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Understanding Food Chapter 14: Meat.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Food Chapter 14: Meat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Food Chapter 14: Meat

2 Types of Meats Cattle are classified according to age and gender. Beef
Steers are male cattle that have been castrated while young so that they will gain weight quickly. Bulls are older uncastrated males, usually used in processed meats and pet foods. Heifers, females that have not borne a calf, are also used for meat. Cows are female cattle that have borne calves and this meat is less desirable than that from steers or heifers.

3 Types of Meats Veal comes from calves of beef cattle, either male or female, between the ages of three weeks and three months. Calves three to eight months old are too old for veal and too young for beef.

4 Types of Meats Lamb and Mutton Pork
Lamb comes from sheep less than fourteen months old. Mutton from those over fourteen months. Pork Derived from young swine of either gender slaughtered at between seven and twelve months of age.

5 Composition of Meats Meats are composed of a combination of: Water
Structure of Meat Meats are composed of a combination of: Water Muscle Connective tissue Adipose (fatty) tissue Bone

6 Composition of Meats Collagen: A pearly white, tough, and fibrous protein that provides support to muscle and prevents it from over-stretching. Marbling: Fat deposited in the muscle that can be seen as little white streaks or drops.

7 Composition of Meats The animal’s age, diet, and species affect the color and texture of fat.



10 Composition of Meats Exposure of meat to oxygen changes the color of myoglobin, and therefore the meat. Cooking meat initially converts the color of raw meat to bright red.

11 Composition of Meats The food industry uses several methods to keep meat products from turning brown. One such method is the addition of nitrites to processed meats. Extractives: Flavor compounds consisting of nonprotein, nitrogen substances that are end-products of protein metabolism.

12 Purchasing Meats To ensure that consumers are purchasing meat that is safe, federal laws require the inspection of animal carcasses. In addition to this mandatory inspection for safety, meat may also be assigned yield grades and the later quality grades to assist consumers in selection.

13 Purchasing Meats The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 made inspection mandatory for all meat crossing state lines or entering the United States through foreign commerce.

14 Purchasing Meats The grading of meat is not under government mandate or control, but is a strictly voluntary procedure that the meat packer or distributor may have done under contract with the USDA.


16 Purchasing Meats Yield grade: The amount of lean meat on the carcass in proportion to fat, bone, and other inedible parts.

17 Purchasing Meats Tenderness of Meats
Overall, natural meat tenderness is due to factors such as the cut, age, and fat content. Meats can also be treated to make them more tender. Preparation temperatures and times also have an influence on tenderness.

18 Purchasing Meats Natural Tenderizing The particular cut of the meat
Age at slaughter (connective tissue concentration) Heredity and diet Marbling Slaughtering conditions Aging …all play a part in determining tenderness Rigor mortis: From the Latin for “stiffness of death,” the temporary stiff state following death as muscles contract. Aging: Ripening that occurs when carcasses are hung in refrigeration units for longer periods than that required for the reversal of rigor mortis.

19 Purchasing Meats There are two major types of meat cuts, wholesale and retail.

20 Purchasing Meats Prior to reaching the supermarket, a carcass is divided into about seven wholesale or primal cuts. Wholesale (primal) cuts: The large cuts of an animal carcass, which are further divided into retail cuts. These wholesale cuts are then divided into the retail cuts purchased by consumers. Retail cuts: Smaller cuts of meat obtained from wholesale cuts and sold to the consumer.

21 Refer to p. 263 for complete figure.


23 Purchasing Meats Variety meats: The liver, sweetbreads (thymus), brain, kidneys, heart, tongue, tripe (stomach lining), and oxtail (tail of cattle).

24 Preparation of Meats


26 Preparation of Meats Carry-over cooking: The phenomenon in which food continues to cook after it has been removed from the heat source as the heat is distributed more evenly from the outer to the inner portion of the food.

27 Preparation of Meats F I G U R E Touch as a test for doneness.

28 Preparation of Meats Tender cuts are usually prepared by one of the dry-heating methods: Roasting (baking) Broiling Grilling Panbroiling Frying


30 Preparation of Meats Frying
Sautéing, pan-frying, and deep-frying are suitable for tender, small pieces of meat that are low in fat or that have a breaded coating.


32 Preparation of Meats Less tender cuts of meat are usually prepared by moist-heat methods such as: Braising Simmering/stewing Steaming Microwave ovens are usually not the best option for cooking meats, except for thawing and reheating leftovers.

33 Storage of Meats Meat contains high percentages of water and protein, both ideal for the growth of microorganisms. Consequently, meat should be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. Meats are best refrigerated at just above freezing (32°F/0°C), between 32°F and 36°F (0° to 2°C).

34 Storage of Meats Frozen Wrapping Meat
Most retail meats are packaged with plastic wrap and can be refrigerated in their original wrap for up to two days. Frozen Meats to be frozen should be wrapped tightly in aluminum foil, heavy plastic bags, or freezer paper and stored at or below 0°F (18°C).

35 Classification of Poultry
Ready-to-eat poultry is classified according to age and gender. Classifications vary from species to species: Chickens classified as: Broilers Fryers, etc. Turkeys as: Toms Hens

36 Composition of Poultry
The composition of poultry (muscle tissue, connective tissue, etc.) is similar to meat. Pigments Turkeys and chickens have both white and dark meat.

37 Purchasing Poultry In 1968, the Wholesome Poultry Products Act made inspection of poultry shipped across state lines mandatory.

38 Purchasing Poultry The grading of poultry is voluntary and is paid for by the producer. Three grades are used: A, B, and C. The USDA grade shield is used only when the poultry has been USDA graded. The criteria used in grading are: Conformation Fleshing Amount and distribution of fat Freedom from blemishes

39 Purchasing Poultry Types and Styles of Poultry
“Type” refers to whether it is: Fresh Frozen Cooked Sliced Canned Dehydrated “Style” describes the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed: Live Dressed Ready-to-cook Eviscerate: To remove the entrails from the body cavity. Convenience categories

40 Purchasing Poultry Processed Poultry Canned or dried soups
Processed chicken and turkey are commonly used in: Canned or dried soups Frozen dinners Pot pies Sausages Hot dogs Burgers Bologna

41 Purchasing Poultry How Much to Buy Ready-to-cook poultry contains a good deal of inedible bone and unwanted fat A good rule of thumb for most poultry is to buy 1⁄2 pound or slightly more per serving. One of the most economical ways to buy poultry is in its ready-to-cook whole state.

42 Preparation of Poultry
Preparation Safety Tips As a prelude to preparation, all ready-to-cook poultry should be washed inside and out and then patted dry with paper towels.

43 Preparation of Poultry
Thawing Frozen Poultry The refrigerator is the best place to thaw frozen birds, and its use requires planning ahead.

44 Preparation of Poultry
Changes During Preparation Properly prepared poultry is tender and juicy, but overcooking causes the flesh to become dry, tough, and stringy.

45 Preparation of Poultry
Determining Doneness Poultry should always be heated until well done Doneness may be determined by internal temperature, color changes, and/or touch and time/weight tables. Poultry is sufficiently cooked when the internal temperature reaches 180° to 185°F (82° to 85°C). A thermometer placed in the center of any stuffing must reach a minimum temperature of 165°F (74°C).

46 Preparation of Poultry
Color Change Oven-roasted chicken or turkey will reach a golden brown color. The juices coming out of the bird should run clear. Touch When pressed firmly with one or two fingers, the well-done bird’s flesh will feel firm. White meat may be firmer than dark. Wiggle the drumstick .

47 Preparation of Poultry
Dry-Heat Preparation Roasting Baking Broiling Grilling Frying Sautéed Pan-fried Deep-fried Stir-fried

48 Preparation of Poultry
Moist-Heat Preparation Braising Also called fricasseeing Stewing Poaching Microwaving The microwave manufacturers’ instructions should be followed for preparing poultry.

49 Storage of Poultry Precautions should be taken in the handling of poultry, because of the possibility of it being contaminated with bacteria.

50 Storage of Poultry Refrigerated
Fresh, ready-to-cook poultry can be kept safely in the refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) or below for up to three days. It is best kept in the bottom portion of the refrigerator to prevent its drippings from contaminating other foods.

51 Storage of Poultry Frozen Frozen whole poultry can be stored from six to twelve months at 0°F (18°C). Breaded or fried poultry should never be thawed and refrozen. Thawing Defrosting is recommended in the refrigerator. Once defrosted, poultry or any other meat should not be refrozen unless it has been cooked.

52 Classification of Fish and Shellfish
Vertebrate Finfish Finfish: Fish that have fins and internal skeletons. Invertebrate Shellfish, which includes the invertebrate crustaceans and mollusks. Crustacean: An invertebrate animal with a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton consisting of a hard upper shell and a soft under shell. Mollusk: An invertebrate animal with a soft unsegmented body usually enclosed in a shell.



55 Classification of Fish and Shellfish
Salt or Fresh Water Saltwater fish often have a more distinct flavor than freshwater fish. Some saltwater fish: Halibut, cod, and flounder Some freshwater varieties: Catfish, perch, and pike Lean or Fat Fish are not very fatty compared to most other meats.


57 Composition of Fish Structure of Finfish
Collagen Fish are only 3 percent collagen. Amino Acid Content There is less of a certain amino acid (hydroxyproline). Muscle Structure The muscles of fish are shorter (less than an inch in length). This contributes to the characteristic flaking of prepared fish.

58 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Retailers providing consumers with nutrition information must abide by the nutrition labeling values provided by the FDA for fish and shellfish. Fish processors may submit to inspection and grading on a voluntary basis. The National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce is responsible for fish inspections.

59 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Fish can be purchased fresh or frozen as whole, drawn, dressed, steaks, fillets, and sticks.

60 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Signs of Decay in Fresh Finfish Changes that occur in a fish after death are that: The eyes flatten and become concave. The pupil turns gray or creamy brown. The cornea becomes opaque and discolored. The bright red gills turn a paler brown. Gaping is a sign of aging, or may be a result of rough handling.

61 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
How Much Fish to Buy Per Person: 1⁄3 pound of steaks, fillets, or sticks 1⁄2 pound for dressed 3⁄4 pound for whole or drawn fish .

62 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Surimi: Japanese for “minced meat,” a fabricated fish product usually made from Alaskan pollack, a deep-sea whitefish, which is skinned, deboned, minced, washed, strained, and shaped into pieces to resemble crab, shrimp, or scallops.

63 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Purchasing Live Shellfish Lobsters, crabs, oysters, and clams all may be purchased alive and in their shells. Shellfish are highly perishable. Selecting Live Mollusks Their closed shells pose more of a puzzle. Tapping on the shell should cause it to close more tightly. Purchasing Processed Shellfish Shellfish can also be bought cooked in the shell and chilled or frozen. Shucked shrimp, scallops, oysters, and clams are often breaded and frozen. Oysters can be bought live in the shell, or shucked and then chilled, frozen, or canned. Clams can be bought in the same forms as oysters.

64 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
The majority of meat in a crab is found in its claws and legs. The four top commercially harvested crabs are: Blue crabs from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts Stone crabs from Florida Dungeness crabs from the Pacific coast King crabs from the northern Pacific waters Referred to as either crayfish, crawdads, or crawfish, are small crustaceans averaging 4 ounces in weight. Crayfish are similar in appearance to lobsters but smaller. They are found mainly as a food source in freshwater streams and ponds of the southeastern United States. Crayfish are sold both head-on and tails only, fresh and frozen.

65 Preparation of Fish and Shellfish
Moist-Heat Preparation Poaching Simmering Steaming Clambakes are underground steamings. Microwaving Raw Fish Sashimi (raw fish) X51.ENEMA: ?????????????? Dry-Heat Preparation Baking Broiling Grilling Frying Deep-Fat Fried

66 Storage of Fish and Shellfish
Fresh fish are best consumed within a day or two of purchase. Fish should be stored in the coldest portion of the refrigerator. It should also be tightly wrapped to prevent odors from coming in contact with other foods. Fresh Shellfish Fresh shellfish should be eaten the day they are bought. Crabs, usually sold precooked, should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator and used within a day or two.

67 Storage of Fish and Shellfish
Frozen Freezing greatly extends the keeping time of fish that, depending on the type, can be stored in the freezer up to nine months. Thawing Fish is best thawed by transferring it from the freezer to the refrigerator one day before preparation. Canned and Cured

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