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Quality: definitions and some key gurus

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1 Quality: definitions and some key gurus
MST326 lecture 1 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

2 Your lecturer for the module
Dr John Summerscales Reader in Composites Engineering School of Engineering Reynolds Room 008 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

3 Quality: definitions (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979)
degree of excellence faculty, skill, accomplishment high rank or social standing (logic) being affirmative or negative distinctive character (of sound, voice etc.) concerned with maintenance of high quality (quality control) 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

4 Quality: definition (Bergman and Klefsjö, 1994)
“The quality of a product (article or service) is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers” 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

5 Quality: definition (ISO 8402/ISO 9000)
“Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

6 Quality Gurus W Edwards Deming Joseph Juran Philip Crosby
Shigeo Shingo Kaoru Ishikawa Yoshio Kondo Taiichi Ohno 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

7 W Edwards Deming (1900-1993) the key to quality: reducing variation
Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1921 PhD, Yale University Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago US census statistician, 1939/40 Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942 invited to Japan after the war .... Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, 1982 Out of the Crisis, 1986/88 British Deming Association, Salisbury 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

8 W Edwards Deming regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial success “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised” quality is about people, not products 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

9 W Edwards Deming Core element is the “management circle”
planning do/implementation check/study action PDCA (or PISA) cycle Continuous improvement (Kaizen) teamwork and competence in problem solving 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

10 W Edwards Deming “Out of the Crisis” is “required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company” Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars) in Director magazine, September 1988 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

11 W Edwards Deming Out of the Crisis (1984)
having a satisfied customer is not enough profit in business comes from repeat customers customers that boast about your product and service customers that bring friends with them necessary to anticipate customer needs 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

12 W Edwards Deming fourteen points
1 create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products and service 2 adopt the new philosophy created in Japan 3 cease dependence on mass inspection build quality into the product 4 end lowest tender contract: require meaningful quality along with price 5 improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

13 W Edwards Deming fourteen points
6 institute modern methods of training on the job for all, including management 7 adopt and institute leadership aimed at helping people do a better job 8 drive out fear encourage effective two-way communication 9 break down barriers between departments and staff areas 10 eliminate exhortations for the workforce they only create adversarial relationships 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

14 W Edwards Deming fourteen points
11 eliminate quotas and numerical targets substitute aid and helpful leadership 12 remove barriers to pride of workmanship including annual appraisals and management by objectives 13 encourage education and self improvement for everyone 14 define top management permanent commitment to ever improving quality and productivity and their obligation to implement all these principles 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

15 Joseph Juran (1904-2008) company wide quality cannot be delegated
Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s AT&T manufacturing Quality Control Handbook, 1951 Management of Quality courses Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988 died aged 103 of natural causes 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

16 Joseph Juran structure CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management
essential for senior managers to involve themselves define the goals assign responsibilities measure progress 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

17 Joseph Juran empowerment of the workforce
quality linked to human relations and teamwork key elements identifying customers and their needs creating measurements of quality planning processes to meet quality goals continuous improvements 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

18 Philip Crosby (1926-2001) conformance to requirements
Martin missiles QM at ITT, then corporate VP 1979: Quality is Free Philip Crosby Associates Inc. 1984: Quality without Tears “Do It Right First Time” “Zero Defects” 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

19 Philip Crosby Four absolutes of quality management
quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as goodness or elegance the system for creating quality is prevention, not appraisal the performance standard must be Zero defects, not that’s close enough the measurement of quality is the Price of Nonconformance, not indices 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

20 Philip Crosby 1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul” 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

21 Philip Crosby manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

22 Four Absolutes of Quality Management (Crosby, 1979)
Cost of Quality classified as: Prevention costs Appraisal costs Failure costs 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

23 Cost of Quality: prevention costs
design reviews product qualification drawing checking engineering quality orientation supplier evaluations supplier quality seminars specification review process capability studies tool control operation training quality orientation acceptance planning zero defects programme Quality Audits preventative maintenance 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

24 Cost of Quality: appraisal costs
prototype inspection and test production specification conformance analysis supplier surveillance receiving inspection and test product acceptance process control acceptance packaging inspection status measurement and reporting 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

25 Cost of Quality: failure costs
consumer affairs redesign engineering change order purchasing change order corrective action costs rework scrap warranty service after service product liability 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

26 Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990) Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing
1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan consultant with Japan Management Assn 1955: training at Toyota Motor Company 1959: Institute of Management Improvement : concept of Poka-Yoke 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

27 Shigeo Shingo Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing
identify errors before they become defects stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence 1967: source inspection + improved PY prevented the worker from making errors so that defects could not occur Zero Quality Control 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

28 Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989) Pareto and cause-and-effect diagrams
1939: engineering. graduate (Tokyo University) 1947: Assistant Professor : Company-wide QC movement 1960: Professor (Tokyo University) 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

29 Kaoru Ishikawa “quality does not only mean the quality of the product,
but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and human life” 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

30 Kaoru Ishikawa (points 1-7 of 15)
product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced reliability of goods is improved cost is reduced quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are possible wasteful work and rework are reduced technique is established and improved inspection and testing costs are reduced 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

31 Kaoru Ishikawa (points 8-15 of 15)
rational contracts between vendor/vendee sales market is enlarged better relationships between departments false data and reports are reduced freer, more democratic discussions smoother operation of meetings more rational repairs and installation improved human relations 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

32 Yoshio Kondo (b.1924) motivation of employees is important
1945: graduated from Kyoto University 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof 1987 Emeritus Professor 1989: Human Motivation - a key factor for management 1993: Companywide Quality Control leadership is central to implementation of TQM 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

33 Yoshio Kondo Human work should include: creativity physical activity
the joy of thinking physical activity the joy of working with sweat on the forehead sociality the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

34 Yoshio Kondo Four points of action to support motivation
when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work give time for the creation of ideas nurture ideas and bring them to fruition 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

35 Yoshio Kondo Leaders must have a dream (vision and shared goals)
strength of will and tenacity of purpose ability to win the support of followers ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone successes ability to give the right advice 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

36 Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990) graduated with mech eng degree from Nogoya
worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company 1939: Toyota Motor as machine shop manager 1988: Workplace Management ~ just-in-time and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing). regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota. 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

37 Ohno: seven forms of waste
overproduction waiting transportation motion inventory defects overprocessing 11 January 2007 MATS326/gurus.ppt

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