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Chapter Fourteen Personality. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 2 Question Which of the following parts of Freud’s model.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fourteen Personality. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 2 Question Which of the following parts of Freud’s model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Fourteen Personality

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 2 Question Which of the following parts of Freud’s model of the structure of personality most closely resembles what most people would call a person’s conscience? a)Id b)Ego c)Superego d)Unconscious

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 3 Answer Choice c is correct. The superego is created via internalizing parental and societal values. It is the component of personality that tells a person what they should and should not do. (Chapter 14, The Structure of Personality section)

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 4 Question When I come home and kick the dog because I’m mad that 50% of my students failed a test, I am showing evidence of which of the following defense mechanisms? a)Repression b)Projection c)Sublimation d)Displacement

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 5 Answer Choice d is correct. Displacement is demonstrated when one deflects an impulse, in this case an aggressive one, from an original target to a less threatening one. (Chapter 14, The Structure of Personality section)

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 6 Question Freud suggested that the ___________ involves young boys’ sexual feelings for their mother and the desire to eliminate their father. According to Freud, this conflict arises during the ____________ stage of psychosexual development. a)Oedipus complex; phallic b)Oedipus complex; genital c)Electra complex; anal d)Electra complex; latency

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 7 Answer Choice a is correct. Freud termed these impulses in little boys the Oedipus complex, based on the classical Greek play Oedipus Rex. He also suggested that such impulses play a prominent role in the phallic stage of psychosexual development, between the ages of three and five. (Chapter 14, Stages of Personality Development)

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 8 Question Having now heard the details of Freud’s theory of personality, I believe that it provides a good explanation for personality. a)Strongly agree b)Agree c)Neutral d)Disagree e)Strongly disagree

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 9 Answer Polling question: no correct response

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 10 Question Psychologists taking the __________ approach view personality as a combination of stable characteristics that people display over time and across different situations. a)psychodynamic b)trait c)social-cognitive d)humanistic

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 11 Answer Choice b is correct. Trait theorists hold the view that personality is the construct represented by temporally and situationally consistent personal characteristics. This view stands in contrast to the other theories represented by the other answer choices. (Chapter 14, The Trait Approach section)

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 12 Question A student in your class is very studious and hard working. She is never late for class and always hands in assignments on time. It is likely that she would score high on which of the following dimensions of the big-five model of personality? a)Openness b)Conscientiousness c)Extraversion d)Agreeableness e)Neuroticism

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 13 Answer Choice b is correct. Individuals scoring high on the conscientiousness dimension would typically be described as follows: efficient, organized, reliable, thorough, dependable, and productive. These descriptors capture the essence of this student’s behavior. (Chapter 14, The Big- Five Model of Personality section)

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 14 Question What is your current belief about the relative contributions of nature (genetics) and nurture (environment) to personality? I believe that personality is about ______ nature and about ______ nurture. a)100%; 0% b)80%; 20% c)60%; 40% d)40%; 60% e)20%; 80% f)0%; 100%

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 15 Answer Polling question: no correct response

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 16 Question In the children’s story The Little Engine That Could, the little blue engine repeatedly says to himself, “I think I can. I think I can. I think I can.” Such statements seem to indicate that the little blue engine has high levels of ___________, as outlined by Albert Bandura in his social- cognitive theory of personality. a)self-esteem b)superego c)self-efficacy d)self-determinism

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 17 Answer Choice c is correct. Self-efficacy involves the belief that one can successfully perform the behaviors necessary in a given situation. It is important because it affects the effort a person will expend in a given situation, a person’s persistence in the face of obstacles, and the likelihood that the individual will give up in the face of obstacles. (Chapter 14, Prominent Social-Cognitive Theories section)

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 18 Question Which of the following individuals is associated with the humanistic approach to personality? a)Rogers b)Watson c)Freud d)Mischel

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 19 Answer Choice a is correct. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are two major figures in humanistic approaches to personality. (Chapter 14, Prominent Humanistic Theories section)

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 20 Question When we raise concerns about a personality test’s ___________, we are concerned that it may not measure what it is purported to measure. a)objectivity b)standardization c)reliability d)validity

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 21 Answer Choice d is correct. Validity is concerned with the degree to which a measure actually measures what it was designed to measure. Reliability, in contrast, is concerned with the stability or consistency of results from a measure. (Chapter 14, Assessing Personality section)

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 22 Question Which of the following is a prototypical example of an objective personality test? a)MMPI-2 b)TAT c)Rorschach d)WAIS

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 23 Answer Choice a is correct. The MMPI-2 is an objective personality test that includes clear, specific questions to which the test-taker responds. It stands in contrast to projective tests, such as the TAT and the Rorschach, which ask the test-taker to provide responses to ambiguous stimuli, such as pictures and inkblots. (Chapter 14, Objective Personality Tests section)

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 24 Question You go to see a new psychologist. As part of the intake process, she shows you a series of cards with inkblots on them. It appears that she is giving you the ____________ and that she takes a(n) ___________ approach to personality assessment. a)Thematic Apperception Test; objective b)MMPI-2; projective c)Rorschach Inkblot Test; projective d)State-Trait Test; objective

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 25 Answer Choice c is correct. The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a projective personality test that features a series of ten inkblots to which the examinee must respond. Such projective techniques are based on the assumption that unconscious needs, motives, fantasies, and conflicts will shape an individual’s responses to ambiguous test stimuli, such as inkblots. (Chapter 14, Projective Personality Tests section)

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 26 Question One criticism of projective personality tests is that such tests have relatively weak __________ in comparison to objective personality tests. a)sampling b)reliability c)validity d)reliability and validity

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 27 Answer Choice d is correct. Overall, projective personality tests are substantially less reliable and valid than objective tests. (Chapter 14, Projective Personality Tests section)

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 28 Question Given what you’ve learned about projective personality tests such as the Rorschach Inkblot Test, how much do you agree with this statement: The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a valuable tool for assessing personality? a)Strongly agree b)Agree c)Neutral d)Disagree e)Strongly disagree

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 | 29 Answer Polling question: no correct response


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