2In this chapter you will Identify the structures and analyze terms related to the lymphatic system.Learn terms that describe the basic elements of the immune system.Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context.
3LymphWatery fluid that surrounds body cells and flows in a system of lymph vesselsContains WBCs, lymphocytes and monocytes.Contains water, salts, sugars, and waste products of metabolism.
4Lymph Nodes Clusters of lymph tissues. Functions of lymph system Transports proteins back to bloodAbsorb fats and transport back to bloodImportant role is immune system
8SPLEEN – page 550 Destroys old red blood cells. Filters microorganisms andother foreign material out ofthe blood.Activates lymphocytes duringblood filtration. B cellsproduce antibodies.Stores blood, especiallyerythrocytes (RBCs) andplatelets
9Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue Thymus glandLocated in the upper mediastinum between the lungsSecretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes, which are important in the immune response
10THYMUS GLAND – page 550 Provides immunity in fetal life and in early years of growth.Makes cells immunocompetentin early life.Early removal from an animalimpairs its ability to makeantibodies and produce cells tofight antigens.
11Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue TonsilsHelp protect against bacteria and other harmful substances that may enter the body through the nose or mouth
14Immune Response – page 533B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity.originate in bone marrow from stem cellstransform into plasma cells to produce immunoglobulins, antibodies that neutralize antigens
15Immune Response (cont’d) T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. The function of T cells varies:Cytotoxic T cells (T8 cells) attach to and attack antigens.Other T cells secrete interferons and interleukins that help cells respond to antigens.Helper T cells promote antibody synthesis by B cells and stimulate other T cells.Suppressor T cells inhibit B and T cells.
17Immunotherapy Examples Vaccines: killed tumor cells produce cytokines that enhance the immune responseDendritic cells: cultured and exposed outside body and reinfusedMonoclonal antibodies (MoAb): multiple copies of cells or genes that kill tumor cellsDonor lymphocyte infusions: T cells, infused after allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow transplant, attack tumor (leukemia treatment)
18Vocabulary – pagesAdenoids – mass of lymphatic tissue in nasopharynxAntibody – Protein produced by b cell lymphocytes to destroy antigensAntigen – substance body recognizes as foreign.
19Vocabulary Cervical nodes – lymph nodes in neck region. Inguinal nodes – lymph nodes in the groin region.Lymph – thin watery fluid found in lymphatic vessels
41anaphylaxis ana-: away from, backward, up, apart -phylaxis: protection Away from protectionAn exaggerated, life-threatening, hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins
42interstitial fluid inter-: between -stitial: pertaining to standing or positionedPertaining to fluid that is positioned between (body cells)Eventually becomes lymph fluid
43Disorders of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems ImmunodeficiencyAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)destroys T helper cells (CD4+ cells)opportunistic infectionsmalignancies(Kaposi sarcoma, Wasting syndrome)
45Opportunistic Infections with AIDS – Page 558 CandidiasisCryptococcus (Crypto)CryptosporidiosisCytomegalovirus (CMV) infectionHerpes simplexHistoplasmosis (Histo)Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) infectionPneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)Toxoplasmosis (Toxo)Tuberculosis (TB)
46HYPERSENSITIVITY – page 560 Allergy: abnormal sensitivity acquired by exposure to antigenRanges fromallergic rhinitis or hay fever to anaphylaxisOther allergies:atopic dermatitisasthmaurticaria (hives)
48MALIGNANCIES – page 560Lymphoma: malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissueHodgkin disease (Reed-Sternberg cell)Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma, large cell lymphoma)Multiple myeloma: malignant tumor of bone marrow cellsThymoma: malignant tumor of the thymus
50QUICK QUIZ: 3. What is a malignant condition associated with AIDS? anaphylaxisnon-Hodgkin lymphomaKaposi sarcomaHodgkin disease
51Abbreviations – p. 563 AIDS CD4+ ELISA Acquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeCD4+Protein on T-cell helper lymphocyte that is infected with HIV in AIDSELISAEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssayTest to detect anti-HIV antibodies
52Abbreviations HIV PCP T4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Causes AIDS Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaOpportunistic AIDS-related infectionT4T-cell lymphocyte that is destroyed by the AIDS virus (helper T cells)
53REVIEW SHEET axill/o armpit cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus) COMBINING FORMSaxill/o armpitcervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)immun/o immune;protection;safeinguin/o groinlymph/o lymphlymphaden/o lymph gland (node)Suffix Meaning
55REVIEW SHEET -cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers SUFFIXES-cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers-edema swelling-globulin protein-megaly enlargement-oid resembling-pathy disease; emotionSuffix Meaning
56REVIEW SHEET -penia deficiency -phylaxis protection -poiesis formation SUFFIXES-penia deficiency-phylaxis protection-poiesis formation-stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned-suppression to stopSuffix Meaning