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Chapter Fourteen Informative Speaking
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Chapter Goals Understand the functions of informative speaking Learn the types of informative speeches and how to develop them Apply psychological principles to help listeners learn Arrange information for maximum effectiveness Respond to the special challenge of informative speaking
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Sharing knowledge – and thus, sharing power – is the essence of informative speaking
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Functions of Informative Speaking Can empower listeners by giving them new ideas and skills Can shape listener perceptions Can help set the agenda of public concerns Can clarify options for action
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Preparing To Speak Informatively Is my topic significant enough to merit an informative speech? What do my listeners already know about my topic? What more do they need to know? Do I understand my topic well enough to help others understand it?
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved The Ethics of Informative Speaking Be sure you can ethically defend your choice of topic Mention all major positions on a topic when there are differing perspectives Present all information on a topic that is important for audience understanding Do not distort information that is necessary for audience understanding Do sufficient research to speak responsibly on your subject Do not omit relevant information that may be inconsistent with your position Strive to be as objective as possible
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Types of Informative Speeches Description Demonstration Explanation Briefings
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Briefings Be Brief Be Organized Rely heavily on supporting materials Adapt your language to your audience Present your message with confidence Be prepared to answer tough questions
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Motivating Listeners to Learn Will your speech … help them understand and control the world around them? satisfy their curiosity? improve their health, safety, or general well-being? give them a sense of making a contribution by caring for others? help them establish better relations with family and friends? give them a sense of accomplishment and achievement? contribute to the restoration of moral balance and fairness in the world? provide them with enjoyment?
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Interested but uninformed Interested and knowledgeable Uninterested Unsympathetic (toward topic) Distrustful (of speaker) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Interested but uninformed –Basic information –Avoid jargon –Use examples –Use analogies, metaphors & aides –Focus on voice, gestures & eye contact Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Interested and knowledgeable –Establish credibility early –Acknowledge diverse perspectives –Go in depth –Focus on content and being an “engaging” presenter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Uninterested –Show what’s in it for them –Keep it short and to the point –Use narratives and examples to arouse interest –Use eye-catching presentation aides and colorful language –Focus on dynamism Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Unsympathetic (toward topic) –Show respect for listeners’ point of view –Cite sources they respect –Present information for understanding –Use narratives and examples –Focus on being warm and engaging Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Special Tactics for Special Audiences Distrustful (of speaker) –Establish credibility early –Rely on facts and expert testimony –Cite your sources –Be straightforward, businesslike and personable –Keep good eye-contact Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Sustaining Interest Intensity Repetition Novelty Activity Contrast Relevance
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Informative Speech Designs Spatial Sequential Chronological Categorical Comparative Causation
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved Avoid Boring Your Audience Find a good topic Leave yourself time to research and prepare Develop an artful overall structure Add lively, striking content Make an energetic presentation
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