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Chapter 21: The War to End War It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the ineptitude and stubbornness.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21: The War to End War It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the ineptitude and stubbornness."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21: The War to End War It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the ineptitude and stubbornness of President Wilson that led to the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles.

2 Wilson’s Failure to Keep the US Out of War Jan. 1917 Unrestricted sub warfare Would sink all ships in war zone, including US ships −GER was losing, its people were starving due to BR blockade They hoped to knock BR out of the war before the US could get in Wilson broke off diplomatic ties Many wanted continued isolationism

3 War by Act of Germany Zimmerman Note (Feb. 1917): BR intercept secret telegram to ambassador for GER in Mexico −If they attacked the US, Mex. was promised TX, NM, ARIZ **Japan: GER also proposes that Japan will get all US owned islands in Pacific **Easter Uprising: Apr 20, 1916 −Irish rebellion organized w/help from GER to distract GB

4 War by Act of Germany March 1917 Germany sinks 4 US ships Russian Revolution (1917) −The US could now fight in the war for “democracy” April 2, 1917 - Wilson asked for a declaration of war from Congress −Neutral trade failed −Germany killing our civilians President Wilson viewed America’s entry into WWI as an opportunity for the US to shape a new international order based on the ideals of democracy

5 Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned Declaration of war - Make the world “safe for democracy” −GER sub policy = “warfare against mankind” − “the war to end all wars” Americans = Isolationists – Wilson needed to be convincing American businesses were making $$ from war “Push Back” from Congress Wilson compared the selfish motives of the other Allies & also Central Powers, who fought for territory or riches, with America’s selflessness Jeanette Rankin – first female Congressional member - MO (against war)

6 Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points Strong spirit of war Jan. 8, 1918: Fourteen Points speech to Congress −Keep Russia in the war −Inspired all the Allies −Demoralized enemies The Fourteen Points’ most important points: −Abolish secret treaties − Freedom of the seas −Free trade −Reduction of armaments −Adjustment of colonial claims in interests of both native peoples and colonial powers (Opposed by some in Congress) −“self determination” for minority groups in a country − League of Nations, an international organization that would provide collective security, protecting large and small countries from aggression (Caused a lot of conflict!)* Does this force us to protect allies, or give up sovereignty?

7 Creel Manipulates Minds Committee on Public Information created, headed by journalist George Creel −Purpose was to get the US public to support the war and the rest of the world to support Wilson’s goals 75,000 “four-minute men” Posters, leaflets, pamphlets, booklets sent out Anti-German movies (“To Hell with the Kaiser”) showed supposed German brutality Conductors led audiences in patriotic songs −Most famous song from the time was “Over There” Creel was able to get the country & world behind Wilson, but many came to expect too much  later led to disillusionment & anger

8 The Most Famous Recruitment Poster

9 The Nation’s Factories Go to War The country was unprepared for the war −Council of National Defense to study problems of economic mobilization −Launched a shipbuilding program (trade & navy) −Slightly increased the size of the army (which had only 100,000 men, 15th in the world) The War Industries Board: Created late in the war (March 1918) −Bernard Baruch −Never had much power over the economy; was disbanded right after the end of the war −Had control over raw materials & prices −Disliked by Americans – too socialist

10 Workers in Wartime War Department had a “ work or fight ” policy National War Labor Board: Taft, chairman −Worked to fix disputes between labor and management that might hurt war production −Raises and 8-hr work day −Did not give unions what they most wanted: a government guarantee of the right to organize American Federation of Labor (AFofL) under Gompers supported the war & membership doubled, wages increased Radical unions (IWW) didn’t support the war −Represented the poorest of workers & worst working conditions −When they protested, many were viciously beaten or arrested Labor grievances included no right to organize, inflation caused by war, violence against workers by employers, use of African-Americans as strikebreakers

11 Workers in Wartime Great Migration: African-Americans go north for jobs, fewer immigrants to compete with. Southern blacks migrated to Northern cities - poverty, lynchings, Jim Crowism

12 Forging a War Economy Wartime mobilization agencies relied on voluntary compliance to prepare the economy for war Food Administration: H. Hoover −“Wheatless Wednesdays,” “Meatless Tuesdays,” victory gardens High use of propaganda −18 th Amendment prohibited alcohol – needed the grain −Farm production up  daylight savings time

13 Forging a War Economy Food production increased by 25% & exports to the Allies tripled Fuel: H. Garfield −”Heatless Mondays,” “Gasless Sundays,” coal production Railroads: William G. McAdoo  Sec. of Treasury −Took over rrs to increase traffic flow −Liberty bond campaigns

14 Forging a War Economy War Finance: Buy Liberty Bonds − Most $$$ to finance the war came from loans −War Revenue Act (1917) raised $12 bil. in taxes −Borrowed $21 bil in loans −Sometimes people were intimidated into buying bonds


16 Making Plowboys into Doughboys the US DID have to send troops to Europe for the Allies to win (they were running out of soldiers) *Selective Service Act (1917) all males from 17-30 −*conscription (draft) necessary to raise the #s of soldiers needed No exemptions possible (unlike in C.W.) Workers in important industries were exempt 2.8 million of the 4.7 million who served were drafted

17 America Helps Hammer the “Hun” War ended just in time for the Allies, since supplies were running short GER surrendered because: −Their allies were deserting them −BR blockade caused critical food shortages −Hard attacks by Allies were relentless −Allied propaganda gave GER citizens & soldiers hope of a fair peace Oct 1918 GER asked Wilson for peace based on 14 Points −Wilson told them to overthrow the kaiser first He was exiled to Holland

18 * armistice: cease-fire so a peace treaty can be decided upon Nov. 11, 1918, ends 11:00 on 11th day of 11th month

19 The Fourteen Points Disarm GER Main US contributions to the war were food, war supplies, credit (money to Allies), oil, and manpower US did not contribute battlefield victories −GER was defeated by the prospect of large numbers of troops from the US, not the actual performance of US soldiers

20 An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris Big 4: Wilson [US], Lloyd-George [GB], Clemenceau [FR], & Orlando [ITALY]; Palace −Wilson’s ultimate goal was L. of N. (international assembly) Also wanted to prevent allied taking of territory, national self- determination for small European nations, free trade, freedom of seas “Gold Star” Mothers Leaders of the four major victorious powers— Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando, President Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States—met in 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference. A gold star on a service flag

21 The 1920 Election Harding’s victory was a death sentence for the League of Nations. -The League eventually had no influence b/c the U.S did not join

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