Presentation on theme: "World War I and Beyond Chapter 19"— Presentation transcript:
1World War I and Beyond Chapter 19 “What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”
2StandardsSSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.SSUSH15.aDescribe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.SSUSH15.bExplain the domestic impact of World War I, reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, and the Espionage Act and socialist Eugene Debs.SSUSH15.cExplain Wilson's Fourteen Points, the proposed League of Nations.SSUSH15.dPassage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing women suffrage.
3From Neutrality to War Section 1 “What caused World War I, and why did the United States enter the war?”Vocabulary:Alsace-Lorraine casualtymilitarism contrabandFrancis Ferdinand U-boatWilliam II LusitaniaWestern Front Zimmermann note
5From Neutrality to War What Caused World War I? Main Idea: In the early 1900s, Nationalism in Europe led to competition among nations. As the conflict grew, countries expanded their militaries and formed alliances with other nations.The Fighting BeginsMain Idea: After the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, war broke out in Europe. Because of alliances between nations, the conflict spread quickly. New technology caused a stalemate, and led to a long and deadly war.Wilson Urges NeutralityMain Idea: Wilson hoped the United States could stay neutral during the war, but many Americans felt the war’s effects and were divided over where their loyalties fell.Neutrality Gives Way to WarMain Idea: Wilson continued to try and stay neutral, but tension with Germany caused the United States to enter the war in 1917.Continued…
6Key Words Mobilization: readying of troops for war Central Powers: Germany and Austria-HungaryAllies: Russia, France, Serbia, Great BritainStalemate: a situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantageAutocrat: a ruler with unlimited power
7Causes of the War Imperialism: increased rivalries within Europe Militarism: aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for warNationalism: countries acted in their own interests and minorities wanted independence (Social Darwinism)Alliances: countries agreed to come to each other’s aid in the event of an attack.Assassination: Archduke Francis Ferdinand killed June 28, 1914
8AssassinationArchduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie traveled to Sarajevo, capital of BosniaAfter a terrorist bombing injured two officers, Gavrilo Princip shot them, starting World War I.Austria-Hungary thought Serbia was behind the assassination and declared war. Russiabegan to mobilize, as didFrance, Russia’s ally.Germany declared waron Russia. When Germanyinvaded Belgium, GreatBritain entered.
10StalemateTechnology leads to stalemate: trench warfare; “no-man’s land”1914 Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers1915 Italy joins AlliesSchlieffen Plan- German planto strike France, then turn on Russia.They advance to within30 miles of Paris, wherethe French and British stopthem at the Marne.
23American Neutrality Neutral to protect trade Acted as peacemaker Increased armed forces and began to preparePeace movement that consisted of former Populists, progressives, social reformers, and some women.
28Preparedness Wilson wanted peace, but began to prepare for war National Defense Act – expanded armyNaval Construction Act – build more warships
29Germany Violates Sussex Pledge On Feb. 1, 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.On Feb. 3, the U.S. broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, and Wilson asked Congress to allow armed merchant ships.
31Zimmermann NoteSecret offer from Germany to Mexico offering an alliance so Mexico could recover lost land in U.S.Filibuster: senators talk and refuse to stop to prevent vote
32U. S. Declares War U-boat: Unterseeboot, submarine Lusitania, a British passenger ship, sunk in It was carrying weapons for the Allies as well as 1,200 passengers, including 128 Americans.Sussex, a French passenger ship sunk in 1916Sussex Pledge: German government promised to warn ships before attacking
33War ResolutionGermany sinks U.S. ships City of Memphis, Illinois, and VigilanciaApril 6, 1917 War declared by Congress“The world must be made safe for democracy” is a quote by Woodrow Wilson
35The Home Front Section 2 “How did the war affect Americans at home?” Vocabulary:Selective Service Act CPIBernard Baruch George Creelconscientious objector Great MigrationEspionage Act
36The Home Front America Mobilizes for War Main Idea: To prepare the country for war, the government implemented a draft and created new federal administrative agencies to oversee the war effort.Opposition and Its ConsequencesMain Idea: At home, the United States dealt with Americans opposed to the war, harsh treatment of those against it, and prejudice against German Americans.The War Changes American SocietyMain Idea: When men entered the armed forces, Women moved into the workforce, African Americans moved north for a better life, and Mexicans crossed the border into the United States.
37Key WordsLiberty Bond: special war bonds sold to support the Allied causePrice controls: system of pricing determined by the government on foodRationing: distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amountDaylight saving time: turning clocks ahead one hour for summerSedition: speech or actions encouraging rebellionVigilante: citizens who take the law into their own hands
38Financing the War Liberty Bonds raised $20 billion Loaned $10 billion to AlliesBoy and Girl Scouts sold bondsPoster and skits to advertise
39War Economy Industry converted to war goods War Industries Board: under Bernard Baruch; regulated production; controlled raw materials, production, and pricesWar Trade Board: punished firms dealing with enemyNational War Labor Board settled labor disputes
40Economy Food Administration under Herbert Hoover Price controls RationingHoover chose voluntary restraint and efficiency; appealed to womenDaylight saving time instituted to save fuel needed to produce artificial light
42Shaping Public Opinion Committee of Public Information (CPI)Agency to educate the public about causes of war and to convince Americans to support the war effortGeorge Creel – directorDistributed pamphlets and press releases
43Political RadicalsIndustrial Workers of the World (IWW): goal of overthrowing capitalismVigilantes lynched and horse-whipped radicalsThe goal of the Industrial Workers of the World was to overthrow capitalism.
44Civil LibertiesEspionage Act 1917: made it illegal to interfere with the draftSedition Act: 1918, Illegal to interfere with the draft and to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or discuss anything disloyal about the American government, the Constitution, or the army and navy1,000 convictions; Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years
45Loyalty Fear of foreigners led to nativism Fear of espionage and secret agentsFeared sabotage of transportation and communications“Hate the Hun” hostility toward GermansLynching of Robert Prager,a citizen born in Germany
46Social Changes Cut off the flow of immigrants from Europe Women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans recruited by industryGreat Migration: 500,000 African Americans went NorthMexicans came to the American West to work on ranches and farms
53Wilson, War, and Peace Section 3 “How did Americans affect the end of World War I and its peace settlements?”Vocabulary:convoy League of NationsVladimir Lenin Henry Cabot LodgeJohn J. Pershing reparationsFourteen Points “irreconcilables”self-determination “reservationists”
54Wilson, War, and Peace America Gives the Allies the Edge Main Idea: The impact of the United States joining the war was felt quickly and Germany surrendered in the fall of 1918.Wilson Promotes Peace Without VictoryMain Idea: After World War I ended, Wilson encouraged independence, diplomacy, and free trade. He proposed his ideas in the Fourteen Points and traveled to France to make sure his voice was heard at the Allied peace conference.Wilson at the Paris Peace ConferenceMain Idea: The Allied leaders wanted Germany to make payment for war damages and rejected many of Wilson’s ideas.America Rejects the TreatyMain Idea: When the Treaty of Versailles was brought back to Congress, many Senators refused to ratify it without changes. Wilson refused to compromise and the treaty was defeated.
55Key TermsSelective Service Act: draft of young men for military serviceAmerican Expeditionary Force (AEF): American troops in Europe in WWIConvoy: group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats, etc.Armistice: cease-fireGenocide: organized killing of an entire peopleWorld War I is known as the“war to end all wars”
57Convoy SystemBy 1917, German U-boats had sunk 430 Allied and neutral ships.Troops were moved to Europe by surrounding unarmed ships with destroyers, torpedo boats and armed vessels.
58Russian RevolutionRussia suffered enormous casualties on the Eastern Front.March 1917, Czar Nicholas II gives up powerHe and his family are taken prisoner by the rebels and killed
59Turning the TideBolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, violently overthrew Russia’s government in Nov. 1917Lenin made peace with Germany on Mar. 3, 1918, freeing the Germans troops to concentrate on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.
60War Begins April 1917General John J. Pershing arrived in France in June, 1917, with 14,500 troops; veteran of the Spanish-American WarHe recommends an army of 1 million men by 1918.Selective Service Act passed in May 1917American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
62American Expeditionary Force 3 million draftees11,000 women, who served as nurses, drivers, and clerks14,000 civilian women served abroad in war effort
63Plan Pershing kept Americans independent of Allied armies. Intended to use more offensive moves300,000 African American troops were kept separate and most never saw combat.Harlem Hell Fighters, 369th InfantryRegiment persuaded white officers to loanthem to the French. The entire regimentreceived France’s highest combatmedal, the Croix de Guerre.
64Americans Save Paris Germans were within 50 miles of Paris. Battle of Chateau-Thierry, Americans helped the French save Paris; lost half of troops; began to turn the tide of the warUsed tanks to break German linesSummer of 1918, German advance stopped permanentlyGeneral Ludendorff, asked KaiserWilhelm to seek peace.
66American Battle St. Mihiel: General Pershing and troops routed Germans Airplanes used in dogfightsEddie Rickenbacker: 26 enemy fightersCol. Billy Mitchell organized a fleet of over 1,400 bombing planes; new strategy for war
67Corporal Alvin York Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sept. 1918 Killed 25 machine-gunners captured 132 GermansCongressional Medal of Honor
68Peace Allies wanted total surrender Armistice Kaiser fled to Holland November 11, 1918 ended fighting
69Death Count 50,000 Americans dead Estimated 8 million European soldiers and sailors deadMillions of civilians diedArmenians-100s of thousands killed by Ottoman forces in a campaign of genocide.
73Key WordsFourteen Points: Wilson’s peace goals, such as an end to entangling alliancesSelf-determination: power to make decisions about one’s own futureSpoils: rewards of warLeague of Nations: an organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for allReparations: payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a warVersailles Treaty: treaty ending World War I, onJune 28, 1919
74Wilson’s Peace Plan Fourteen Points Peace without victory Open diplomacyFreedom of the seas and free tradeMovement toward ending colonialismReduction of armamentsEthnic self-determinationLeague of Nations
75Paris Peace Conference Wilson took no Republicans or senatorsAllies wanted spoils; wanted to divide up Germany’s coloniesWilson had to agree
76League of Nations Wilson hoped to persuade Congress to accept the plan Article 10: attack on one is an attack on allRepublican senators rejected it fearing war
77Peace TreatyGeorges Clemenceau, French premier demanded harsh penalties against GermanyCreated Czechoslovakia and YugoslaviaReparations: Decided Germany owed $33 billionGermany couldn’t pay and did not forget humiliationVersailles Treaty: June 28, 1919
79Problems With the Peace Self-determination violated-Some Germans and Austrians attached to other nations-Iraq created from Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul from the Ottoman Empire-Iraq given to Britain as a mandate (territory overseen by another nation)
80Approval at HomeMany Americans thought the treaty was too harsh toward Germany, especially the “war guilt clause”“Irreconcilables”: senators would not accept treaty and were isolationist; disliked Article 10, calling for mutual defense“Reservationists”: wanted changes and to impose restrictions on American participation in League of Nations
81Wilson’s Tour Gave 36 speeches in 23 days Suffered a stroke, paralyzing one side of bodySenate refused to approve treaty
82Postwar Adjustments Economy: no plan to help troops back into society Women workers firedGloom – end of optimismAfrican American troops; no jobs; number of lynchings increase
83Should the United States Join the League of Nations? DECISION POINTShould the United States Join the League of Nations?
85Effects of the War Section 4 “What political, economic, and social effects did World War I have on the United States?”Vocabulary:influenza Nicola Saccoinflation Bartolomeo VanzettiRed Scare Warren G. HardingPalmer Raids creditor nation
86Effects of the WarAmerica Adjusts to PeaceMain Idea: While adjusting to peace, Americans dealt with rough times, including a deadly flu epidemic, loss of opportunities that women and African Americans had gained, and economic problems due to inflation.The Red ScareMain Idea: The Soviet Union emerged as a communist nation and led to the Red Scare, the widespread fear that communists and radicals were plotting in the United States.Americans Embrace NormalcyMain Idea: The 1920 election of Warren G. Harding symbolized a return to “normalcy,” but it was clear the United States was now an economic power and could not retreat completely back into isolationism.
87Influenza Bird flu that spread around the world Pandemic that killed 550,000 AmericansKilled 50 to 100 million worldwide
88Graph: The Spread of Influenza in the United States
89Women and African Americans After the War Employment opportunities during the warPost-war recession:-women lose jobs-African American workers compete with returning soldiers-Race riots in American citiesInflation soared as consumers wanted scarce goodsLabor strikes increased
90Postwar Adjustments Economic Adjustments Wartime demand dropped Soldiers faced unemploymentLower demandHigher cost of livingLabor Unrest increasedDiscrimination against blacks
91The Red Scare The Red Scare Renewed Nativism Russian Revolution BolsheviksVladimir LeninCommunismRenewed NativismPalmer RaidsAnti-Immigration LawsAmerican Civil Liberties UnionSacco and Vanzetti
92Attorney General Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American governmentthirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians by anarchistsPalmer recruited J. Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations.The public lost interest by spring of 1920 as one Palmer- predicted terrorist attack after another failed to occur
93Political Cartoons: Reaction to Radicals TRANSPARENCYPolitical Cartoons: Reaction to Radicals
94Schenck v. United States During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was illegalSupreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes rejected the argument that the pamphlet was protected by the First Amendment.He argued that the government is justified in silencing free speech if there is a “clear and present” danger to the nation
95Reasons to FearThe government promises to create revolutions in other countries and spread communismThe government owns all land and propertyCommunism in the Soviet UnionIndividuals have no rights that the government is legally bound to respectA single political party controls the government
96Labor Unrest Communist Plot One of the key social tensions of the era 1919 Bombings?Because of the violence, Economic Boom, and increased wages Union membership declined from 5 million to 3.4 million in 1920One of the key social tensions of the era1919 – 4 million workers held 3600 strikesMost Strikes were beat down by federal authorities
98Strikes Steelworkers 1919 United Mine Workers Coal Strike Boston Police Strike (1919), police commissioner refused to recognize a policemen's union. Governor Calvin Cooledge finally called out the state militia to maintain order in the city, declaring "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.".Steelworkers 1919Gary, IndianaUS Steel Corporation used force to break the strike18 dead, 100s seriously woundedfederal troops occupied the city for several months.United Mine Workers Coal Strike
100NativismRefers to a widespread attitude in a society of a rejection of alien persons or cultureBelieved immigrants could not be fully loyal to the USDid not like Jews, Catholics, or Orthodox ChristiansCity problems (slums, corruption) were blamed on the immigrantsImmigrants meant competition for jobsBelieved they carried dangerous political ideasSocialism, Anarchy, etc.Most of them came from very politically unstable countries
101Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
102Americans Embrace Normalcy Election of 1920: Warren G. Harding; RepublicanCalled for a return to “normalcy” – a simpler timeU.S. was economic giant and a creditor nationPolitical changes: German and Russian monarchies toppled, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires ended; Britain and France weakened; U.S. stronger