Presentation on theme: "The Results of the Great War"— Presentation transcript:
1The Results of the Great War 1914-1918 The First German Gas Attack at Ypres by William Roberts (1918)
2“The First World War killed fewer victims than the Second World War, destroyed fewer buildings, and uprooted millions instead of tens of millions—but in many ways it left even deeper scars both on the mind and on the map of Europe. The old world never recovered from the shock.”--Edmond Taylor in “The Fossil Monarchies”
4Triple Entente Advantages (Allies) Germany had to fight on two frontsEngland and France had strong and large naviesWere able to keep supplies away from Germany
5Steel Production (tons) INDUSTRY ADVANTAGECountryPopulationSoldiersBattleshipsSteel Production (tons)Great Britain46,407,037711,000576,903,000France39,601,5093,500,000194,333,000Russia167,000,0004,423,00044,416,000
6Triple Alliance Resources in 1914 (Central Powers)
7Steel Production (tons) CountryPopulationSoldiersBattleshipsSteel Production (tons)Germany65,000,0008,500,0003717,024,000Austro-Hungary49,882,2313,000,000162,642,000Ottoman Empire21,373,900360,000-
17The “Big Four”Theoretically, any country who had declared war on Germany could attend the meetings.However, the members decided to let the “Big Four” write the final decision.
18BIG FOUR Woodrow Wilson of the United States David Lloyd George of BritainVittorio Orlando of ItalyGeorges Clemenceau of France.
19The Least Jaded United States? During the peacemaking process, the Germans turned toward the United States, in particular Woodrow Wilson, for help.The logic was that America hasn’t suffered as much as the other European nations, thus they won’t be as harsh.
20The French Demands and Alsace-Lorraine The European countries each had definitive objectives. The French wanted the region of Alsace-Lorraine and wanted the Rhine as their frontier.They came to an agreement with Russia on this. The problem was that the population on the Rhine was mostly German. The US would not support this.
21The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. French troops entered Alsace-Lorraine in November 1918 at the end of the World War I and the territory reverted to France at the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.The area was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, but reverted to France in 1945 at the end of World War II and has remained a part of France since.
22The Italian DemandsThe Italians were guaranteed lands but Wilson felt that by giving them their promised lands, more problems would be created.Thus, a clash between the US (who entered the war in 1917) and the Europeans who have been fighting since 1914 developed. The US wanted this to be the war that would end all wars. A new diplomacy would be needed. Thus, Wilson issued the idea of a League of Nations.
23Wilson’s Fourteen Points The League of Nations was brought forth in Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” which said:There can be no more secret agreements to resolve problems.There must be freedom of the seas.Removal of all economic barriers.
24Wilson’s Fourteen Points Militaries were to be reduced to the lowest possible number.Colonial borders must be resolved.The Russians should decide their own form of government.The restoration of Belgium.To this day, the Belgians are remembered for their stubborn resistance during the early days of the war, with the army - around a tenth the size of the Germany Army - holding up the German offensive for nearly a month, giving the French and British forces time to prepare for the Marne counteroffensive later in the year.The German invaders treated any resistance--such as sabotaging rail lines--as illegal and immoral, and shot the offenders and burned buildings in retaliation. The German army executed over 6,500 French and Belgian civilians between August and November 1914, usually in near-random large-scale shootings of civilians ordered by junior German officers.
25Wilson’s Fourteen Points The evacuation of Alsace-Lorraine.The adjustment of Italy’s frontier.The freedom of the people of Austria-Hungary.The restoration of Romania and Montenegro.
26Wilson’s Fourteen Points The freedom of the non-Turkish people of the Ottoman Empire.13.The creation of an independent Poland which has access to the sea.14. A league that offers security through guarantees (League of Nations).
27The World’s Meeting In the peacemaking process: England and France had a major role.Germany and Austria-Hungary were excluded.Italy had a minor role.Wilson (US) went to the meetings.Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia also played a role because they were British dominions.Japan was brought in as well.The USSR was not invited because they had a separate peace agreement with Germany.
28Germany’s TreatmentThere were three sets of clauses dealing with Germany in the Treaty of Versailles:TerritoryGermany lost all of her colonies.Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine to France.The most important land to the Germans (known as the Polish Corridor) was given to Poland. About 60% of the population was German speaking.Germany lost the Saar. It is an industrial area. For 15 years, it was given to France. At the end of the 15 years, the people in the are will be asked:To stay with France.Return to Germany.Become an independent country.
30Germany’s Treatment Military Power Germany could not have an air force or a navy.There could be no factories to make armaments.Germany would be allowed to keep an army of 100,000 men.The Rhineland was demilitarized. It was Germany’s territory, but Germany could not put any troops there.
31Germany’s Treatment Money Germany would complain that: Article 231- War Guilt Clause: Germany must admit to causing the war. Therefore, she would have to pay for it. Germany would get a bill every year (there was no set date as to how many years this would go on for). Germany was forced to pay in gold and silver, not paper.REPARATIONS!Germany would complain that:They had to agree to the Fourteen Points without being represented.War Guilt Clause.
32The League of Nations… Minus One When a country signed the Treaty of Versailles, they joined the League of Nations. It was Wilson’s plans. They agreed to collective security. If one member was attacked, everyone would come to the assistance of that nation. The League of Nations failed for two reasons:The United States never joined because the Senate refused to sign it.France and England weren’t committed to it.
34The New EuropeSeven new countries were formed called the “successor states.” They were all in Eastern Europe:FinlandEstoniaLatviaLithuaniaPolandCzechoslovakiaYugoslavia
35The New Map of EuropeA plebiscite can be considered a kind of election and is often referred to as such in the U.S. (an election literally means a choice). In other countries, the term election is often reserved for events in which elected representatives are chosen.
36The End Results of the Great War The results of World War I shaped European and world history for the next generation and beyond.Some of the more drastic results were……
37The Spanish InfluenzaWhile not directly associated with combat fatalities, a large number of people died by the Spanish Influenza which broke out in Because of the constant movement of troops and low immune systems, this pandemic spread rapidly throughout Europe and much of the world.Some estimates claim that over 100 million people died within a one year span ( ) because of the Spanish Influenza. This would amount to approximately 5% of the world’s total population.Between 50 and 100 million died, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. Even using the lower estimate of 50 million people, 3% of the world's population (which was 1.86 billion at the time) died of the disease. Some 500 million, or 27%, were infected.The first cases of influenza were registered in the continental U.S. and the rest of Europe before getting to Spain. The 1918 pandemic received its nickname "Spanish flu" because of the early perceptions of the disease's severity in Spain. Spain was a neutral country in World War I and had no censorship of news regarding the disease and its consequences. Germany, the United States, Britain and France all had media blackouts on news that might lower morale, and did not want to disclose information about disease and the number of deaths to their enemies.
39The Changing of the Guard Four Empires Were Destroyed:German EmpireRussian EmpireAustrian-Hungarian EmpireOttoman Empire
40The Welfare of Some Improved Social Gains: Two groups increased their social ranking as a result of the war.The first group was the Proletarians. These are the lower class workers who were employed in factories. Proletariat means “urban factory worker.” Before the war, governments would not protect these workers. Many European governments now promised the proletarians that they would institute mandatory collective bargaining. If the unions went out on strike, the owners had to deal with the unions.The second class that made social gains was the bourgeoisie women. They could now enter the workforce. Almost every country gave women the right to vote.
41Emmeline Pankhurst was a leader in the suffrage movement in England Emmeline Pankhurst was a leader in the suffrage movement in England. (right)
42It’s Just a Matter of Time The Seeds Are Laid For Another War:By leaving the Germans bitter after the Great War led directly to World War II.
43A New Nation on Top A New Superpower: World War I created a new superpower, that being the United States. However, from 1919 to 1941, the United States fell into a period of isolation.
44Communist Red A Red Nation: The single most important result of WWI was the establishment of communism in Russia. Within two decades, fascism arises. After WWII, when fascism is defeated, the Cold War occurs.