2Types of Meats Cattle are classified according to age and gender. Beef Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly.Bulls are older uncastrated males, usually used in processed meats and pet foods.Heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are also used for meat.Cows are female cattle that have borne calves and this meat is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.
3Types of MeatsVeal comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months.Calves three to eight months old are too old for veal and too young for beef.
4Types of Meats Lamb and Mutton Pork Lamb comes from sheep less than fourteen months old.Mutton from those over fourteen months.PorkDerived from young swine of either gender slaughtered at between seven and twelve months of age.
5Composition of Meats Meats are composed of a combination of: Water Structure of MeatMeats are composed of a combination of:WaterMuscleConnective tissueAdipose (fatty) tissueBone
6Composition of MeatsCollagen: A pearly white, tough, and fibrous protein that provides support to muscle and prevents it from over-stretching.Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops.
7Composition of MeatsThe animal’s age, diet, and species affect the color and texture of fat.
10Composition of MeatsExposure of meat to oxygen changes the color of myoglobin, and therefore the meat.Cooking meat initially converts the color of raw meat to bright red.
11Composition of MeatsThe food industry uses several methods to keep meat products from turning brown.One such method is the addition of nitrites to processed meats.Extractives: Flavor compounds consisting of nonprotein, nitrogen substances that are end-products of protein metabolism.
12Purchasing MeatsTo ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, federal laws require the inspection of animal carcasses.In addition to this mandatory inspection for safety, meat may also be assigned yield grades and the later quality grades to assist consumers in selection.
13Purchasing MeatsThe Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce.
14Purchasing MeatsThe grading of meat is not under government mandate or control, but is a strictly voluntary procedure that the meat packer or distributor may have done under contract with the USDA.
16Purchasing MeatsYield grade: The amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts.
17Purchasing Meats Tenderness of Meats Overall, natural meat tenderness is due to factors such as the cut, age, and fat content.Meats can also be treated to make them more tender.Preparation temperatures and times also have an influence on tenderness.
18Purchasing Meats Natural Tenderizing The particular cut of the meat Age at slaughter (connective tissue concentration)Heredity and dietMarblingSlaughtering conditionsAging…all play a part in determining tendernessRigor mortis: From the Latin for “stiffness of death,” the temporary stiff state following death as muscles contract.Aging: Ripening that occurs when carcasses are hung in refrigeration units for longer periods than that required for the reversal of rigor mortis.
19Purchasing MeatsThere are two major types of meat cuts, wholesale and retail.
20Purchasing MeatsPrior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about seven wholesale or primal cuts.Wholesale (primal) cuts: The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts.These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cuts purchased by consumers.Retail cuts: Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.
26Preparation of MeatsCarry-over cooking: The phenomenon in which food continues to cook after it has been removed from the heat source as the heat is distributed more evenly from the outer to the inner portion of the food.
27Preparation of MeatsF I G U R E Touch as a test for doneness.
28Preparation of MeatsTender cuts are usually prepared by one of the dry-heating methods:Roasting (baking)BroilingGrillingPanbroilingFrying
32Preparation of MeatsLess tender cuts of meat are usually prepared by moist-heat methods such as:BraisingSimmering/stewingSteamingMicrowave ovens are usually not the best option for cooking meats, except for thawing and reheating leftovers.
33Storage of MeatsMeat contains high percentages of water and protein, both ideal for the growth of microorganisms.Consequently, meat should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer.Meats are best refrigerated at just above freezing (32°F/0°C), between 32°F and 36°F (0° to 2°C).
34Storage of Meats Frozen Wrapping Meat Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days.FrozenMeats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).
35Classification of Poultry Ready-to-eat poultry is classified according to age and gender.Classifications vary from species to species:Chickens classified as:BroilersFryers, etc.Turkeys as:TomsHens
36Composition of Poultry The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, connective tissue, etc.) is similar to meat.PigmentsTurkeys and chickens have both white and dark meat.
37Purchasing PoultryIn 1968, the Wholesome Poultry Products Act made inspection of poultry shipped across state lines mandatory.
38Purchasing PoultryThe grading of poultry is voluntary and is paid for by the producer.Three grades are used: A, B, and C.The USDA grade shield is used only when the poultry has been USDA graded.The criteria used in grading are:ConformationFleshing Amount and distribution of fatFreedom from blemishes
39Purchasing Poultry Types and Styles of Poultry “Type” refers to whether it is:FreshFrozenCookedSlicedCannedDehydrated“Style” describes the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed:LiveDressedReady-to-cookEviscerate: To remove the entrails from the body cavity.Convenience categories
40Purchasing Poultry Processed Poultry Canned or dried soups Processed chicken and turkey are commonly used in:Canned or dried soupsFrozen dinnersPot piesSausagesHot dogsBurgersBologna
41Purchasing PoultryHow Much to BuyReady-to-cook poultry contains a good deal of inedible bone and unwanted fatA good rule of thumb for most poultry is to buy 1⁄2 pound or slightly more per serving.One of the most economical ways to buy poultry is in its ready-to-cook whole state.
42Preparation of Poultry Preparation Safety TipsAs a prelude to preparation, all ready-to-cook poultry should be washed inside and out and then patted dry with paper towels.
43Preparation of Poultry Thawing Frozen PoultryThe refrigerator is the best place to thaw frozen birds, and its use requires planning ahead.
44Preparation of Poultry Changes During PreparationProperly prepared poultry is tender and juicy, but overcooking causes the flesh to become dry, tough, and stringy.
45Preparation of Poultry Determining DonenessPoultry should always be heated until well doneDoneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables.Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C).A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).
46Preparation of Poultry Color ChangeOven-roasted chicken or turkey will reach a golden brown color.The juices coming out of the bird should run clear.TouchWhen pressed firmly with one or two fingers, the well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm.White meat may be firmer than dark.Wiggle the drumstick.
47Preparation of Poultry Dry-Heat PreparationRoastingBakingBroilingGrillingFryingSautéedPan-friedDeep-friedStir-fried
48Preparation of Poultry Moist-Heat PreparationBraisingAlso called fricasseeingStewingPoachingMicrowavingThe microwave manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for preparing poultry.
49Storage of PoultryPrecautions should be taken in the handling of poultry, because of the possibility of it being contaminated with bacteria.
50Storage of Poultry Refrigerated Fresh, ready-to-cook poultry can be kept safely in the refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) or below for up to three days.It is best kept in the bottom portion of the refrigerator to prevent its drippings from contaminating other foods.
51Storage of PoultryFrozenFrozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C).Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen.ThawingDefrosting is recommended in the refrigerator.Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.
52Classification of Fish and Shellfish VertebrateFinfishFinfish: Fish that have fins and internal skeletons.InvertebrateShellfish, which includes the invertebrate crustaceans and mollusks.Crustacean: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell.Mollusk: An invertebrate animal with a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell.
55Classification of Fish and Shellfish Salt or Fresh WaterSaltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than freshwater fish.Some saltwater fish:Halibut, cod, and flounderSome freshwater varieties:Catfish, perch, and pikeLean or FatFish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.
57Composition of Fish Structure of Finfish CollagenFish are only 3 percent collagen.Amino Acid ContentThere is less of a certain amino acid (hydroxyproline).Muscle StructureThe muscles of fish are shorter (less than an inch in length).This contributes to the characteristic flaking of prepared fish.
58Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Retailers providing consumers with nutrition information must abide by the nutrition labeling values provided by the FDA for fish and shellfish.Fish processors may submit to inspection and grading on a voluntary basis.The National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce is responsible for fish inspections.
59Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Fish can be purchased fresh or frozen as whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, and sticks.
60Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Signs of Decay in Fresh FinfishChanges that occur in a fish after death are that:The eyes flatten and become concave.The pupil turns gray or creamy brown.The cornea becomes opaque and discolored.The bright red gills turn a paler brown.Gaping is a sign of aging, or may be a result of rough handling.
61Purchasing Fish and Shellfish How Much Fish to BuyPer Person:1⁄3 pound of steaks, fillets, or sticks1⁄2 pound for dressed3⁄4 pound for whole or drawn fish.
62Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Surimi: Japanese for “minced meat,” a fabricated fish product usually made from Alaskan pollack, a deep-sea whitefish, which is skinned, deboned, minced, washed, strained, and shaped into pieces to resemble crab, shrimp, or scallops.
63Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Purchasing Live ShellfishLobsters, crabs, oysters, and clams all may be purchased alive and in their shells.Shellfish are highly perishable.Selecting Live MollusksTheir closed shells pose more of a puzzle.Tapping on the shell should cause it to close more tightly.Purchasing Processed ShellfishShellfish can also be bought cooked in the shell and chilled or frozen.Shucked shrimp, scallops, oysters, and clams are often breaded and frozen.Oysters can be bought live in the shell, or shucked and then chilled, frozen, or canned.Clams can be bought in the same forms as oysters.
64Purchasing Fish and Shellfish The majority of meat in a crab is found in its claws and legs.The four top commercially harvested crabs are:Blue crabs from the Atlantic and Gulf coastsStone crabs from FloridaDungeness crabs from the Pacific coastKing crabs from the northern Pacific watersReferred to as either crayfish, crawdads, or crawfish, are small crustaceans averaging 4 ounces in weight.Crayfish are similar in appearance to lobsters but smaller.They are found mainly as a food source in freshwater streams and ponds of the southeastern United States.Crayfish are sold both head-on and tails only, fresh and frozen.
65Preparation of Fish and Shellfish Moist-Heat PreparationPoachingSimmeringSteamingClambakes are underground steamings.MicrowavingRaw FishSashimi (raw fish)X51.ENEMA: ??????????????Dry-Heat PreparationBakingBroilingGrillingFryingDeep-Fat Fried
66Storage of Fish and Shellfish Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of purchase.Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator.It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods.Fresh ShellfishFresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought.Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.
67Storage of Fish and Shellfish FrozenFreezing greatly extends the keeping time of fish that, depending on the type, can be stored in the freezer up to nine months.ThawingFish is best thawed by transferring it from the freezer to the refrigerator one day before preparation.Canned and Cured