Conscription Military draft The significances of conscriptions was to increase the size of the army. Between 1890 and 1914 the European armies doubled in size. The Russian armies had grown to be the largest with 1.3 million men. The French and German armies had approximately 900,000. The British, Italian, and Austro- Hungarian armies were between 250,000 and 500,000. Doughboys First by Frank Schoonover 1
Mobilization The process of assembling troops and supplies and making them ready for war. 1914 →considered an act of war. German soldiers celebrating start of war 1 WWI mobilization 2
Archduke Francis Ferdinand June 28, 1914 →Heir to the throne. Conspirators plan to kill Ferdinand, along with his wife Sophia. They began throwing bombs at his car, but it bounced off and exploded into another car. Gavrilo Princip succeeded in shooting both Ferdinand and his wife. Austria declared war on Serbia, because of his death. Archduke Francis Ferdinand 1 Archduke Francis Ferdinand 2
Emperor William II Emperor of Germany Gave the “blank check” saying that Austria-Hungary had Germany’s “full support” even if “matters went to the length of war between Austria-Hungary and Russia” “Till the world comes to an end the ultimate decision will rest with the sword.” -Emperor William II William II 1 William II with his first wife Augusta Viktoria 2 ← William II 3
Czars Nicholas II July 28: He order partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria-Hungary July 29: He ordered full mobilization of the Russian army, knowing that they considered this an act of war. Czars Nicholas II 1 A portrait of Nicholas II, Painted by V.A. Serov, 1900. 2
Triple Alliance Created in 1882 Formed by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Crises tested these alliances; which left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge. 1
Triple Entente Created in 1907 Formed by France, Great Britain, and Russia Crises tested these alliances; which left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge. 1
Militarism Aggressive preparation for war Armies grew along with the influence of military leaders Leaders had plans for quickly mobilizing millions of men and enormous amount of supplies in the event of war. (conscription)
What ethnic groups were left without nations in Europe before 1914? Slavic minorities in the Balkans and the Hapsburg Empire dreamed of creating their own national states The Irish in the British Empire wanted to create their own national states The poles in the Russian Empire also had dreams of creating their own national states.
How did the creation of military plans help draw the nations of Europe into World War I? The Germans had a military plan; the Schlieffen plan Called a two front war with France and Russia The plan was that Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russian while most of the German army would carry out a rapid invasion of France. After the defeat of France, they would move east against Russia Under the Schlieffen plan, Germany declared war on France on August 3 On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany
Which decisions made by European leaders in 1914 lead directly to the outbreak of war? June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. The Austrian-Hungarian government didn’t know if the Serbian government was involved with his assassination, but the Austrian foreign minister saw it as an opportunity to “render Serbian innocuous once and for all by a display of force.” On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Austrian leaders sought backup from Germany were Emperor William II gave Austria-Hungary, Germanys “full support.” On July 28, Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army. Then on July 29, Czars ordered full mobilization of the Russian army, which was considered an act of war. The Schlieffen plan was put into play on August 3, when Germany declared war on France.
What were the chief domestic problems confronting European nations before 1914? Rivalries of colonies and trade grew during an age of frenzied nationalism and imperialist expansion. Growth of nationalism: – Not all ethnic groups became nations Socialist were increasingly inclined to use strikes to achieve their goals. There were labor strife and class divisions. Resulted in the encouragement of war in 1914.
Propaganda Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause. Government propaganda started national hatred before the war.
Trench Warfare Fighting from ditches protected by barbed wire The Germans and the French could not dislodge each other from the trenches, which made them stay in the same position for 4 years. French soldiers building a trench 1
War of Attrition A war based on wearing the other side down by contrast attacks and heavy losses. – Ex.: One side would order commands starting with artillery, to shock the enemy. Then, they would come out of their trenches with bayonets – The attacks rarely hurt because as they came out of the trench, they had a chance of being fired at by enemy machine guns.
Total War A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields. Men had to be organized and supplies had to be manufactured and purchased for years of combat; increase of government powers→ manipulated public opinion to keep war effort going. 1
Planned Economies System directed by government agencies Governments set up – Price, wage, and rent controls – Rationed food supplies and materials – Regulated imports and exports – Took over transportation systems
Lawrence of Arabia British officer Real name: T. E. Lawrence 1917- urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman over lords. The British under minded Ottoman rule in the Arabian peninsula; Lawrence of Arabia aided the Arabian nationalists. Lawrence of Arabia 1
Admiral Holtzendorff A German admiral for the submarines Real name: Henning Von Holtzendorff Assured the emperor, “I give your majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land on the continent.” He decided that the Germans should return to unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the US into war in April 1917. 1
Battle of the Marne September 6-10 To stop the Germans, French military leaders loaded two thousand Parisian taxicabs with fresh troops and sent them to the front line. Battle of the Marne begins 1
Battle of Tannenberg & Battle of Masurian Lakes August 30 & September 15 Battle of Tannenberg led by Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated The Russians were no longer a threat to German territory Generals Ludendorff and von Hindenburg with Kaiser Wilhelm II 1
Battle of Verdun 1916; in France German General Erich von Falkenhayn developed a plan to attack Verdun; considered by many military historians as the “greatest” and most demanding battle in history. Men would hide in trenches and when they came out they attacked the enemy with bayonets. Seven hundred men lost their lives over a few miles of land “war of attrition” Underground entrance Overview of battle 1 2 Dead French soldiers in trench 3
Battle of Gallipoli April 1915 The Allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing troops in Gallipoli They entered the side of the Central Powers (Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Ottoman) and were forced to withdraw. Turkish soldiers defending Gallipoli Gallipoli Front ANZAC troops attack enemy positions at Gallipoli 1 3 2
Lusitania British ship Departed from Britain on May 1, 1915 and six days later ( May 7, 1915 @ 2:10 p.m.) was sunk by Walther Schwieger, a German commander who fired a torpedo 750 yards away. May 7, 1915 : Sunk by German forces 1,100 civilian casualties (over 100 Americans) “floating palace” Britain set up a blockade of Germany; Germany set up a blockade of Britain German authorities saw Lusitania as a threat Germany accused the British as using Lusitania to carry ammunition and other war supplies across the Atlantic Newspaper ad run by German Embassy before Lusitania sailed 1 Lusitania 2
Zimmerman Telegram Written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman It was a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the U.S. Threats contained in the telegram helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917. Detail of the Zimmermann Telegram 1
Battle at the Somme British and French armies joined at the Somme River British attacked the German defensive line on July 1, 1916 First day of the battle: 21,000 British soldiers were killed Was the single worst day in death and casualties in British military history 20,000 out of 100,000 troops were killed and over 40,000 were wounded. Explosions near the Somme 1 Overview of Battle 2
Battle at Ypres First Battle: 1914 Second Battle: 1915 Third Battle: 1917 June 7, 1917: Set off bombs on German lines that were dug in mines over the past eighteen months. General Douglas Haig’s plan failed because when the bombs fired the land was turned into “Quicksand” and all men, animals and equipment sank into the ground. Post-war Ypres 1 Overview of Battle 2
Why did WWI require total warfare? So the government could have control over the people and resources Also so that the people could not go against the government Before total warfare, there was the trench warfare were they
What methods did governments use to create enthusiasm for war, and counter opposition to the war at home? Made active use of Propaganda Newspapers were censored and sometimes their publications were suspended The French exaggerated German atrocities in Belgium and found that their citizens were only too willing to believe these accounts.
Which government powers increased during the war? Drafted tens of millions of young men PLANNED ECONIMIES: Set up price, wage, and rent controls; rationed food supplies and materials; regulated imports and exports; took over transportation.
How did war affect women’s rights, and the role of women in society? Woman in gas mask factory 1 Women were asked to take over jobs that had not been available to them before. Chimney sweeps Truck drivers Farm labors Factory workers in heavy industry At the end of the war government quickly removed women from the jobs. 1919: 350,00 unemployed women Gained the right to vote in Germany, Austria, and the United States
Which events brought the US into the war? The naval war between Germany and Great Britain. The U.S. protested the use of unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany brought back the use of unrestricted submarine warfare which brought the U.S. into war. (April 1914) U.S. enters WWI 1
How did soldiers try to make life in the trenches bearable? Produced humor magazines to help pass the time.
Soviets Councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers Soviets of Petrograd had been formed in March 1917. Soviet sprang up in; army units, factory towns, and rural areas Were largely made up of socialist who represented the more radical interest of the lower classes. An assembly of the Petrograd Soviet, 1917 1
War Communism Was used to insure regular supplies for the Red Army Meant government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from most peasants, and the centralization of state administration under communist control.
Grigori Rasputin An uneducated Serbian peasant who claimed to be a holy man Alexandra believed that Rasputin was holy because he alone was able to stop her son Alexis from bleeding Was first consulted by Alexandra when making the most important decision. She called him, “he beloved, never-to-be- forgotten teacher, savior, and mentor.” Rasputin was made an important power behind the throne Didn’t hesitate to interfere with government affairs Was assassinated in December 1916 It wasn’t easy to kill a man with such incredible strength: They shot him three times and then tied him up and threw him into the Neva River. He drowned by then untied the knots underwater before he died. Grigori Rasputin 1
Alexander Kerensky Headed the provisional government Decided to carry on the war to preserve Russia’s honor 1
Czar Nicholas II Relied on the Army and bureaucracy to hold up his regime. Lost support of the Army and stepped down from the battlefield on March 15, 1917 – ending the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty.
Bolsheviks Began as a small fraction of a Marxist party called the Russian Social Democrats Came under the leadership of V. I. Lenin Under Lenin’s directions, the Bolsheviks became a party dedicated to violent revolution. Reflected the discontent of people and promised an end to the war, the redistribution, of all land to the peasants, the transfer of factories and industries from capitalist to committees of workers, and the transfer of the government power from the provisional government to the soviets Three simple slogans that summed up the Bolshevik program: – “Land, Peace, and Bread” – “Workers control of government” – “All power to the soviets” At the end of October, they made up a slight majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets: the number of party members had grown from 50,000 to 240,000 November 6, Bolsheviks forces seized the Winter Palace Renamed themselves the communists Many people opposed the new Bolshevik and were concerned about the communist takeover Between 1918 and 1921, were forced to fight on many fronts against opponents, the anti-communist forces. 1921, communist regain control over the independent nationalist governments in Georgia, Russian Armenian, and Azerbaijan Were inspired by their vision of a new socialist order and determination that comes from revolutionary zeal and convictions. Were able to translate their revolutionary faith into practical instruments of power: – War communism – Revolutionary terror Appealed to the powerful force of Russian patriotism\ In 1992, were in total command of Russia Had transformed Russia into a centralized state dominated by a single party Study 1 under arms 2 Work 3
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov, known to the world as V. I. Lenin Lead the Bolsheviks Believed that only violent revolution could destroy the capitalist system. Spent most of his time abroad between 1900 and 1917 1917 : Saw an opportunity for the Bolsheviks to seize power In April 1917, he was shipped to Russia by the German military leaders, hoping to create disorder in Russia; His arrival opened a new stage of Russian revolution Lenin maintained that the Soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were ready made instruments of power He believed that the Bolsheviks should work towards gaining control of these groups and then used them to overthrow the provisional government Turned over the power of the provisional government to the Congress of Soviets; The real power was passed to a Council of People's Commissars, headed by Lenin Lenin promised peace which meant that a humiliating loss of much Russian territory On March 3, 1918 Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic Provinces Vladimir Ilyich 1 Lenin speaks 2
Trotsky A Commissar of war Reinstated the draft and insisted on rigid discipline Executed soldiers on the spot who deserted or refused to obey orders Trotsky 1
Petrograd Formerly St. Petersburg Had started bread rationing in Petrograd after the price of bread went up Many strikes lead by the working class women were held in the capital of Petrograd On March 8, about 10,000 women marched through the city demanding “Peace and bread” and “down with autocracy” The Eastern Front 1
Ukraine Was given up by Lenin when he signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany
Siberia Gave the first serious threats to the communists; an anti- communist force attacked westward and advance almost to the Volga River Siberia 1
Brest Litovsk The Treaty of Brest Litovsk Signed by Lenin with Germany and gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic province The spread of socialist revolution throughout Europe made the Treaty largely irrelevant 1 2
What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? Rasputin’s assassination Czars Nicholas steps down Lenin rises Lenin signs the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The communist control Russia The March Revolution The Bolsheviks seize power Civil War in Russia
How did World War I contribute to the Revolution? The Russian government was dissatisfied with the conduct of the war. The Russians were being peacefully reformed until the stress of WWI cause the revolution.
How did the presence of the allied troops in Russia ultimately help the communist? The presence made it easy for the communist government to call on patriotic Russians to fight foreign attempts to control the country
What steps did the communist take to turn Russia into a centralized state dominated by a single party? November 6: Bolshevik forces seized the Winter Palace- provisional government Meeting in the Petrograd of the all-Russian Congress of Soviets Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists 1921: the communists were in total control of Russia In the course of the civil war, the Communist regime had transformed Russia into a centralized stated dominated by a single party.
Armistice A truce, an end agreement to the end fighting On November 1, 1918, the new German government signed an armistice
Reparation Payment that made the victors by the vanquished to cover the cost of a war Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of all reparation to cover the cost of war
Mandate A nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations but not own the territory France took control of Lebanon and Syria Britain received Iraq and Palestine
Erich Von Ludendorff Guided German military operations Decided to make a grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate but he failed On September 29, 1918, informed German leaders that the war was lost and demanded that the government ask for peace at once
Friedrich Ebert Was over the Social Democrats after the departure of William II Announced the creation of a democratic republic
David Lloyd George Prime minister of Great Britain Won a decisive victory in the elections in December of 1918 His platform was to make the Germans pay for his dreadful war Lloyd along with Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany One of the men to make the important decisions at the Paris Peace Conference
Georges Clemenceau The Premier of France Believed that the French people had suffered the most from German aggression Wanted Germany stripped of all weapons, vast German payments to cover the cost of war, and a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany One of the men to make the important decisions at the Paris Peace Conference Clemenceau along with Lloyd, wanted to punish Germany He compromised to obtain some guarantees for French security and accepted a defend alliance with Great Britain and the US.
Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen points US president, Woodrow explained the ideas of the fourteen points Basis for a peace settlement that Woodrow believed justified the enormous military struggle being waged Woodrow outlined the “fourteen points” to the US even before the end of the war Was a puzzle for a truly just and lasting peace which included reaching the peace reaching the peace agreements rather than through secret diplomacy; reduced military forces and weapons to a “point consistent with domestic safety” and “ensuring self- determination”
Second Battle of the Marne Occurred on July 18 Stopped the German advance French, Moroccan, and American troops supported by hundred’s of tanks, threw the German’s back over the Marne
What were the most important provisions to the Treaty of Versailles? The Treaty of Versailles with Germany, on June 28, signed at Versailles near Paris was the most important, by far Military and territorial provisions angered the Germans
Why was the Mandate System created? Which countries became mandated? Who governed them? The mandate system was created as a result of the peace settlement Lebanon and Syria were mandated; France governed them Iraq and Palestine were mandated; Britain governed them
Compare and contrast Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen points to the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow’s fourteen points both wanted to have peace The Treaty of Versailles wanted to blame Germany for the war and changed the way Germany works Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points were about the ways of achieving the peace agreement and how to get fourteen points of getting there.
How many people, both military and civilian, were killed or wounded on both sides? Killed: 37,466,904 Wounded: 21,189,1545
What was the monetary cost of the war for both sides? 1913: The cost was $82,400,000,000 Inflation: 95% Today: The cost would be $8,239,999,905
What innovations in military warfare occurred during World War I? Artillery Gas Camouflage Machine guns Central Powers Rumpler Albatross D Zeppelin L-44 Allied Powers SE-5 Neuport 28 SPAD XIII SPAD VII Aircraft Armor Equipment Tanks Handley-Page bomber Sopwith Pup BE-2C Reconnaissance bomber
How did the slaughter of World War I affect British, French, and German painters? Painters began illustrating death in their pictures.
How did the slaughter of World War I affect British, French, and German poets and writers? Writers and poets begin to write about death and suffering.
What was the impact of the war on the French environment? Desired revenge and security against future German aggression. Lost Russia as its major ally on Germany’s eastern border.
How did the Great War contribute to the rise of an international movement of pacifism? Pacifism: the belief that disputes between nations should and can be settled peacefully After the war the peace movement reappeared – The League of nations and the United nations.