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The Results of the Great War 1914-1918 The First German Gas Attack at Ypres by William Roberts (1918)

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Presentation on theme: "The Results of the Great War 1914-1918 The First German Gas Attack at Ypres by William Roberts (1918)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Results of the Great War The First German Gas Attack at Ypres by William Roberts (1918)

2 “The First World War killed fewer victims than the Second World War, destroyed fewer buildings, and uprooted millions instead of tens of millions—but in many ways it left even deeper scars both on the mind and on the map of Europe. The old world never recovered from the shock.” --Edmond Taylor in “The Fossil Monarchies”

3 The Horrors of War

4 Triple Entente Advantages (Allies) -Germany had to fight on two fronts -England and France had strong and large navies -Were able to keep supplies away from Germany

5 CountryPopulationSoldiers Battleship s Steel Productio n (tons) Great Britain 46,407,037711,000576,903,000 France39,601,5093,500,000194,333,000 Russia167,000,0004,423,00044,416,000 INDUSTRY ADVANTAGE

6 Triple Alliance Resources in 1914 (Central Powers)

7 CountryPopulationSoldiers Battleships Steel Productio n (tons) Germany65,000,0008,500, ,024,00 0 Austro- Hungary 49,882,2313,000,000162,642,000 Ottoman Empire 21,373,900360,000--

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12 Empires to Independent Governments

13 Austria-Hungary Empire

14 Ottoman Empire at it’s Height (1600s) Empire lasted:

15 Russian Empire

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17 The “Big Four” Theoretically, any country who had declared war on Germany could attend the meetings. However, the members decided to let the “Big Four” write the final decision.

18 BIG FOUR 1.Woodrow Wilson of the United States 2.David Lloyd George of Britain 3.Vittorio Orlando of Italy 4.Georges Clemenceau of France.

19 The Least Jaded United States? During the peacemaking process, the Germans turned toward the United States, in particular Woodrow Wilson, for help. The logic was that America hasn’t suffered as much as the other European nations, thus they won’t be as harsh.

20 The French Demands and Alsace-Lorraine The European countries each had definitive objectives. The French wanted the region of Alsace-Lorraine and wanted the Rhine as their frontier. They came to an agreement with Russia on this. The problem was that the population on the Rhine was mostly German. The US would not support this.

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22 The Italian Demands The Italians were guaranteed lands but Wilson felt that by giving them their promised lands, more problems would be created. The Italians were guaranteed lands but Wilson felt that by giving them their promised lands, more problems would be created. Thus, a clash between the US (who entered the war in 1917) and the Europeans who have been fighting since 1914 developed. The US wanted this to be the war that would end all wars. A new diplomacy would be needed. Thus, Wilson issued the idea of a League of Nations. Thus, a clash between the US (who entered the war in 1917) and the Europeans who have been fighting since 1914 developed. The US wanted this to be the war that would end all wars. A new diplomacy would be needed. Thus, Wilson issued the idea of a League of Nations.

23 Wilson’s Fourteen Points The League of Nations was brought forth in Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” which said: 1. There can be no more secret agreements to resolve problems. 2. There must be freedom of the seas. 3. Removal of all economic barriers.

24 Wilson’s Fourteen Points 4. Militaries were to be reduced to the lowest possible number. 5. Colonial borders must be resolved. 6. The Russians should decide their own form of government. 7. The restoration of Belgium.

25 Wilson’s Fourteen Points 8. The evacuation of Alsace-Lorraine. 9. The adjustment of Italy’s frontier. 10. The freedom of the people of Austria- Hungary. 11. The restoration of Romania and Montenegro.

26 Wilson’s Fourteen Points 12. The freedom of the non-Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire. 13.The creation of an independent Poland which has access to the sea. 14. A league that offers security through guarantees (League of Nations).

27 The World’s Meeting In the peacemaking process: In the peacemaking process: England and France had a major role. England and France had a major role. Germany and Austria- Hungary were excluded. Germany and Austria- Hungary were excluded. Italy had a minor role. Italy had a minor role. Wilson (US) went to the meetings. Wilson (US) went to the meetings. Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia also played a role because they were British dominions. Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia also played a role because they were British dominions. Japan was brought in as well. Japan was brought in as well. The USSR was not invited because they had a separate peace agreement with Germany. The USSR was not invited because they had a separate peace agreement with Germany.

28 Germany’s Treatment There were three sets of clauses dealing with Germany in the Treaty of Versailles: –Territory –Germany lost all of her colonies. –Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine to France. –The most important land to the Germans (known as the Polish Corridor) was given to Poland. About 60% of the population was German speaking. –Germany lost the Saar. It is an industrial area. For 15 years, it was given to France. At the end of the 15 years, the people in the are will be asked: » To stay with France. » Return to Germany. » Become an independent country.

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30 Germany’s Treatment Military Power  Germany could not have an air force or a navy.  There could be no factories to make armaments.  Germany would be allowed to keep an army of 100,000 men.  The Rhineland was demilitarized. It was Germany’s territory, but Germany could not put any troops there.

31 Germany’s Treatment Money a.Article 231- War Guilt Clause: Germany must admit to causing the war. Therefore, she would have to pay for it. Germany would get a bill every year (there was no set date as to how many years this would go on for). Germany was forced to pay in gold and silver, not paper. REPARATIONS! Germany would complain that: –They had to agree to the Fourteen Points without being represented. –War Guilt Clause.

32 The League of Nations… Minus One ►W►W►W►When a country signed the Treaty of Versailles, they joined the League of Nations. It was Wilson’s plans. They agreed to collective security. If one member was attacked, everyone would come to the assistance of that nation. The League of Nations failed for two reasons: TTTThe United States never joined because the Senate refused to sign it. FFFFrance and England weren’t committed to it.

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34 The New Europe Seven new countries were formed called the “successor states.” They were all in Eastern Europe: Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia

35 The New Map of Europe

36 The End Results of the Great War The results of World War I shaped European and world history for the next generation and beyond. –Some of the more drastic results were……

37 The Spanish Influenza While not directly associated with combat fatalities, a large number of people died by the Spanish Influenza which broke out in Because of the constant movement of troops and low immune systems, this pandemic spread rapidly throughout Europe and much of the world. While not directly associated with combat fatalities, a large number of people died by the Spanish Influenza which broke out in Because of the constant movement of troops and low immune systems, this pandemic spread rapidly throughout Europe and much of the world. Some estimates claim that over 100 million people died within a one year span ( ) because of the Spanish Influenza. This would amount to approximately 5% of the world’s total population. Some estimates claim that over 100 million people died within a one year span ( ) because of the Spanish Influenza. This would amount to approximately 5% of the world’s total population.

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39 The Changing of the Guard Four Empires Were Destroyed: –German Empire –Russian Empire –Austrian-Hungarian Empire –Ottoman Empire

40 The Welfare of Some Improved Social Gains: Two groups increased their social ranking as a result of the war. Social Gains: Two groups increased their social ranking as a result of the war. The first group was the Proletarians. These are the lower class workers who were employed in factories. Proletariat means “urban factory worker.” Before the war, governments would not protect these workers. Many European governments now promised the proletarians that they would institute mandatory collective bargaining. If the unions went out on strike, the owners had to deal with the unions. The first group was the Proletarians. These are the lower class workers who were employed in factories. Proletariat means “urban factory worker.” Before the war, governments would not protect these workers. Many European governments now promised the proletarians that they would institute mandatory collective bargaining. If the unions went out on strike, the owners had to deal with the unions. The second class that made social gains was the bourgeoisie women. They could now enter the workforce. Almost every country gave women the right to vote. The second class that made social gains was the bourgeoisie women. They could now enter the workforce. Almost every country gave women the right to vote.

41 Emmeline Pankhurst was a leader in the suffrage movement in England. (right)

42 It’s Just a Matter of Time The Seeds Are Laid For Another War: –B–By leaving the Germans bitter after the Great War led directly to World War II.

43 A New Nation on Top A New Superpower: –World War I created a new superpower, that being the United States. However, from 1919 to 1941, the United States fell into a period of isolation.

44 Communist Red A Red Nation: –The single most important result of WWI was the establishment of communism in Russia. Within two decades, fascism arises. After WWII, when fascism is defeated, the Cold War occurs.


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