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Chapter 14 Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Chronic Lung Diseases © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD): any disease involving the heart and/or blood vessels Currently the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 34.3% of all deaths CVD is a general term for diseases that include heart attack, stroke, peripheral artery disease, congestive failure, and others The disease process underlying many forms of CVD is atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.2
Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Trends in the U.S. © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.3 Cardiovascular disease mortality trends for males and females, United States,
Deaths from Types of CVD in the U.S., 2010 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.4 Percentage of deaths from types of CVD, United States, 2010.
The Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular system: the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body Pulmonary circulation: the pumping of oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and oxygen- rich blood back to the heart by the right side of the heart Systemic circulation: the pumping of oxygen-rich blood to the body and oxygen- poor blood back to the heart by the left side of the heart © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.5
The Cardiovascular System Aorta: largest artery in the body –Leaves the heart and branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and capillaries carrying oxygen-rich blood to body tissues Vena cava: largest vein in the body –Carries oxygen-poor blood from the body back to the heart Coronary arteries: medium-sized arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle Sinus node: group of cells in the right atrium where the electrical signal is generated that establishes the heartbeat © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.6
The Heart © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.7 The heart, showing interior chambers, valves, and major arties and veins.
Atherosclerosis A common form of arteriosclerosis that involves a thickening or hardening of the arteries due to the buildup of fats and other substances –Starts with damage to the inner lining of vessels and the formation of a fatty streak—an accumulation of lipoproteins within the walls of an artery –Once an injury exists on the artery, white blood cells, collagen, and other proteins are formed, creating plaque (accumulation of debris in an artery wall), Results in slow blood flow, reducing the amount of blood to the tissues Plaque can break off and completely block the artery © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.8
Atherosclerosis © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.9 The process of atherosclerosis.
Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attack Coronary heart disease (CHD): atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, which can result in a heart attack CHD is the leading form of all cardiovascular diseases An estimated 17.6 million Americans are living with CHD Those who survive a heart attack are often left with damaged hearts and significantly altered lives © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.10
Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Attack Ischemia: insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissue, caused by narrowed or blocked arteries Myocardial infarction: lack of blood flow to the heart muscle with resulting death of heart tissue, often called a heart attack Coronary thrombosis: blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot that may cause sudden death Angina: pain, pressure, heaviness, or tightness in the center of the chest caused by a narrowed coronary artery © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.11
Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death Arrhythmia: irregular or disorganized heartbeat Normal adult heart rate is 60–100 beats/minute Ventricular fibrillation: type of arrhythmia in which the ventricles contract rapidly and erratically, causing the heart to quiver or “tremor” rather than beat Sudden cardiac death: abrupt loss of heart function caused by an irregular or ineffective heartbeat © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.12
Stroke A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when blood flow to the brain or part of the brain is blocked –Fourth leading cause of death in the United States; leading cause of severe, long-term disability –Ischemic stroke: caused by blockage in a blood vessel in the brain (accounts for 87% of all strokes) Thrombus Embolism –Hemorrhagic stroke: caused by rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, with bleeding into brain tissue © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.13
Types of Stroke © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.14 Types of stroke.
Congestive Heart Failure Condition in which the heart is not pumping the blood as well as it should, allowing blood and fluids to back up in the lungs Can develop after a heart attack or as a result of hypertension, heart valve abnormality, or disease of the heart muscle Person with this condition experiences difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and confusion Approximately 5.3 million Americans live with this condition © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.15
Other Cardiovascular Diseases Heart valve disorders –Most common is the mitral valve prolapse Rheumatic heart disease –Due to rheumatic fever (strep throat) Congenital heart disease –Structural defect at birth Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) –Atherosclerosis in the arms and legs Cardiomyopathy –Disease of the heart muscle © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.16
Mitral Valve Prolapse © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.17 Mitral valve prolapse.
Major Controllable Factors in Cardiovascular Health Tobacco use Blood pressure levels Cholesterol levels Physical activity BMI Blood glucose levels Diet © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.18
Blood Pressure Force exerted by blood against artery walls Determined by two forces: –Pressure when the heart contracts (top number) –Pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxed (bottom number) Hypertension: blood pressure that is forceful enough to damage artery walls Untreated high blood pressure/hypertension: –Can weaken and scar the arteries and make the heart work harder –Can cause heart attacks, strokes, kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, and blindness © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.19
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.20 Blood Pressure Guidelines
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.21 Cholesterol Guidelines
Contributing Factors in Cardiovascular Health Triglyceride levels –Levels of these blood fats should be less than 150 to achieve desired levels Alcohol intake –Heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) can damage the heart –Light drinking (less than 2 drinks/day) can increase HDL levels, therefore protecting against heart disease and stroke risk Psychosocial factors –Personality, chronic stress, socioeconomic status, depression, and social support © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.22
Noncontrollable Factors in Cardiovascular Health Age Gender Genetics and family history Ethnicity and race Postmenopausal status © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.23
Risk for CVD © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.24 Prevalence of Hypertension; Prevalence of Angina or Coronary Artery Disease (Who’s at Risk?).
Testing and Treatment for Heart Disease Diagnostic testing –Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) –Echocardiogram (sound waves) –Exercise stress test –Coronary angiograms (dye) Medical management –Anti-arrhythmics –Anti-anginals –Anti-coagulants Surgical management –Angioplasty (balloon catheter) –Coronary artery bypass grafting © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.25
Testing and Treatment for Stroke Diagnostic testing –CT or MRI scan (images of the brain) –Examination of the carotid arteries Management –If thrombotic, thrombolytic medications can dissolve clot and restore blood flow to the brain –Rehabilitation, usually including physical therapy © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.26
Areas of Interest for Future CVD Research Researchers are looking at how the following are associated with CVD: –Low levels of vitamin D –High blood levels of homocysteine, an amino acid –Metabolic syndrome –Inflammation –High levels of C-reactive protein in the blood –Infections that may cause atherosclerotic plaques to break free –Lower birth weight © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.27
Diabetes Most common disorder of the endocrine or metabolic system Seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. All types of diabetes result in elevated blood glucose levels due to a disruption in the production or use of insulin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.28
Insulin and Glucose Uptake © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.29 Insulin and glucose uptake.
Type-1 Diabetes Caused by the destruction of insulin- producing cells in the pancreas by the immune system Insulin must be provided from an external source to keep blood glucose levels under control Onset usually occurs before age 20 Probably a result of a combination of genetic, autoimmune, and environmental factors Physical activity is an important component of control and reduction in long-term complications © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.30
Type-2 Diabetes Caused by insulin resistance in the insulin receptors in body cells Pancreas responds by increasing production of insulin, but eventually cannot keep up Accounts for 90–95% of all diabetes cases Incidence rising in parallel with obesity levels –Visceral fat and lack of physical activity are strong indicators of risk Onset is usually gradual Prediabetes: fasting blood glucose levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.31
Metabolic Syndrome Set of conditions that significantly increases the risk for developing diabetes and other health complications Diagnosed if three of the following present: –Fasting glucose level ≥ 100 –HDL cholesterol < 40 in men; < 50 in women –Triglycerides ≥ 150 –Waist circumference ≥ 40″ for men; ≥ 35″ for women –Systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.32
Gestational Diabetes Develops in 2–18% of pregnancies –Hormonal changes affect the body’s response to insulin –Higher risk for pregnancies after age 35 In 5–10% of cases, diabetes becomes an ongoing condition Women with a history of gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing diabetes in the next 10–20 years © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.33
Chronic Lung Diseases Also known as chronic lower respiratory diseases Third leading cause of death in the U.S. Two most common forms: –Asthma Large genetic component –Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Primary cause in most cases is smoking Secondary causes: pollution, infection, and genetic factors © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.34
The Respiratory System © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.35 The respiratory system.
Asthma Chronic inflammation, obstruction, and constriction of the airways, causing wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath Attack occurs in response to a trigger: an allergen or an irritant in the air Diagnostic categories: –Intermittent: no symptoms between episodes –Mild persistent: symptoms a few times a week –Moderate: daily symptoms limit normal activity –Severe: daily symptoms place extreme limits on normal activity © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.36
Asthma Bronchodilators: quick-relief medications used during an attack to reduce symptoms –Delivered through an inhaler For long-term control: –An inhaled steroid that works within the bronchioles to reduce inflammation –Avoidance of common triggers such as tobacco smoke, allergens, and air pollution Flu shots recommended if viruses and infections are triggers Treatments similar for COPD © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.37
COPD Tends to develop from cumulative damage to airways and alveoli; primary cause is smoking Chronic bronchitis: persistent inflammation of the bronchioles; excess mucus –Bronchial congestion and a chronic cough Emphysema: alveoli become less elastic, and walls between alveoli are damaged or destroyed –Person is breathless and gasps for air –Strains the heart –Cannot be reversed; supplemental oxygen may be necessary at later stages © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.38
Preventing Chronic Diseases Eat a heart-healthy diet Avoid overweight and obesity Don’t smoke, and avoid secondhand smoke Be physically active Limit alcohol consumption Maintain healthy blood pressure levels Maintain healthy lipid levels Maintain healthy blood glucose levels Manage stress, and take care of your mental, emotional, and social health © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.39
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