Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter Fourteen Group Dynamics and Teamwork. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 2 Chapter Objectives Define.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fourteen Group Dynamics and Teamwork. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 2 Chapter Objectives Define."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Fourteen Group Dynamics and Teamwork

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 2 Chapter Objectives Define the term group. Explain the significance of cohesiveness, roles, norms, and ostracism in regard to the behavior of group members. Identify and briefly describe the six stages of group development. Define organizational politics and summarize relevant research insights. Explain how groupthink can lead to blind conformity.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Define and discuss the management of virtual teams. Discuss the criteria and determinants of team effectiveness. Explain why trust is a key ingredient of teamwork and discuss what management can do to build trust.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 4 Fundamental Group Dynamics What Is a Group? –Two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose Types of Groups –Informal groups: A collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs –Formal groups: A collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 5 Figure 14.1: What Does It Take to Make a Group?

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 6 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Attraction to Groups –Attractiveness of the group –Cohesiveness of the group Roles –Socially determined ways of behaving in specific positions A set of expectations concerning what a person must, must not, or may do in a position The actual behavior of a person who occupies the position

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 7

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 8 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Norms –Norms are the standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that help individuals judge what is right or good or bad in a given social setting. –Norms are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another. –Norms are usually unwritten, yet have a strong influence on individual behavior. –Norms go above and beyond formal rules and written policies.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 9 Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) Reasons That Groups Enforce Norms –To facilitate the survival of the group –To simplify or clarify role expectations –To help group members avoid embarrassing situations –To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity Ostracism –Rejection by the group for violation of its norms

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 10 Figure 14.2: Norms Are Enforced for Different Reasons

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 11 Group Development Characteristics of a Mature Group –Members are aware of each other’s assets and liabilities. –Individual differences are accepted. –The group’s authority and interpersonal relationships are recognized. –Group decisions are made through rational discussion. –Conflict is over group issues, not emotional issues. –Members are aware of the group’s processes and their own roles in them.

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 12 Six Stages of Group Development Stage 1: Orientation –Uncertainty about most everything is high. Stage 2: Conflict and change –Subgroups struggle for control; roles are undefined. Stage 3: Cohesion –Consensus on leadership, structure, and procedures is reached. Stage 4: Delusion –Members misperceive that the group has reached maturity.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 13 Six Stages of Group Development (cont’d) Stage 5: Disillusion –Subgroups form with disenchantment, diminished cohesiveness, and diminished commitment to the group. Stage 6: Acceptance –A trusted and influential group member steps forward and moves the group from conflict to cohesion so that it becomes highly effective and efficient. –Member expectations are more realistic.

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 14 Figure 14.3: Group Development from Formation to Maturity Source: Group Effectiveness in Organizations, by Linda N. Jewell and H. Joseph Reitz, p. 20. Used with permission of the authors.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 15 Organizational Politics What Does Organizational Politics Involve? –The pursuit of self-interest at work in the face of real or imagined opposition Effects of Organizational Politics –Hinders organizational and individual effectiveness –Is an irritant to employees –Can have significant ethical implications

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 16 Research on Organizational Politics –The higher the level of management, the greater the amount of politics. –The larger the organization, the greater the politics. –Staff personnel are more political than line managers. –Marketing people are the most political; production people are considered the least political. –61% of employees believe organizational politics helps advance one’s career. –45% of employees believe that organizational politics detracts from organizational goals.

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 17 Political Tactics Posturing: “One-upmanship” and taking credit for others’ work Empire building: Gaining control over human and material resources Making the supervisor look good: Engaging in “apple polishing” or “brown nosing” Collecting and using social IOUs: Exchanging reciprocal political favors by making someone look good or covering up someone’s mistakes

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 18 Political Tactics (cont’d) Creating power and loyalty cliques: Facing superiors as a cohesive group rather than alone Engaging in destructive competition: Sabotaging the work of others through character assassination

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 19

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 20 Antidotes to Political Behavior Strive for a climate of openness and trust. Measure performance results rather than personalities. Encourage top management to refrain from political behaviors. Strive to integrate individual and organizational goals through meaningful work and career planning. Practice job rotation to encourage broader perspectives and understanding of the problems of others.

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 21 Conformity and Groupthink Conformity –Complying with the role expectations and norms perceived by the majority to be appropriate in a particular situation

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 22 Research on Conformity The Hot Seat (Asch) –Following the Immoral Majority Individuals tend to go along with the group (blind conformity) when faced with overwhelming opposition by the group. Groupthink (Irving Janis) –Groupthink is a mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 23 Figure 14.4: The Asch Line Experiment

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 24 Groupthink (cont’d) Symptoms of Groupthink –Excessive optimism –An assumption of inherent morality –Suppression of dissent –A desperate quest for unanimity

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 25 Conformity and Groupthink (cont’d) Preventing Groupthink –Avoid using groups as rubberstamps. –Urge each group member to think independently. –Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives. –Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate. –Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action. –Engage in cooperative conflict (Tjosvold).

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 26 Teams, Teamwork, and Trust Cross-Functional Teams –Task groups that are staffed with a mix of specialists focused on a common objective Cross-functional teams may or may not be self-managed. Membership is assigned, not voluntary. Challenge is getting specialists to be boundary spanners.

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 27 Virtual Teams Task groups with members who are physically dispersed yet linked electronically to accomplish a common goal –Face-to-face contact is minimal or nonexistent. –Primary forms of communication are electronic interchanges ( , voice mail, web-based project software, and videoconferences).

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 28

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 29 What Makes Workplace Teams Effective? Innovative ideas Accomplishment of goals Adaptability to change High person/team commitment Being rated highly by upper management

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 30 Source: Reprinted from JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, 7, Hans J. Thamhain, "Managing Technologically Innovative Team Efforts Toward New Product Success," pp. 5-18, Copyright l990, with permission from Elsevier Science. Figure 14.5: A Model of Team Effectiveness

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 31 Trust: A Key to Team Effectiveness Trust Is: 1.A belief in the integrity, character, or ability of others 2.The primary responsibility of the manager 3.The key to establishing productive interpersonal relationships 4.A vehicle for encouraging self-control, reducing the need for direct supervision and expanding managerial control

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 32 Figure 14.6: Trust and Effective Group Interaction Source: Reprinted from "Trust and Managerial Problem Solving," by Dale E. Zand, published in ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY, 17, no. 2 (June l972) by permission of Administrative Science Quarterly. © l972 by Cornell University.

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 33 Six Ways to Build Trust 1.Communication: Keep people informed. 2.Support: Be an approachable person. 3.Respect: Delegate important duties and listen. 4.Fairness: Evaluate fairly and objectively. 5.Predictability: Be dependable and consistent. 6.Competence: Be a good role model.

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 34 Terms to Understand Social capital Group Informal group Formal group Cohesiveness Role Norms Ostracism Organizational politics Conformity Groupthink Cross-functional team Virtual team Trust


Download ppt "Chapter Fourteen Group Dynamics and Teamwork. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Chapter Fourteen | 2 Chapter Objectives Define."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google