Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definitions and some key gurus MST326 lecture 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definitions and some key gurus MST326 lecture 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definitions and some key gurus MST326 lecture 1

2 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Your lecturer for the module Dr John Summerscales Reader in Composites Engineering  School of Engineering  Reynolds Room 008 )  

3 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definitions (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979) degree of excellence faculty, skill, accomplishment high rank or social standing (logic) being affirmative or negative distinctive character (of sound, voice etc.) concerned with maintenance of high quality (quality control)

4 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definition (Bergman and Klefsjö, 1994) “The quality of a product (article or service) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers”

5 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definition (ISO 8402/ISO 9000) “Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”

6 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality Gurus W Edwards Deming Joseph Juran Philip Crosby Shigeo Shingo Kaoru Ishikawa Yoshio Kondo Taiichi Ohno

7 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming ( ) the key to quality: reducing variation Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1921 PhD, Yale University Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago US census statistician, 1939/40 Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942 invited to Japan after the war.... Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, 1982 Out of the Crisis, 1986/88 British Deming Association, Salisbury

8 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised” quality is about people, not products

9 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming Core element is the “management circle” planning do/implementation check/study action PDCA (or PISA) cycle Continuous improvement (Kaizen) teamwork and competence in problem solving

10 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming “Out of the Crisis” is “required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company” Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars) in Director magazine, September 1988

11 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming Out of the Crisis (1984) having a satisfied customer is not enough profit in business comes from repeat customers customers that boast about your product and service customers that bring friends with them necessary to anticipate customer needs

12 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming fourteen points 1create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products and service 2adopt the new philosophy created in Japan 3cease dependence on mass inspection build quality into the product 4end lowest tender contract: require meaningful quality along with price 5improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service

13 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming fourteen points 6institute modern methods of training on the job for all, including management 7adopt and institute leadership aimed at helping people do a better job 8drive out fear encourage effective two-way communication 9break down barriers between departments and staff areas 10 eliminate exhortations for the workforce they only create adversarial relationships

14 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt W Edwards Deming fourteen points 11 eliminate quotas and numerical targets substitute aid and helpful leadership 12 remove barriers to pride of workmanship including annual appraisals and management by objectives 13 encourage education and self improvement for everyone 14 define top management permanent commitment to ever improving quality and productivity and their obligation to implement all these principles

15 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Joseph Juran ( ) company wide quality cannot be delegated Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s AT&T manufacturing Quality Control Handbook, 1951 Management of Quality courses Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988 died aged 103 of natural causes

16 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Joseph Juran structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management essential for senior managers to involve themselves define the goals assign responsibilities measure progress

17 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Joseph Juran empowerment of the workforce quality linked to human relations and teamwork key elements identifying customers and their needs creating measurements of quality planning processes to meet quality goals continuous improvements

18 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Philip Crosby ( ) conformance to requirements Martin missiles QM at ITT, then corporate VP 1979: Quality is Free Philip Crosby Associates Inc. 1984: Quality without Tears “Do It Right First Time” “Zero Defects”

19 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Philip Crosby Four absolutes of quality management quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as goodness or elegance the system for creating quality is prevention, not appraisal the performance standard must be Zero defects, not that’s close enough the measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance, not indices

20 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Philip Crosby 1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul”

21 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Philip Crosby manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way

22 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby, 1979) Cost of Quality classified as: ¬ Prevention costs ¬ Appraisal costs ¬ Failure costs

23 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Cost of Quality: prevention costs design reviews product qualification drawing checking engineering quality orientation supplier evaluations supplier quality seminars specification review process capability studies tool control operation training quality orientation acceptance planning zero defects programme Quality Audits preventative maintenance

24 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Cost of Quality: appraisal costs prototype inspection and test production specification conformance analysis supplier surveillance receiving inspection and test product acceptance process control acceptance packaging inspection status measurement and reporting

25 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Cost of Quality: failure costs consumer affairs redesign engineering change order purchasing change order corrective action costs rework scrap warranty service after service product liability

26 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Shigeo Shingo ( ) Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing 1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan consultant with Japan Management Ass n 1955: training at Toyota Motor Company 1959: Institute of Management Improvement : concept of Poka-Yoke

27 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Shigeo Shingo Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing identify errors before they become defects stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence 1967: source inspection + improved PY prevented the worker from making errors so that defects could not occur Zero Quality Control

28 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Kaoru Ishikawa ( ) Pareto and cause-and-effect diagrams 1939: engineering. graduate (Tokyo University) 1947: Assistant Professor : Company-wide QC movement 1960: Professor (Tokyo University)

29 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Kaoru Ishikawa “quality does not only mean the quality of the product, but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and human life”

30 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7 of 15) product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced reliability of goods is improved cost is reduced quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are possible wasteful work and rework are reduced technique is established and improved inspection and testing costs are reduced

31 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Kaoru Ishikawa (points 8-15 of 15) rational contracts between vendor/vendee sales market is enlarged better relationships between departments false data and reports are reduced freer, more democratic discussions smoother operation of meetings more rational repairs and installation improved human relations

32 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Yoshio Kondo (b.1924) motivation of employees is important 1945: graduated from Kyoto University 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof 1987 Emeritus Professor 1989: Human Motivation - a key factor for management 1993: Companywide Quality Control leadership is central to implementation of TQM

33 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Yoshio Kondo Human work should include: creativity the joy of thinking physical activity the joy of working with sweat on the forehead sociality the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues

34 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Yoshio Kondo Four points of action to support motivation when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work give time for the creation of ideas nurture ideas and bring them to fruition

35 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Yoshio Kondo Leaders must have a dream (vision and shared goals) strength of will and tenacity of purpose ability to win the support of followers ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone successes ability to give the right advice

36 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Taiichi Ohno ( ) graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company 1939: Toyota Motor as machine shop manager 1988: Workplace Management ~ just-in-time and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing). regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota.

37 11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Ohno: seven forms of waste overproduction waiting transportation motion inventory defects overprocessing


Download ppt "11 January 2007MATS326/gurus.ppt Quality: definitions and some key gurus MST326 lecture 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google