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Chapter Fourteen Lymphatic and Immune Systems

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1 Chapter Fourteen Lymphatic and Immune Systems

2 In this chapter you will
Identify the structures and analyze terms related to the lymphatic system. Learn terms that describe the basic elements of the immune system. Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context.

3 Lymph Watery fluid that surrounds body cells and flows in a system of lymph vessels Contains WBCs, lymphocytes and monocytes. Contains water, salts, sugars, and waste products of metabolism.

4 Lymph Nodes Clusters of lymph tissues. Functions of lymph system
Transports proteins back to blood Absorb fats and transport back to blood Important role is immune system


6 Interstitial fluid and lymph capillaries – page 547

7 Figure 14-2 p. 547 – Blood and lymph circulation

8 SPLEEN – page 550 Destroys old red blood cells.
Filters microorganisms and other foreign material out of the blood. Activates lymphocytes during blood filtration. B cells produce antibodies. Stores blood, especially erythrocytes (RBCs) and platelets

9 Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue
Thymus gland Located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs Secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes, which are important in the immune response

10 THYMUS GLAND – page 550 Provides immunity in fetal life
and in early years of growth. Makes cells immunocompetent in early life. Early removal from an animal impairs its ability to make antibodies and produce cells to fight antigens.

11 Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue
Tonsils Help protect against bacteria and other harmful substances that may enter the body through the nose or mouth

12 The Immune System

13 Types of Immunity – page 551

14 Immune Response – page 533 B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity. originate in bone marrow from stem cells transform into plasma cells to produce immunoglobulins, antibodies that neutralize antigens

15 Immune Response (cont’d)
T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. The function of T cells varies: Cytotoxic T cells (T8 cells) attach to and attack antigens. Other T cells secrete interferons and interleukins that help cells respond to antigens. Helper T cells promote antibody synthesis by B cells and stimulate other T cells. Suppressor T cells inhibit B and T cells.

16 The Immune Response

17 Immunotherapy Examples
Vaccines: killed tumor cells produce cytokines that enhance the immune response Dendritic cells: cultured and exposed outside body and reinfused Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb): multiple copies of cells or genes that kill tumor cells Donor lymphocyte infusions: T cells, infused after allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow transplant, attack tumor (leukemia treatment)

18 Vocabulary – pages Adenoids – mass of lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx Antibody – Protein produced by b cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens Antigen – substance body recognizes as foreign.

19 Vocabulary Cervical nodes – lymph nodes in neck region.
Inguinal nodes – lymph nodes in the groin region. Lymph – thin watery fluid found in lymphatic vessels

20 Review Vocabulary Words

21 Lymphatic and Immune Systems Combining Forms and prefixes

22 COMBINING FORMS immun/o protection lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph node splen/o spleen thym/o thymus gland tox/o poison

23 PREFIXES PREFIXES ana- again, anew inter- between Prefix Meaning

24 Terminology

25 autoimmune diseases Auto immun/o: protection Self protection

26 immunoglobulin immun/o - protection Globulin - protein
Protection protein

27 Immunosuppression immun/o -suppression: to stop To stop protection

28 lymphopoiesis lymph/o: lymph -poiesis: formation Formation of lymph

29 lymphedema lymph/o: lymph -edema: swelling lymph swelling

30 lymphocytopenia lymph/o - lymph cyt/o - cell -penia - deficiency
Deficiency of lymph cells in the blood.

31 lymphocytosis lymph/o: lymph -cytosis: increase in numbers of cells
An increase in numbers of lymphocytes.

32 lymphoid lymph/o -oid: resembling Derived from lymph.
Lymphoid organs: lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland

33 lymphadenopathy lymphaden/o: lymph node (gland)
-pathy – disease condition Disease condition of lymph nodes.

34 lymphadenitis lymphaden/o – lymph node -itis - inflammation
Inflammation of lymph nodes.

35 splenomegaly splen/o: spleen -megaly - enlargement
Enlargement of the spleen

36 splenectomy splen/o -ectomy Removal of the spleen.

37 hypersplenism hyper- excessive splen/o - spleen -ism – condition of
Condition of excessive spleen A syndrome marked by splenomegaly (associated with anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia).

38 thymoma thym/o: thymus gland -oma Tumor of the thymus gland malignant

39 thymectomy thym/o -ectomy Removal of the thymus gland.

40 toxic tox/o: poison -ic Pertaining to poison.

41 anaphylaxis ana-: away from, backward, up, apart -phylaxis: protection
Away from protection An exaggerated, life-threatening, hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins

42 interstitial fluid inter-: between
-stitial: pertaining to standing or positioned Pertaining to fluid that is positioned between (body cells) Eventually becomes lymph fluid

43 Disorders of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Immunodeficiency Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) destroys T helper cells (CD4+ cells) opportunistic infections malignancies (Kaposi sarcoma, Wasting syndrome)

44 Kaposi Sarcoma

45 Opportunistic Infections with AIDS – Page 558
Candidiasis Cryptococcus (Crypto) Cryptosporidiosis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection Herpes simplex Histoplasmosis (Histo) Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) Toxoplasmosis (Toxo) Tuberculosis (TB)

Allergy: abnormal sensitivity acquired by exposure to antigen Ranges from allergic rhinitis or hay fever to anaphylaxis Other allergies: atopic dermatitis asthma urticaria (hives)

47 Atopic Dermatitis

48 MALIGNANCIES – page 560 Lymphoma: malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue Hodgkin disease (Reed-Sternberg cell) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma, large cell lymphoma) Multiple myeloma: malignant tumor of bone marrow cells Thymoma: malignant tumor of the thymus

49 Staging of Hodgkin Disease

50 QUICK QUIZ: 3. What is a malignant condition associated with AIDS?
anaphylaxis non-Hodgkin lymphoma Kaposi sarcoma Hodgkin disease

51 Abbreviations – p. 563 AIDS CD4+ ELISA
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome CD4+ Protein on T-cell helper lymphocyte that is infected with HIV in AIDS ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies

52 Abbreviations HIV PCP T4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Causes AIDS
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Opportunistic AIDS-related infection T4 T-cell lymphocyte that is destroyed by the AIDS virus (helper T cells)

53 REVIEW SHEET axill/o armpit cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
COMBINING FORMS axill/o armpit cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus) immun/o immune;protection;safe inguin/o groin lymph/o lymph lymphaden/o lymph gland (node) Suffix Meaning

54 REVIEW SHEET splen/o spleen thym/o thymus gland tox/o poison
COMBINING FORMS splen/o spleen thym/o thymus gland tox/o poison Suffix Meaning

55 REVIEW SHEET -cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers
SUFFIXES -cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers -edema swelling -globulin protein -megaly enlargement -oid resembling -pathy disease; emotion Suffix Meaning

56 REVIEW SHEET -penia deficiency -phylaxis protection -poiesis formation
SUFFIXES -penia deficiency -phylaxis protection -poiesis formation -stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned -suppression to stop Suffix Meaning

57 REVIEW SHEET ana- up; apart; backward; again; anew auto- self; own
PREFIXES ana- up; apart; backward; again; anew auto- self; own hyper- above; excessive inter- between retro- behind; back; backward Suffix Meaning

58 QUICK QUIZ: 4. What is the fluid that lies between cells throughout the body? A. atopy B. lymphadema C. interstitial D. lymphopoiesis

59 The End

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