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“What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”

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Presentation on theme: "“What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”"— Presentation transcript:


2 “What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”

3  SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I.  SSUSH15.a  Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.  SSUSH15.b  Explain the domestic impact of World War I, reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, and the Espionage Act and socialist Eugene Debs.  SSUSH15.c  Explain Wilson's Fourteen Points, the proposed League of Nations.  SSUSH15.d  Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing women suffrage.

4  “What caused World War I, and why did the United States enter the war?”  Vocabulary: Alsace-Lorrainecasualty militarismcontraband Francis FerdinandU-boat William II Lusitania Western FrontZimmermann note


6 From Neutrality to War What Caused World War I? Main Idea: In the early 1900s, Nationalism in Europe led to competition among nations. As the conflict grew, countries expanded their militaries and formed alliances with other nations. The Fighting Begins Main Idea: After the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, war broke out in Europe. Because of alliances between nations, the conflict spread quickly. New technology caused a stalemate, and led to a long and deadly war. Wilson Urges Neutrality Main Idea: Wilson hoped the United States could stay neutral during the war, but many Americans felt the war’s effects and were divided over where their loyalties fell. Neutrality Gives Way to War Main Idea: Wilson continued to try and stay neutral, but tension with Germany caused the United States to enter the war in Continued…

7  Mobilization: readying of troops for war  Central Powers: Germany and Austria- Hungary  Allies: Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain  Stalemate: a situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantage  Autocrat: a ruler with unlimited power

8  Imperialism: increased rivalries within Europe  Militarism: aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war  Nationalism: countries acted in their own interests and minorities wanted independence (Social Darwinism)  Alliances: countries agreed to come to each other’s aid in the event of an attack.  Assassination: Archduke Francis Ferdinand killed June 28, 1914

9  Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie traveled to Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia  After a terrorist bombing injured two officers, Gavrilo Princip shot them, starting World War I.  Austria-Hungary thought Serbia was behind the assassination and declared war. Russia began to mobilize, as did France, Russia’s ally.  Germany declared war on Russia. When Germany invaded Belgium, Great Britain entered.

10 Military Strength, 1914 CHART

11  Technology leads to stalemate: trench warfare; “no-man’s land”  1914 Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers  1915 Italy joins Allies  Schlieffen Plan- German plan to strike France, then turn on Russia. They advance to within 30 miles of Paris, where the French and British stop them at the Marne.






17  Machine guns, hand grenades, poison gases, artillery shells  Old strategies – generals kept attacking, resulting in horrible casualties  Burned fields, poisoned wells, killed livestock  Submarines, blockades

18 Deadly Technology of World War I QUICK STUDY






24  Neutral to protect trade  Acted as peacemaker  Increased armed forces and began to prepare  Peace movement that consisted of former Populists, progressives, social reformers, and some women.

25 Reading Skill: Identify Causes NOTE TAKING

26 Political Cartoons: The Question of Neutrality ANALYZE

27  Blockaded Germany to keep essential goods from them  Contraband goods (war materials)  Germany’s response was U-boat attacks to blockade Britain; Germans violate neutral rights


29  Wilson wanted peace, but began to prepare for war  National Defense Act – expanded army  Naval Construction Act – build more warships

30  On Feb. 1, 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.  On Feb. 3, the U.S. broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, and Wilson asked Congress to allow armed merchant ships.


32  Secret offer from Germany to Mexico offering an alliance so Mexico could recover lost land in U.S.  Filibuster: senators talk and refuse to stop to prevent vote

33  U-boat: Unterseeboot, submarine  Lusitania, a British passenger ship, sunk in It was carrying weapons for the Allies as well as 1,200 passengers, including 128 Americans.  Sussex, a French passenger ship sunk in 1916  Sussex Pledge: German government promised to warn ships before attacking

34  Germany sinks U.S. ships City of Memphis, Illinois, and Vigilancia  April 6, 1917 War declared by Congress  “The world must be made safe for democracy” is a quote by Woodrow Wilson

35 PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency

36  “How did the war affect Americans at home?”  Vocabulary: Selective Service ActCPI Bernard BaruchGeorge Creel conscientious objectorGreat Migration Espionage Act

37 The Home Front America Mobilizes for War Main Idea: To prepare the country for war, the government implemented a draft and created new federal administrative agencies to oversee the war effort. Opposition and Its Consequences Main Idea: At home, the United States dealt with Americans opposed to the war, harsh treatment of those against it, and prejudice against German Americans. The War Changes American Society Main Idea: When men entered the armed forces, Women moved into the workforce, African Americans moved north for a better life, and Mexicans crossed the border into the United States.

38  Liberty Bond: special war bonds sold to support the Allied cause  Price controls: system of pricing determined by the government on food  Rationing: distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount  Daylight saving time: turning clocks ahead one hour for summer  Sedition: speech or actions encouraging rebellion  Vigilante: citizens who take the law into their own hands

39  Liberty Bonds raised $20 billion  Loaned $10 billion to Allies  Boy and Girl Scouts sold bonds  Poster and skits to advertise

40  Industry converted to war goods  War Industries Board: under Bernard Baruch; regulated production; controlled raw materials, production, and prices  War Trade Board: punished firms dealing with enemy  National War Labor Board settled labor disputes

41  Food Administration under Herbert Hoover  Price controls  Rationing  Hoover chose voluntary restraint and efficiency; appealed to women  Daylight saving time instituted to save fuel needed to produce artificial light

42 Rising U.S. Production, CHART

43  Committee of Public Information (CPI)  Agency to educate the public about causes of war and to convince Americans to support the war effort  George Creel – director  Distributed pamphlets and press releases

44  Industrial Workers of the World (IWW): goal of overthrowing capitalism  Vigilantes lynched and horse-whipped radicals  The goal of the Industrial Workers of the World was to overthrow capitalism.  Vigilantes lynched and horse-whipped radicals

45  Espionage Act 1917: made it illegal to interfere with the draft  Sedition Act: 1918, Illegal to interfere with the draft and to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or discuss anything disloyal about the American government, the Constitution, or the army and navy  1,000 convictions; Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years

46  Fear of foreigners led to nativism  Fear of espionage and secret agents  Feared sabotage of transportation and communications  “Hate the Hun” hostility toward Germans  Lynching of Robert Prager, a citizen born in Germany

47  Cut off the flow of immigrants from Europe  Women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans recruited by industry  Great Migration: 500,000 African Americans went North  Mexicans came to the American West to work on ranches and farms

48 Supporting the War TRANSPARENCY

49 The Great Migration TRANSPARENCY

50 Reading Skill: Summarize NOTE TAKING

51 He’s in the Army Now INFOGRAPHIC

52 PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency

53 Chapter 19 Section 3

54  “How did Americans affect the end of World War I and its peace settlements?”  Vocabulary: convoyLeague of Nations Vladimir LeninHenry Cabot Lodge John J. Pershingreparations Fourteen Points“irreconcilables” self-determination“reservationists”

55 Wilson, War, and Peace America Gives the Allies the Edge Main Idea: The impact of the United States joining the war was felt quickly and Germany surrendered in the fall of Wilson Promotes Peace Without Victory Main Idea: After World War I ended, Wilson encouraged independence, diplomacy, and free trade. He proposed his ideas in the Fourteen Points and traveled to France to make sure his voice was heard at the Allied peace conference. Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference Main Idea: The Allied leaders wanted Germany to make payment for war damages and rejected many of Wilson’s ideas. America Rejects the Treaty Main Idea: When the Treaty of Versailles was brought back to Congress, many Senators refused to ratify it without changes. Wilson refused to compromise and the treaty was defeated.

56  Selective Service Act: draft of young men for military service  American Expeditionary Force (AEF): American troops in Europe in WWI  Convoy: group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats, etc.  Armistice: cease-fire  Genocide: organized killing of an entire people  World War I is known as the  “war to end all wars”


58  By 1917, German U- boats had sunk 430 Allied and neutral ships.  Troops were moved to Europe by surrounding unarmed ships with destroyers, torpedo boats and armed vessels.

59  Russia suffered enormous casualties on the Eastern Front.  March 1917, Czar Nicholas II gives up power  He and his family are taken prisoner by the rebels and killed

60  Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, violently overthrew Russia’s government in Nov  Lenin made peace with Germany on Mar. 3, 1918, freeing the Germans troops to concentrate on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.

61  General John J. Pershing arrived in France in June, 1917, with 14,500 troops; veteran of the Spanish- American War  He recommends an army of 1 million men by  Selective Service Act passed in May 1917  American Expeditionary Force (AEF)


63  3 million draftees  11,000 women, who served as nurses, drivers, and clerks  14,000 civilian women served abroad in war effort

64  Pershing kept Americans independent of Allied armies.  Intended to use more offensive moves  300,000 African American troops were kept separate and most never saw combat.  Harlem Hell Fighters, 369 th Infantry Regiment persuaded white officers to loan them to the French. The entire regiment received France’s highest combat medal, the Croix de Guerre.

65  Germans were within 50 miles of Paris.  Battle of Chateau-Thierry, Americans helped the French save Paris; lost half of troops; began to turn the tide of the war  Used tanks to break German lines  Summer of 1918, German advance stopped permanently  General Ludendorff, asked Kaiser Wilhelm to seek peace.


67  St. Mihiel: General Pershing and troops routed Germans  Airplanes used in dogfights  Eddie Rickenbacker: 26 enemy fighters  Col. Billy Mitchell organized a fleet of over 1,400 bombing planes; new strategy for war

68  Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sept  Killed 25 machine- gunners captured 132 Germans  Congressional Medal of Honor

69  Allies wanted total surrender  Armistice  Kaiser fled to Holland  November 11, 1918 ended fighting

70  50,000 Americans dead  Estimated 8 million European soldiers and sailors dead  Millions of civilians died  Armenians-100s of thousands killed by Ottoman forces in a campaign of genocide.

71 Military Casualties of World War I CHART

72 Reading Skill: Sequence NOTE TAKING


74 Fourteen Points: Wilson’s peace goals, such as an end to entangling alliances Fourteen Points: Wilson’s peace goals, such as an end to entangling alliances Self-determination: power to make decisions about one’s own future Self-determination: power to make decisions about one’s own future Spoils: rewards of war Spoils: rewards of war League of Nations: an organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all League of Nations: an organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all Reparations: payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war Reparations: payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war Versailles Treaty: treaty ending World War I, on Versailles Treaty: treaty ending World War I, on June 28, 1919 June 28, 1919

75 Fourteen Points Fourteen Points  Peace without victory  Open diplomacy  Freedom of the seas and free trade  Movement toward ending colonialism  Reduction of armaments  Ethnic self-determination  League of Nations

76 Wilson took no Republicans or senators Wilson took no Republicans or senators Allies wanted spoils; wanted to divide up Germany’s colonies Allies wanted spoils; wanted to divide up Germany’s colonies Wilson had to agree Wilson had to agree

77 Wilson hoped to persuade Congress to accept the plan Article 10: attack on one is an attack on all Republican senators rejected it fearing war

78 Georges Clemenceau, French premier demanded harsh penalties against Germany Created Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia Reparations: Decided Germany owed $33 billion Germany couldn’t pay and did not forget humiliation Versailles Treaty: June 28, 1919

79 Reading Skill: Summarize NOTE TAKING

80  Self-determination violated -Some Germans and Austrians attached to other nations -Iraq created from Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul from the Ottoman Empire -Iraq given to Britain as a mandate (territory overseen by another nation)

81 Many Americans thought the treaty was too harsh toward Germany, especially the “war guilt clause” Many Americans thought the treaty was too harsh toward Germany, especially the “war guilt clause” “Irreconcilables”: senators would not accept treaty and were isolationist; disliked Article 10, calling for mutual defense “Irreconcilables”: senators would not accept treaty and were isolationist; disliked Article 10, calling for mutual defense “Reservationists”: wanted changes and to impose restrictions on American participation in League of Nations “Reservationists”: wanted changes and to impose restrictions on American participation in League of Nations

82 Gave 36 speeches in 23 days Suffered a stroke, paralyzing one side of body Senate refused to approve treaty

83 Economy: no plan to help troops back into society Women workers fired Gloom – end of optimism African American troops; no jobs; number of lynchings increase

84 Should the United States Join the League of Nations? DECISION POINT

85 PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency

86  “What political, economic, and social effects did World War I have on the United States?”  Vocabulary: influenzaNicola Sacco inflationBartolomeo Vanzetti Red ScareWarren G. Harding Palmer Raidscreditor nation

87 Effects of the War America Adjusts to Peace Main Idea: While adjusting to peace, Americans dealt with rough times, including a deadly flu epidemic, loss of opportunities that women and African Americans had gained, and economic problems due to inflation. The Red Scare Main Idea: The Soviet Union emerged as a communist nation and led to the Red Scare, the widespread fear that communists and radicals were plotting in the United States. Americans Embrace Normalcy Main Idea: The 1920 election of Warren G. Harding symbolized a return to “normalcy,” but it was clear the United States was now an economic power and could not retreat completely back into isolationism.

88  Bird flu that spread around the world  Pandemic that killed 550,000 Americans  Killed 50 to 100 million worldwide

89 The Spread of Influenza in the United States GRAPH

90  Employment opportunities during the war  Post-war recession: -women lose jobs -African American workers compete with returning soldiers -Race riots in American cities  Inflation soared as consumers wanted scarce goods  Labor strikes increased

91  Economic Adjustments  Wartime demand dropped  Soldiers faced unemployment  Lower demand  Higher cost of living  Labor Unrest increased  Discrimination against blacks

92  The Red Scare  Russian Revolution  Bolsheviks  Vladimir Lenin  Communism  Renewed Nativism  Palmer Raids  Anti-Immigration Laws  American Civil Liberties Union  Sacco and Vanzetti

93  Attorney General Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American government  thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians by anarchists  Palmer recruited J. Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations.  The public lost interest by spring of 1920 as one Palmer- predicted terrorist attack after another failed to occur

94 Political Cartoons: Reaction to Radicals TRANSPARENCY

95  During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was illegal  Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes rejected the argument that the pamphlet was protected by the First Amendment.  He argued that the government is justified in silencing free speech if there is a “clear and present” danger to the nation

96 Communism in the Soviet Union A single political party controls the government Individuals have no rights that the government is legally bound to respect The government promises to create revolutions in other countries and spread communism The government owns all land and property

97  One of the key social tensions of the era  1919 – 4 million workers held 3600 strikes  Most Strikes were beat down by federal authorities  Communist Plot  1919 Bombings?  Because of the violence, Economic Boom, and increased wages Union membership declined from 5 million to 3.4 million in 1920


99 Boston Police Strike (1919), police commissioner refused to recognize a policemen's union. Governor Calvin Cooledge finally called out the state militia to maintain order in the city, declaring "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.".  Steelworkers 1919  Gary, Indiana  US Steel Corporation used force to break the strike  18 dead, 100s seriously wounded  federal troops occupied the city for several months.  United Mine Workers Coal Strike

100 PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency

101  Refers to a widespread attitude in a society of a rejection of alien persons or culture  Believed immigrants could not be fully loyal to the US  Did not like Jews, Catholics, or Orthodox Christians  City problems (slums, corruption) were blamed on the immigrants  Immigrants meant competition for jobs  Believed they carried dangerous political ideas  Socialism, Anarchy, etc.  Most of them came from very politically unstable countries

102 Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas NOTE TAKING

103  Election of 1920: Warren G. Harding; Republican  Called for a return to “normalcy” – a simpler time  U.S. was economic giant and a creditor nation  Political changes: German and Russian monarchies toppled, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires ended; Britain and France weakened; U.S. stronger

104 PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency

105  Illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcoholic beverages  18 th Amendment  Ratified in 1919

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