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Chapter Fourteen Lymphatic and Immune Systems Chapter 14
In this chapter you will Identify the structures and analyze terms related to the lymphatic system. Learn terms that describe the basic elements of the immune system. Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context.
Lymph Watery fluid that surrounds body cells and flows in a system of lymph vessels Contains WBCs, lymphocytes and monocytes. Contains water, salts, sugars, and waste products of metabolism.
Lymph Nodes Clusters of lymph tissues. Functions of lymph system Transports proteins back to blood Transports proteins back to blood Absorb fats and transport back to blood Absorb fats and transport back to blood Important role is immune system Important role is immune system
Interstitial fluid and lymph capillaries – page 547
Figure 14-2 p. 547 – Blood and lymph circulation
SPLEEN – page 550 Destroys old red blood cells. Filters microorganisms and other foreign material out of the blood. Activates lymphocytes during blood filtration. B cells produce antibodies. Stores blood, especially erythrocytes (RBCs) and platelets
Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue Thymus gland Located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs Located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs Secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes, which are important in the immune response Secretes a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes, which are important in the immune response
THYMUS GLAND – page 550 Provides immunity in fetal life and in early years of growth. Makes cells immunocompetent in early life. Early removal from an animal impairs its ability to make antibodies and produce cells to fight antigens.
Specialized Lymphatic Organs: organs composed of lymph tissue Tonsils Help protect against bacteria and other harmful substances that may enter the body through the nose or mouth Help protect against bacteria and other harmful substances that may enter the body through the nose or mouth
The Immune System
Types of Immunity – page 551
Immune Response – page 533 B lymphocytes are responsible for humoral immunity. originate in bone marrow from stem cells originate in bone marrow from stem cells transform into plasma cells to produce immunoglobulins, antibodies that neutralize antigens transform into plasma cells to produce immunoglobulins, antibodies that neutralize antigens
Immune Response (cont’d) T lymphocytes are responsible for cell- mediated immunity. The function of T cells varies: Cytotoxic T cells (T8 cells) attach to and attack antigens. Cytotoxic T cells (T8 cells) attach to and attack antigens. Other T cells secrete interferons and interleukins that help cells respond to antigens. Other T cells secrete interferons and interleukins that help cells respond to antigens. Helper T cells promote antibody synthesis by B cells and stimulate other T cells. Helper T cells promote antibody synthesis by B cells and stimulate other T cells. Suppressor T cells inhibit B and T cells. Suppressor T cells inhibit B and T cells.
The Immune Response
Immunotherapy Examples Vaccines: killed tumor cells produce cytokines that enhance the immune response Dendritic cells: cultured and exposed outside body and reinfused Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb): multiple copies of cells or genes that kill tumor cells Donor lymphocyte infusions: T cells, infused after allogeneic stem cell or bone marrow transplant, attack tumor (leukemia treatment)
Vocabulary – pages Adenoids – mass of lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx Antibody – Protein produced by b cell lymphocytes to destroy antigens Antigen – substance body recognizes as foreign.
Vocabulary Cervical nodes – lymph nodes in neck region. Inguinal nodes – lymph nodes in the groin region. Lymph – thin watery fluid found in lymphatic vessels
Review Vocabulary Words
Lymphatic and Immune Systems Combining Forms and prefixes p
splenomegaly splen/o: spleen -megaly - enlargement Enlargement of the spleen
splenectomy splen/o-ectomy Removal of the spleen.
hypersplenism hyper- excessive splen/o - spleen -ism – condition of Condition of excessive spleen A syndrome marked by splenomegaly (associated with anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia). A syndrome marked by splenomegaly (associated with anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia).
thymoma thym/o: thymus gland -oma Tumor of the thymus gland malignant malignant
thymectomy thym/o-ectomy Removal of the thymus gland.
toxic tox/o: poison -ic Pertaining to poison.
anaphylaxis ana-: away from, backward, up, apart -phylaxis: protection Away from protection An exaggerated, life-threatening, hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins An exaggerated, life-threatening, hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins
interstitial fluid inter-: between -stitial: pertaining to standing or positioned Pertaining to fluid that is positioned between (body cells) Eventually becomes lymph fluid Eventually becomes lymph fluid
Disorders of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems Immunodeficiency Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) destroys T helper cells (CD4+ cells) destroys T helper cells (CD4+ cells) opportunistic infections opportunistic infections malignancies malignancies (Kaposi sarcoma, Wasting syndrome)
HYPERSENSITIVITY – page 560 Allergy: abnormal sensitivity acquired by exposure to antigen Ranges from Ranges from allergic rhinitis or hay fever to anaphylaxis Other allergies: Other allergies: atopic dermatitis asthma urticaria (hives)
MALIGNANCIES – page 560 Lymphoma: malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue Hodgkin disease (Reed-Sternberg cell) Hodgkin disease (Reed-Sternberg cell) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma, large cell lymphoma) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma, large cell lymphoma) Multiple myeloma: malignant tumor of bone marrow cells Thymoma: malignant tumor of the thymus
Staging of Hodgkin Disease
QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 3. What is a malignant condition associated with AIDS? A.anaphylaxis B.non-Hodgkin lymphoma C.Kaposi sarcoma D.Hodgkin disease
Abbreviations – p. 563 AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Acquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeCD4+ Protein on T-cell helper lymphocyte that is infected with HIV in AIDS Protein on T-cell helper lymphocyte that is infected with HIV in AIDSELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies Test to detect anti-HIV antibodies
Abbreviations HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Causes AIDS Causes AIDSPCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Opportunistic AIDS-related infection Opportunistic AIDS-related infectionT4 T-cell lymphocyte that is destroyed by the AIDS virus (helper T cells) T-cell lymphocyte that is destroyed by the AIDS virus (helper T cells)
COMBINING FORMS axill/o armpit cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus) immun/o immune;protection;safe inguin/o groin lymph/o lymph lymphaden/o lymph gland (node) Suffix Meaning REVIEW SHEET
COMBINING FORMS splen/o spleen thym/o thymus gland tox/o poison Suffix Meaning REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES -cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers -edema swelling -globulin protein -megaly enlargement -oid resembling -pathy disease; emotion Suffix Meaning REVIEW SHEET
SUFFIXES -penia deficiency -phylaxis protection -poiesis formation -stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned -suppression to stop Suffix Meaning REVIEW SHEET
PREFIXES ana- up; apart; backward; again; anew auto- self; own hyper- above; excessive inter- between retro- behind; back; backward Suffix Meaning REVIEW SHEET
QUICK QUIZ: QUICK QUIZ: 4. What is the fluid that lies between cells throughout the body? A. atopy B. lymphadema C. interstitial D. lymphopoiesis