2Chapter Fourteen Outline Trait and Behavioral Theories of LeadershipTrait TheoryBehavioral Styles TheorySituational TheoriesFiedler’s Contingency ModelPath-Goal TheoryHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
3Chapter Fourteen Outline (continued) 14-1bChapter Fourteen Outline (continued)From Transactional to Charismatic LeadershipHow Does Charismatic Leadership Transform Followers?Research and Managerial ImplicationsAdditional Perspectives on LeadershipThe Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of LeadershipSubstitutes for LeadershipServant-LeadershipSuperleadership
414-2aTrait TheoryLeadership Traits: represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers.Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledgeContemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent
5Trait Theory (continued) 14-2bTrait Theory (continued)Gender and leadership- men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively- women used a more democratic or participative style than men, and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women- men and women were equally assertive- women executives, when rated by their peers, managers and direct reports, scored higher than their male counterparts on a variety of effectiveness criteria
6Behavioral Styles Theory 14-3Behavioral Styles TheoryOhio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. 1. Consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers 2. Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doingUniversity of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centeredBlake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for peopleResearch shows that there is not one best style of leadership. The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.
7Representation of Fiedler’s Contingency Model 14-5Figure 14-1Situational ControlHigh Control SituationsModerate Control SituationsLow Control SituationsLeader-member relationsTask StructurePosition PowerGood Good GoodHigh High HighStrong Weak StrongGood Poor PoorLow High HighWeak Strong StrongPoor PoorLow LowStrong WeakSituationI II IIIIV V VIVII VIIIOptimal Leadership StyleTask Motivated LeadershipRelationship Motivated LeadershipTask Motivated Leadership
8House’s Path-Goal Theory 14-6Figure 14-2Employee Characteristics - Locus of control - Task ability - Need for achievement - Experience - Need for clarityLeadership Styles - Directive - Supportive - Participative - Achievement orientedEmployee Attitudes and Behavior - Job satisfaction - Acceptance of leader - MotivationEnvironmental Factors - Employee’s task - Authority system - Work group
9Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory 14-7Figure 14-3Leader BehaviorHighParticipatingS3Share ideas andfacilitate indecision makingSellingS2Explain decisions andprovide opportunity forclarificationRelationship Behavior (supportive behavior)DelegatingS4Turn overresponsibility fordecisions andimplementationTellingS1Provide specificinstructions and closelysupervise performanceLowLowTask BehaviorHighFollower Readiness High Moderate Low R R R2 R1Follower-Directed Leader-Directed
10Skills and Best Practices: Tips for Improving Leader Effectiveness 14-4Behavior Recommended BehaviorsListenIntensely listen to what others have to say. Determine the true cause of performance problems.ExamineThink through problems from all perspectives. Do not play favorites and find solutions that benefit everyone involved.AssistHelp others to learn from mistakes and errors.DevelopExplain the rationale for decisions and implement fair policies and procedures.EncourageProvide employees with the resources needed to do a job. Gently push people to advance into more demanding roles.RecognizePraise people for their good work. Focus on the positive whenever possible.Source: “CEO’s Need to Listen, Examine, Assist,” The Arizona Republic, April 22, 2001, p D2.
11Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership Transactional Leadership: focuses on the interpersonal interactions between managers and employeesTransactional Leaders - use contingent rewards to motivate employees - exert corrective action only when employees fail to obtain performance goals
12Transactional versus Charismatic Leadership (continued) 14-8bCharismatic Leadership: emphasizes symbolic leader behavior that transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interestsCharismatic Leaders - use visionary and inspirational messages - rely on non-verbal communication - appeal to ideological values - attempt to intellectually stimulate employees - display confidence in self and followers - set high performance expectationsFor class discussion: Should a leader be both transactional and charismatic? Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers?
13Charismatic Model of Leadership Figure 14-4aIndividual andOrganizationalCharacteristicsLeader behaviorEffects on followers and work groupsOutcomesTraitsPersonal commitment to leader and visionLeader establishes a visionIncreased intrinsic motivation, achievement orientation, and goal pursuitOrganizational Culture
14Charismatic Model of Leadership (cont) 14-9bFigure 14-4bIndividual andOrganizationalCharacteristicsLeader behaviorEffects on followers and work groupsOutcomesTraitsSelf-sacrificial behaviorOrganizational commitmentTask meaningfulness and satisfactionIncreased individual group, and organizational performanceLeader establishes high performance expectations and displays confidence in him/herself and the collective ability to realize the visionLeader models the desired values, traits, beliefs, and behaviors needed to realize the visionIncreased identification with the leader and the collective interests of organizational membersIncreased cohesion among workgroup membersIncreased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interests in goal accomplishmentIncreased role modeling of charismatic leadershipOrganizational Culture
15The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model) 14-10This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. - in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking - out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and likingResearch supports this model
16Substitutes for Leadership 14-12Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for leadership represent situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership.Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance.
17Substitutes for Leadership Table 14-1aCharacteristicRelationship-Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is UnnecessaryTask-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is UnnecessaryOf the Subordinate1. Ability, experience, training, knowledgeX2. Need for Independence3. “Professional” orientation4. Indifference toward organizational rewardsOf the Task5. Unambiguous and Routine6. Methodically invariant7. Provides its own feedback concerningaccomplishment8. Intrinsically satisfying.
18Substitutes for Leadership (cont) Table 14-1bCharacteristicRelationship-Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is UnnecessaryTask-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is UnnecessaryOf the Organization9. Formalization (explicit plans, goals, and areasof responsibility)X10. Inflexibility (rigid, unbending rules andprocedures)11. Highly specified and active advisory and stafffunctions12. Closely knit, cohesive work groups13. Organizational rewards not with the leader’scontrol14. Spatial distance between superior andsubordinateSource: Adapted from S Kerr and J M Jermier, “Substitutes for Leadership:Their Meaning and Measurement,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, December 1978, pp
19Servant and Superleadership 14-14Servant and SuperleadershipServant Leadership represents a philosophy in which leaders focus on increased service to others rather than to oneself.A superleader is someone who leads others to lead themselves by developing employees’ self-management skills.Superleaders attempt to increase employees’ feelings of personal control and intrinsic motivation.
20Characteristics of the Servant-Leader Table 14-2a1. Listening Servant-leaders focus on listening to identify and clarify the needs and desires of a group.2. Empathy Servant-leaders try to empathize with others’ feelings and emotion. An individual’s good intentions are assumed even when he or she performs poorly.3. Healing Servant-leaders strive to make themselves and others whole in the face of failure or suffering.4. Awareness Servant-leaders are very self-aware or their strengths and limitations.
21Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued 14-15bTable 14-15bCharacteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued)5. Persuasion Servant-leaders rely more on persuasion than positional authority when making decisions and trying to influence others.6. Conceptualization Servant-leaders take the time and effort to develop broader based conceptual thinking. Servant-leaders seek an appropriate balance between a short term, day-to-day focus and a long-term, conceptual orientation.7. Foresight Servant-leaders have the ability to foresee future outcomes associated with a current course of action or situation.
22Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued) Table 14-2cCharacteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued)8. Stewardship Servant-leaders assume that they are stewards of the people and resources they manage.9. Commitment to Servant-leaders are committed to people the growth of beyond their immediate work role. They people commit to fostering an environment that encourages personal, professional, and spiritual growth.10. Building Servant-leaders strive to create a sense of Community community both within and outside the work organization.