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OGT TERMS A glossary of terms for the Ohio Graduation Test: 32-41.

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Presentation on theme: "OGT TERMS A glossary of terms for the Ohio Graduation Test: 32-41."— Presentation transcript:

1 OGT TERMS A glossary of terms for the Ohio Graduation Test: 32-41

2 FOURTEEN POINTS Peace program proposed by President Woodrow Wilson. The Fourteen Points recommended breaking up Austria and Turkey into new national states, and creating a League of Nations. (45) The League of Nations was created after World War I as a forum for resolving international conflicts. However, the League was unable to resolve tensions that led to World War II. One factor that contributed to the ineffectiveness of the League was the A. breakup of colonial empires in Africa and Asia. B. decision of the United States not to join the League. C. opposition of League members to the Treaty of Versailles. D. rise of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. B

3 FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1799) A revolution in France against royal authority and noble privilege, partly inspired by Enlightenment ideals. The king was eventually killed, the nobility was abolished, and Europe was plunged into war. (144) During the Enlightenment, a number of writers explored the relationship between governments and the people they governed. For example, Rousseau wrote The Social Contract, in which he examined ideas about majority will and the common good. How did these ideas influence the American and French Revolutions? A. They encouraged loyalty to established governments. B. They supported movements for social and political change. C. They encouraged the formation of American and French constitutional monarchies. D. They supported the efforts of governments to maintain control over their subjects. B

4 2008 Question What action by the leaders of the French Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas? A. They called for the fall of the absolute monarchy. B. They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon. C. They fought to maintain France’s colonial empire. D. They supported the combination of church and state. A

5 GENOCIDE A policy of mass murder carried out against a racial, ethnic or religious group. (85) The Spanish Conquistadores in Latin America following Columbus in the Caribbean Islands. The Armenian Massacre (1915-1916)-Christian minority marched into the desert by the Muslim leaders of the Ottoman Empire. The Holocaust (1941-1945) An attempt by Hitler to eliminate Europes Jewish population who he blamed for everything.

6 GLOBALIZATION The spread of ideas, production and people around the globe. (88) Ecuador has an ideal climate for growing bananas, whereas the United States would have a difficult time growing them. In order to help U.S. consumers of bananas, the United States would likely A. increase the cost of U.S. goods traded with Ecuador. B. eliminate the tariff on bananas imported from Ecuador. C. put an excise tax on bananas grown in the United States. D. discourage world competition for the U.S. banana market. B

7 GREAT DEPRESSION A major economic crisis that began in the United States in 1929 and affected most of the world; it was marked by widespread business failures, bank closures, and high unemployment. (67)

8 2008 Question How did the U.S. government’s role in the economy change as a result of the Great Depression? A. The federal government had a diminished role in regulating economic activity. B. The federal government maintained the role it had in economic matters before the Great Depression. C. The federal government expanded its role in regulating economic activity and promoting economic growth. D. The federal government transferred its role in economic affairs over to the state governments. C

9 GREAT MIGRATION The wave of African American migrants from the South during the early 20 th century; they moved north seeking better jobs and housing. (66)

10 Great Migration Test Questions In the late 1800s, a population shift among African Americans began in the United States. Known as the “Great Migration,” this pattern of shifting population accelerated as a result of World War I and continued throughout the 1920s. – Describe the population shift involved in the “Great Migration.” – Explain how this migration produced an important change in the domestic affairs of the United States during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points) The early 20th century saw a significant northward migration of African-Americans. During the 1920s, nearly 400,000 African-Americans settled in New York, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Many lived in large cities such as New York, Philadelphia and Chicago. Identify two economic effects of this migration on the United States. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

11 2008 Question What economic factor primarily contributed to the movement of African-Americans from the South to the North in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? A. greater employment opportunities in urban areas B. increased imports from newly acquired U.S. territories C. the availability of free land under the Homestead Act D. the need for agricultural workers to feed a growing population A

12 GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Total amount of goods and services that a nation produces in a single year; the GDP is often used to gauge a nation’s economic strength. (97)

13 HARLEM RENAISSANCE The flourishing literary, musical, and artistic expression of African Americans in Harlem in the 1920’s. (66) In the early 20th century, many African-Americans moved from the South to cities in the North. This “Great Migration” helped stimulate a flowering of artistic talent by African-Americans in New York known as the Harlem Renaissance. One way in which the Harlem Renaissance was significant was that it A. reduced racial tensions in the northern cities. B. led to a decline in activity by the Ku Klux Klan. C. led to a relaxation of restrictions on African-Americans in the South. D. contributed to the recognition of African-American culture. D

14 HOLOCAUST (1939-1945) The genocide of Jewish people in Europe by the Nazis during World War II. Jews were sent to concentration camps where millions were gassed. (85)

15 Holocaust

16 IMPERIALISM The Political and economic control of one area or country by another country. In the late 19 th century, Imperialism led to European control of much of Africa and Asia. (34) One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20 th centuries was the A. development of closer political ties with European nations. B. closing of China to all foreign trade. C. support of international peacekeeping operations. D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials. D

17 2008 Question The famous American writer Mark Twain expressed his opinion about U.S. actions in the Philippines after the Spanish American War with the following words: “I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate (place under control) the people of the Philippines. We have gone to conquer, not to redeem (save). … I am opposed to having the [American] eagle put its talons on any other land.” The New York Herald, October 15, 1900 This statement would be helpful in supporting the thesis that Mark Twain believed that A. U.S. imperialism was wrong. B. U.S. imperialism would bring stable government to the Philippines. C. U.S. imperialism was necessary for the United States to become a world power. D. U.S. imperialism civilized the people of the Philippines. A

18 2009 Question During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines. The U.S. Congress later voted for annexation of the Philippines. What was one reason for this act of U.S. imperialism? A. to provide the U.S. with a valuable naval base in the Pacific B. to provide the U.S. with a place to relocate its immigrant population C. to decrease the U.S. need to export raw materials for industrialization D. to increase the U.S. population by extending citizenship to the Filipinos A

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