimentary – adjective Identifying nouns and verbs are basic grammar skills. And adding and subtracting are basic mathematical calculations. 2 + 1 = 3 6 rudimentary – adjective A rudimentary math problem

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Scoff means A. to laugh at. B. to watch. C. to take seriously. Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun of him. Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars. 7 scoff – verb

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Scoff means A. to laugh at. B. to watch. C. to take seriously. Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun of him. Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars. 7 scoff – verb The words making fun of him suggest that scoff means “to laugh at.” If Tony didn’t believe that a hurricane was coming, he would laugh at the reports. 7 scoff – verb

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Squelch means A. to encourage. B. to hold back. C. to release. My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp. Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these countries began to form democracies. 8 squelch – verb

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Squelch means A. to encourage. B. to hold back. C. to release. My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp. Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these countries began to form democracies. 8 squelch – verb Since the teacher was annoyed, the student must not have been able to hold back a burp. Since the people in Eastern Europe formed democracies as soon as they could, decades of communism must not have held back their desire for freedom. 8 squelch – verb

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Venerate means A. to pity. B. to honor. C. to remember. The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals. The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose. 9 venerate – verb

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Venerate means A. to pity. B. to honor. C. to remember. The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals. The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose. 9 venerate – verb The word praise suggests that venerate means “to honor.” Since everyone stood up when the dean entered the room, it is clear that the guests honored her. 9 venerate – verb

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Zealot means A. an extremist. B. an observer. C. a doubter. 10 zealot Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips. The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture the Holy Land. – noun

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Zealot means A. an extremist. B. an observer. C. a doubter. 10 zealot Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips. The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture the Holy Land. – noun Someone who runs a hundred miles a week and never touches sugar is an extremist about health. Since the Crusaders left their homes and families to try to capture the Holy Land, they must have been Christian extremists. 10 zealot – noun

23 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.My ability to speak Spanish is ___________, but I can at least manage to ask directions or order a meal. 2.Jaime was __________ over the death of his dog, his companion for fourteen years. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot

24 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.My ability to speak Spanish is ___________, but I can at least manage to ask directions or order a meal. 2.Jaime was __________ over the death of his dog, his companion for fourteen years. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot Asking directions and ordering a meal indicate a basic ability in a foreign language. Losing a companion of fourteen years would make Jaime downhearted. rudimentary despondent

25 3.The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors of slavery, helped to _________ the American Civil War. SENTENCE CHECK 1 4.Dawn is a __________ about banning nuclear weapons. She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in the rain for hours during demonstrations. 5.Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is ________ (e)d by some people as a twentieth-century saint. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot

26 3.The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors of slavery, helped to _________ the American Civil War. SENTENCE CHECK 1 4.Dawn is a __________ about banning nuclear weapons. She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in the rain for hours during demonstrations. 5.Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is ___________ by some people as a twentieth-century saint. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot instigate zealot venerated A book exposing the horrors of slavery would help bring about the Civil War. Dawn’s actions show she is totally devoted to the cause. Since people think she is a saint, they must respect her deeply.

27 6.The Cord, in the 1920s, was the first car with front-wheel drive, but in those days most people considered the idea ridiculous and ________(e)d at it. SENTENCE CHECK 1 7.Marie and Pierre Curie _______(e)d on important scientific experiments involving radioactivity. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot

28 6.The Cord, in the 1920s, was the first car with front-wheel drive, but in those days most people considered the idea ridiculous and ___________ at it. SENTENCE CHECK 1 7.Marie and Pierre Curie __________ on important scientific experiments involving radioactivity. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot People would mock an idea they considered ridiculous. The Curies worked together on the experiments. scoffed collaborated

29 9.Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in _________, that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken pictures for the school newspaper. 8.Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the piano that they finally _______(e)d any interest she might have had in music. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot 10.Athletes need to be _________. After a defeat, an individual or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory the next time.

30 9.Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in _________, that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken pictures for the school newspaper. 10.Athletes need to be _________. After a defeat, an individual or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory the next time. 8.Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the piano that they finally __________ any interest she might have had in music. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. collaborateB. despondentC. instigateD. resilientE.retrospect F. rudimentaryG. scoffH. squelchI. venerateJ. zealot squelched retrospect resilient Constant nagging can crush a person’s interest. Looking back, the speaker can see the value of taking pictures for the paper. The words able to come back tell you athletes must be quick to recover.


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