Presentation on theme: "Class Exercises MLU and Morphology. ed (past) ex (out of, from) mis (negative, wrong) out (extra, beyond) over (too much) post(behind) al (pertaining)"— Presentation transcript:
ed (past) ex (out of, from) mis (negative, wrong) out (extra, beyond) over (too much) post(behind) al (pertaining) en (used to form verbs from adjectives) ism (doctrine, state) ist (one who does something) ity (used for abstract nouns) lv (used to form adverbs) ing (at present) ‘s (possession) bi (twice) semi (half) super (superior) trans (across) tri (three) un (not) under de (reversal) pre (before) pro (in favor of) re (again) able (ability) ize (action, policy) less (without) ly( used to form adverb) s (plural) ness (quality) er, or (used as agentive ending) ous ( full) y (inclined to) ance ( action, state) est (superlative) ful (full, tending) ible (likelihood) ish (belonging to) s (third person marker)
Calculating MLU Do’s and don’ts Exclude from your count ImitationsImitations Elliptical answersElliptical answers Partial utterancesPartial utterances Unintelligible utterancesUnintelligible utterances Rote passagesRote passages False starts and Reformulations within utterancesFalse starts and Reformulations within utterances NoisesNoises Discourse markersDiscourse markers Identical utterancesIdentical utterances Counting or other sequences of enumerationCounting or other sequences of enumeration Single words or phrasesSingle words or phrases Lund and Dunchan (1993) Count as one morpheme Uninflected lexical morphemesUninflected lexical morphemes ContractionsContractions ConcatenativesConcatenatives Inseparable linguistic unitsInseparable linguistic units Irregular past tenseIrregular past tense Plurals which do not occur in singular formPlurals which do not occur in singular form Gerunds and participles that are not part of the verb phraseGerunds and participles that are not part of the verb phrase Inflectional formsInflectional forms ContractionsContractions You need at least 50 utterances to calculate MLUYou need at least 50 utterances to calculate MLU 100 is recommended100 is recommended
Calculating MLU After you have counted all the morphemes, you are ready to calculate the MLU. The traditional method of calculating MLU is dividing the number of morphemes by the number of utterances. For example: 150 morphemes / 50 utterances = 3.0 MLU
Sample 1 1) Calculate MLU 2) which of Brown’s developmental stages has the child reached? 3) identify the morphemes used by the child 4) identify the semantic functions used by the child
*CHI:why dis got holes? %act:looking at holes in Ursula's pad *URS:so you can put it in a notebook # if you like. *CHI:0. %act:falls from bike *URS:what happened? *CHI:I fall # broke my head. *URS:you didn't. *CHI:tell me story. *URS:shall we look at these first? %act:gives Adam bag of toys *CHI:let's open it. *CHI:what is it? *URS:it's a watch. *CHI:dat's a watch. *CHI:fourteen clock. *URS:what is it? *CHI:fourteen o'clock. *CHI:stop it. *URS:what? *CHI:stop it. *CHI:turn back on. *CHI:has wings. *URS:where? *CHI:turn it. *CHI:stop it. *CHI:it's fourteen clock. *CHI:enough clock. *CHI:in go clock. %act:putting watch away *CHI:a tape recorder. *CHI:where is a box? %act: taking watch out again *CHI:it's fourteen clock. *CHI:it not fourteen clock # it nineteen # six # how d(o) you know? *CHI:it's not six # it number two. *CHI:how d(o) you know it going eat supper? %exp:presumably the watch *CHI:how (a)bout eat supper? *CHI:it's fourteen o'clock. *CHI:well # well. *CHI:it's fourteen cl(ock) # clock. *CHI:achoo@o. *CHI:le(t) me stop it. *CHI:le(t) me turn on. *CHI:xxx put in. *CHI:put in. %act:puts watch back in box *CHI:it's go to sleep.
StageAge ( years)MLU I 1-2:2 1:0-2:0 I 1-2:2 1:0-2:0 II 2:3-2:6 2:0-2:5 II 2:3-2:6 2:0-2:5 III 2:7-2:10 2:5-3:0 III 2:7-2:10 2:5-3:0 IV 2:11-3:4 3:0-3.75 V 3:5-3:10 3:75-4:5 V 3:5-3:10 3:75-4:5
Semantic Relations in 1-word stage POSSESSION“Daddy” (=slippers) IMPERATIVE “open” = open the jar “blow” = blow my nose NEGATIVE“no” = negate actions LOCATION “down” = getting down from high chair RECURRENCE“more” DISAPPEARANCE “allgone”