Presentation on theme: "“What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”"— Presentation transcript:
“What caused the United States to become involved in World War I, and how did the U.S. change as a result of its involvement?”
SSUSH15 The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. SSUSH15.a Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. SSUSH15.b Explain the domestic impact of World War I, reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, and the Espionage Act and socialist Eugene Debs. SSUSH15.c Explain Wilson's Fourteen Points, the proposed League of Nations. SSUSH15.d Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing women suffrage.
“What caused World War I, and why did the United States enter the war?” Vocabulary: Alsace-Lorrainecasualty militarismcontraband Francis FerdinandU-boat William II Lusitania Western FrontZimmermann note
From Neutrality to War What Caused World War I? Main Idea: In the early 1900s, Nationalism in Europe led to competition among nations. As the conflict grew, countries expanded their militaries and formed alliances with other nations. The Fighting Begins Main Idea: After the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, war broke out in Europe. Because of alliances between nations, the conflict spread quickly. New technology caused a stalemate, and led to a long and deadly war. Wilson Urges Neutrality Main Idea: Wilson hoped the United States could stay neutral during the war, but many Americans felt the war’s effects and were divided over where their loyalties fell. Neutrality Gives Way to War Main Idea: Wilson continued to try and stay neutral, but tension with Germany caused the United States to enter the war in Continued…
Mobilization: readying of troops for war Central Powers: Germany and Austria- Hungary Allies: Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain Stalemate: a situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantage Autocrat: a ruler with unlimited power
Imperialism: increased rivalries within Europe Militarism: aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war Nationalism: countries acted in their own interests and minorities wanted independence (Social Darwinism) Alliances: countries agreed to come to each other’s aid in the event of an attack. Assassination: Archduke Francis Ferdinand killed June 28, 1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie traveled to Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia After a terrorist bombing injured two officers, Gavrilo Princip shot them, starting World War I. Austria-Hungary thought Serbia was behind the assassination and declared war. Russia began to mobilize, as did France, Russia’s ally. Germany declared war on Russia. When Germany invaded Belgium, Great Britain entered.
Military Strength, 1914 CHART
Technology leads to stalemate: trench warfare; “no-man’s land” 1914 Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers 1915 Italy joins Allies Schlieffen Plan- German plan to strike France, then turn on Russia. They advance to within 30 miles of Paris, where the French and British stop them at the Marne.
Neutral to protect trade Acted as peacemaker Increased armed forces and began to prepare Peace movement that consisted of former Populists, progressives, social reformers, and some women.
Reading Skill: Identify Causes NOTE TAKING
Political Cartoons: The Question of Neutrality ANALYZE
Blockaded Germany to keep essential goods from them Contraband goods (war materials) Germany’s response was U-boat attacks to blockade Britain; Germans violate neutral rights
Wilson wanted peace, but began to prepare for war National Defense Act – expanded army Naval Construction Act – build more warships
On Feb. 1, 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. On Feb. 3, the U.S. broke off diplomatic relations with Germany, and Wilson asked Congress to allow armed merchant ships.
German U-Boat TRANSPARENCY
Secret offer from Germany to Mexico offering an alliance so Mexico could recover lost land in U.S. Filibuster: senators talk and refuse to stop to prevent vote
U-boat: Unterseeboot, submarine Lusitania, a British passenger ship, sunk in It was carrying weapons for the Allies as well as 1,200 passengers, including 128 Americans. Sussex, a French passenger ship sunk in 1916 Sussex Pledge: German government promised to warn ships before attacking
Germany sinks U.S. ships City of Memphis, Illinois, and Vigilancia April 6, 1917 War declared by Congress “The world must be made safe for democracy” is a quote by Woodrow Wilson
“How did the war affect Americans at home?” Vocabulary: Selective Service ActCPI Bernard BaruchGeorge Creel conscientious objectorGreat Migration Espionage Act
The Home Front America Mobilizes for War Main Idea: To prepare the country for war, the government implemented a draft and created new federal administrative agencies to oversee the war effort. Opposition and Its Consequences Main Idea: At home, the United States dealt with Americans opposed to the war, harsh treatment of those against it, and prejudice against German Americans. The War Changes American Society Main Idea: When men entered the armed forces, Women moved into the workforce, African Americans moved north for a better life, and Mexicans crossed the border into the United States.
Liberty Bond: special war bonds sold to support the Allied cause Price controls: system of pricing determined by the government on food Rationing: distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount Daylight saving time: turning clocks ahead one hour for summer Sedition: speech or actions encouraging rebellion Vigilante: citizens who take the law into their own hands
Liberty Bonds raised $20 billion Loaned $10 billion to Allies Boy and Girl Scouts sold bonds Poster and skits to advertise
Industry converted to war goods War Industries Board: under Bernard Baruch; regulated production; controlled raw materials, production, and prices War Trade Board: punished firms dealing with enemy National War Labor Board settled labor disputes
Food Administration under Herbert Hoover Price controls Rationing Hoover chose voluntary restraint and efficiency; appealed to women Daylight saving time instituted to save fuel needed to produce artificial light
Rising U.S. Production, CHART
Committee of Public Information (CPI) Agency to educate the public about causes of war and to convince Americans to support the war effort George Creel – director Distributed pamphlets and press releases
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW): goal of overthrowing capitalism Vigilantes lynched and horse-whipped radicals The goal of the Industrial Workers of the World was to overthrow capitalism. Vigilantes lynched and horse-whipped radicals
Espionage Act 1917: made it illegal to interfere with the draft Sedition Act: 1918, Illegal to interfere with the draft and to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or discuss anything disloyal about the American government, the Constitution, or the army and navy 1,000 convictions; Eugene Debs sentenced to 10 years
Fear of foreigners led to nativism Fear of espionage and secret agents Feared sabotage of transportation and communications “Hate the Hun” hostility toward Germans Lynching of Robert Prager, a citizen born in Germany
Cut off the flow of immigrants from Europe Women, African Americans, and Mexican Americans recruited by industry Great Migration: 500,000 African Americans went North Mexicans came to the American West to work on ranches and farms
“How did Americans affect the end of World War I and its peace settlements?” Vocabulary: convoyLeague of Nations Vladimir LeninHenry Cabot Lodge John J. Pershingreparations Fourteen Points“irreconcilables” self-determination“reservationists”
Wilson, War, and Peace America Gives the Allies the Edge Main Idea: The impact of the United States joining the war was felt quickly and Germany surrendered in the fall of Wilson Promotes Peace Without Victory Main Idea: After World War I ended, Wilson encouraged independence, diplomacy, and free trade. He proposed his ideas in the Fourteen Points and traveled to France to make sure his voice was heard at the Allied peace conference. Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference Main Idea: The Allied leaders wanted Germany to make payment for war damages and rejected many of Wilson’s ideas. America Rejects the Treaty Main Idea: When the Treaty of Versailles was brought back to Congress, many Senators refused to ratify it without changes. Wilson refused to compromise and the treaty was defeated.
Selective Service Act: draft of young men for military service American Expeditionary Force (AEF): American troops in Europe in WWI Convoy: group of unarmed ships surrounded by a ring of destroyers, torpedo boats, etc. Armistice: cease-fire Genocide: organized killing of an entire people World War I is known as the “war to end all wars”
By 1917, German U- boats had sunk 430 Allied and neutral ships. Troops were moved to Europe by surrounding unarmed ships with destroyers, torpedo boats and armed vessels.
Russia suffered enormous casualties on the Eastern Front. March 1917, Czar Nicholas II gives up power He and his family are taken prisoner by the rebels and killed
Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, violently overthrew Russia’s government in Nov Lenin made peace with Germany on Mar. 3, 1918, freeing the Germans troops to concentrate on defeating the Allies on the Western Front.
General John J. Pershing arrived in France in June, 1917, with 14,500 troops; veteran of the Spanish- American War He recommends an army of 1 million men by Selective Service Act passed in May 1917 American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
3 million draftees 11,000 women, who served as nurses, drivers, and clerks 14,000 civilian women served abroad in war effort
Pershing kept Americans independent of Allied armies. Intended to use more offensive moves 300,000 African American troops were kept separate and most never saw combat. Harlem Hell Fighters, 369 th Infantry Regiment persuaded white officers to loan them to the French. The entire regiment received France’s highest combat medal, the Croix de Guerre.
Germans were within 50 miles of Paris. Battle of Chateau-Thierry, Americans helped the French save Paris; lost half of troops; began to turn the tide of the war Used tanks to break German lines Summer of 1918, German advance stopped permanently General Ludendorff, asked Kaiser Wilhelm to seek peace.
St. Mihiel: General Pershing and troops routed Germans Airplanes used in dogfights Eddie Rickenbacker: 26 enemy fighters Col. Billy Mitchell organized a fleet of over 1,400 bombing planes; new strategy for war
Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Sept Killed 25 machine- gunners captured 132 Germans Congressional Medal of Honor
Allies wanted total surrender Armistice Kaiser fled to Holland November 11, 1918 ended fighting
50,000 Americans dead Estimated 8 million European soldiers and sailors dead Millions of civilians died Armenians-100s of thousands killed by Ottoman forces in a campaign of genocide.
Military Casualties of World War I CHART
Reading Skill: Sequence NOTE TAKING
Fourteen Points: Wilson’s peace goals, such as an end to entangling alliances Fourteen Points: Wilson’s peace goals, such as an end to entangling alliances Self-determination: power to make decisions about one’s own future Self-determination: power to make decisions about one’s own future Spoils: rewards of war Spoils: rewards of war League of Nations: an organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all League of Nations: an organization in which the nations of the world would join together to ensure security and peace for all Reparations: payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war Reparations: payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war Versailles Treaty: treaty ending World War I, on Versailles Treaty: treaty ending World War I, on June 28, 1919 June 28, 1919
Fourteen Points Fourteen Points Peace without victory Open diplomacy Freedom of the seas and free trade Movement toward ending colonialism Reduction of armaments Ethnic self-determination League of Nations
Wilson took no Republicans or senators Wilson took no Republicans or senators Allies wanted spoils; wanted to divide up Germany’s colonies Allies wanted spoils; wanted to divide up Germany’s colonies Wilson had to agree Wilson had to agree
Wilson hoped to persuade Congress to accept the plan Article 10: attack on one is an attack on all Republican senators rejected it fearing war
Georges Clemenceau, French premier demanded harsh penalties against Germany Created Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia Reparations: Decided Germany owed $33 billion Germany couldn’t pay and did not forget humiliation Versailles Treaty: June 28, 1919
Reading Skill: Summarize NOTE TAKING
Self-determination violated -Some Germans and Austrians attached to other nations -Iraq created from Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul from the Ottoman Empire -Iraq given to Britain as a mandate (territory overseen by another nation)
Many Americans thought the treaty was too harsh toward Germany, especially the “war guilt clause” Many Americans thought the treaty was too harsh toward Germany, especially the “war guilt clause” “Irreconcilables”: senators would not accept treaty and were isolationist; disliked Article 10, calling for mutual defense “Irreconcilables”: senators would not accept treaty and were isolationist; disliked Article 10, calling for mutual defense “Reservationists”: wanted changes and to impose restrictions on American participation in League of Nations “Reservationists”: wanted changes and to impose restrictions on American participation in League of Nations
Gave 36 speeches in 23 days Suffered a stroke, paralyzing one side of body Senate refused to approve treaty
Economy: no plan to help troops back into society Women workers fired Gloom – end of optimism African American troops; no jobs; number of lynchings increase
Should the United States Join the League of Nations? DECISION POINT
“What political, economic, and social effects did World War I have on the United States?” Vocabulary: influenzaNicola Sacco inflationBartolomeo Vanzetti Red ScareWarren G. Harding Palmer Raidscreditor nation
Effects of the War America Adjusts to Peace Main Idea: While adjusting to peace, Americans dealt with rough times, including a deadly flu epidemic, loss of opportunities that women and African Americans had gained, and economic problems due to inflation. The Red Scare Main Idea: The Soviet Union emerged as a communist nation and led to the Red Scare, the widespread fear that communists and radicals were plotting in the United States. Americans Embrace Normalcy Main Idea: The 1920 election of Warren G. Harding symbolized a return to “normalcy,” but it was clear the United States was now an economic power and could not retreat completely back into isolationism.
Bird flu that spread around the world Pandemic that killed 550,000 Americans Killed 50 to 100 million worldwide
The Spread of Influenza in the United States GRAPH
Employment opportunities during the war Post-war recession: -women lose jobs -African American workers compete with returning soldiers -Race riots in American cities Inflation soared as consumers wanted scarce goods Labor strikes increased
Economic Adjustments Wartime demand dropped Soldiers faced unemployment Lower demand Higher cost of living Labor Unrest increased Discrimination against blacks
The Red Scare Russian Revolution Bolsheviks Vladimir Lenin Communism Renewed Nativism Palmer Raids Anti-Immigration Laws American Civil Liberties Union Sacco and Vanzetti
Attorney General Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American government thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians by anarchists Palmer recruited J. Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations. The public lost interest by spring of 1920 as one Palmer- predicted terrorist attack after another failed to occur
Political Cartoons: Reaction to Radicals TRANSPARENCY
During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was illegal Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes rejected the argument that the pamphlet was protected by the First Amendment. He argued that the government is justified in silencing free speech if there is a “clear and present” danger to the nation
Communism in the Soviet Union A single political party controls the government Individuals have no rights that the government is legally bound to respect The government promises to create revolutions in other countries and spread communism The government owns all land and property
One of the key social tensions of the era 1919 – 4 million workers held 3600 strikes Most Strikes were beat down by federal authorities Communist Plot 1919 Bombings? Because of the violence, Economic Boom, and increased wages Union membership declined from 5 million to 3.4 million in 1920
Boston Police Strike (1919), police commissioner refused to recognize a policemen's union. Governor Calvin Cooledge finally called out the state militia to maintain order in the city, declaring "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.". Steelworkers 1919 Gary, Indiana US Steel Corporation used force to break the strike 18 dead, 100s seriously wounded federal troops occupied the city for several months. United Mine Workers Coal Strike
Refers to a widespread attitude in a society of a rejection of alien persons or culture Believed immigrants could not be fully loyal to the US Did not like Jews, Catholics, or Orthodox Christians City problems (slums, corruption) were blamed on the immigrants Immigrants meant competition for jobs Believed they carried dangerous political ideas Socialism, Anarchy, etc. Most of them came from very politically unstable countries
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas NOTE TAKING
Election of 1920: Warren G. Harding; Republican Called for a return to “normalcy” – a simpler time U.S. was economic giant and a creditor nation Political changes: German and Russian monarchies toppled, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires ended; Britain and France weakened; U.S. stronger