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(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fourteen Classroom Organization and Management This multimedia product and its contents.

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Presentation on theme: "(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fourteen Classroom Organization and Management This multimedia product and its contents."— Presentation transcript:

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2 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fourteen Classroom Organization and Management This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

3 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction  A teacher’s ability to manage his or her classroom can greatly enhance the quality of the education for all students, including those with special needs.  Organizational and management dimensions are typically deemphasized in teacher education programs.  Classroom management is the area that first- year teachers consistently identify as most problematic for them.

4 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Classroom management is a systematic structuring of the classroom environment to create conditions in which effective teaching and learning can occur.

5 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Model of Classroom Management (Dole,1996) Multidimensionality Simultaneity Immediacy Unpredictability Publicness History

6 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Guiding Principles  All students must be valued.  Meaningful relationships between teachers and students need to be developed and cultivated.  Successful management derives from a positive classroom environment.  Good classroom organization and management must be planned ahead of time.  Affording students choices contributes to effective classroom dynamics.

7 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Guiding Principles  Teachers and students in effective classrooms are considerate of individual differences.  Proactive management is preferable to reactive approaches.  Consistency is the key to an effective management program.  Two characteristics enhance a teacher’s ability to manage a classroom:  With-it-ness  Overlap

8 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Dimensions of Classroom Management & Organization CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Psychosocial Dimension Physical Dimension Instructional Dimension Organizational Dimension Procedural Dimension Behavior Dimension

9 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Psychosocial Dimension  Refers to the psychological and social dynamics of the classroom.  Focus is on classroom climate, the atmosphere in which students must function  Psychosocial management is influenced by  Student factors  Teacher factors  Peer factors  Family factors

10 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Procedural Dimension  Refers to the rules and procedures that are part of the operating program of a classroom.  Rules should be identified and taught during the early days in the first of the year.  Immediate and consistent consequences for rule violation are essential.  Teachers need to develop logical classroom procedures - the specific ways in which certain activities will performed or the way certain situations will be handled.

11 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Physical Dimension  Includes the aspects of the physical environment that teachers can manipulate to enhance the conditions for learning.  Classroom arrangements refer to physical facets of the classroom including layout, storage, wall space, and signage.  The issues of accessibility warrants special attention because of legal mandates, such as Section 504  Accessibility extends beyond physical accessibility, and also includes program accessibility.  Specialized equipment (e.g., adaptive desks, wheelchairs) for students with disabilities is another area of concern.

12 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavioral Dimensions: Major Areas of Concern  Creating and Increasing Desirable Behaviors  Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors  Generalization and Maintenance  Self-Management  Behavior Intervention Plans

13 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavioral Dimension: Areas of Possible Emphasis When Developing Behavioral Programs (Etscheidt & Barlett, 1999)  Skill Training  Behavior Management Plan  Self-Management  Peer Support  Classwide Systems

14 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Creating and Increasing Desirable Behaviors  Definition of reinforcer - any event that rewards and thus strengthens, the behavior it follows  Positive reinforcers - present a desirable consequence for performance of an appropriate behavior  Praise  Physical contact  Tangible items  Activities  Privileges

15 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Reinforcement: Basic Principles  The reinforcer must be meaningful to the student.  The reinforcer must be contingent upon the proper performance of a desired behavior.  The reinforcer must be presented immediately.

16 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Contingency Contracting  Contracts should state:  What behaviors students are to complete or perform  What consequences (reinforcement) the instructor will provide  To be effective, contracts should:  Initially reward imperfect approximations of the behavior  Provide frequent reinforcement  Reward accomplishments rather than obedience  Be fair, clear, and positive

17 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Types of Group Contingencies  Dependent Contingencies  All group members share in the reinforcement if one individual achieves a goal  Interdependent Contingencies  All group members are reinforced if all collectively (or individually) achieve the stated goal  Independent Contingencies  Individuals within the group are reinforced for individual achievement toward a goal

18 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Decreasing Undesirable Behavior  Natural consequences should be provided when the situation itself provides the contingencies for a certain behavior.  Example: Student forgets permission slip for a field trip and is not allowed to go on the field trip.  Logical consequences occur when there is a logical connection between inappropriate behavior and the consequences that follow.  Example: Student forgets lunch money and has to borrow money in order to eat.

19 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Positive Behavior Support  Positive behavior support involves the assessment and reengineering of environments so people with problem behaviors experience reductions in these behaviors and increase the personal quality of their lives (Horner, 2000).  Emphasizes changing the environment rather than just focusing on changing the behavior of individuals  Utilizes functional behavioral assessment

20 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior (DRL)  Uses positive reinforcement strategies as a behavior reduction tool  Teacher provides appropriate reinforcement to students for displaying lower rates of a certain behavior that has been targeted for reduction  Example: Good Behavior Game

21 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Extinction Procedures  Definition: Teacher withholds reinforcement for a behavior  Example: Teacher ignores misbehavior  Suggestions  Analyze what is reinforcing the undesirable behavior  Understand that extinction is desirable because it does not involve punishment, but will take time to be effective  Do not use with behaviors that require immediate intervention  Recognize that withholding reinforcement is likely to result in an increase in undesirable behavior and may produce an aggressive response  Provide reinforcements to students who demonstrate appropriate incompatible behaviors

22 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Benign Tactics (Cummings, 1983)  Law of Least Intervention - eliminate disruptive behaviors quickly with a minimum of disruption to the classroom or instructional routine  Examples include:  Position yourself physically near students who are likely to create problems.  Establish eye contact and maintain it with a student who is behaving inappropriately.  Stop talking for a noticeable length of time to redirect student attention.  Use humor to redirect inappropriate behavior.

23 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Punishment Punishment is the presentation or the removal or something pleasant as a consequence for the performance of an undesirable behavior.  Examples:  Reprimands  Time Out  Response Cost  Punishment is the least preferable option and use of these strategies should be done sparingly and with careful consideration.

24 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Generalization and Maintenance  Once behaviors have been established at acceptable levels, the next stages involve transferring what has been learned to new contexts (i.e., generalization) and maintaining established levels of performance (i.e., maintenance).  Teachers need to program for both generalization and maintenance.

25 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Self-Management Special attention needs to be given to students who do not display independent behavioral control. Self-regulated strategies are interventions that, though initially targeted by the teacher, are intended to be implemented independently by the student. Self-regulated strategies are an outgrowth of cognitive behavior modification, which combines cognitive strategies with behavioral techniques.

26 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Components of Self-Management  Self-Regulation  Self-Evaluation  Self-Reinforcement  Self-Instruction

27 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Behavior Intervention Plans  Behavior intervention plans are mandated by the IDEA for students with disabilities who display seriously disruptive behaviors.  Behavior intervention plans reflect a proactive response to these disruptive behaviors. This in contrast to traditional reactive approaches such as suspension/expulsion.

28 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Instructional Dimension  Refers to certain aspects of instruction that are closely related to sound organizational and management practices.  These management practices include:  Scheduling  Transitions  Grouping  Lesson Planning  Technology

29 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Organizational Dimension  Refers to time management strategies related to:  Personal Interactions  The Work Environment  Administrative Duties  Instructional Applications  Personal Applications


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