2 Learning ObjectivesDescribe how correctional programs help address the challenge of managing time in the correctional setting.Describe the ways that security acts as a constraint on correctional programs offered in institutional settings.Know the meaning of the “principle of least eligibility” and illustrate its importance.Understand the importance of the classification process and how “objective classification” works
3 Learning ObjectivesDescribe the major kinds of institutional programs that are offered in correctional institutions.Analyze recent developments in the field of correctional rehabilitation.Describe the main types of correctional industries and define how each works.Understand the current pressures facing correctional programming policies.
4 Learning Objective 1Learning objective 1: Describe how correctional programs help address the challenge of managing time in the correctional setting.
5 Managing Time Mitigate the oppressiveness of time Provide opportunities for prisoners to improve their livesKeep prison time from becoming dead timeMore programs offered, the less likely inmates’ boredom will translate into hostility toward the staff
6 Managing Time Prison program: Any formal, structured activity that takes prisoners out of their cells and sets them to instrumental tasks.5 types:RehabilitativeMedical serviceIndustrialDaily facility maintenanceRecreational
7 Learning Objective 2Learning objective 2: Describe the ways that security acts as a constraint on correctional programs offered in institutional settings.
8 Constraints of Security Whenever a program requires sharp tools, heavy security prevails.Security requires tool counts, searches, and detailed accounting of materials.Security requirements make maintenance and industrial programs inefficient.
9 Learning Objective 3Learning objective 3: Know the meaning of the “principle of least eligibility” and illustrate its importance.
10 Least EligibilityThe doctrine that prisoners ought to receive no goods or services in excess of those available to people who have lived within the law.General public often quite hostile to create programming.Public does not want to reward criminal activity.Prison programs frequently represent weak versions of free-society program.
11 Learning Objective 4Learning objective 4: Understand the importance of the classification process and how “objective classification” works.
12 ClassificationProcess by which prisoners are assigned to types of custody and treatment.Sentenced felon introduced to the new status of prisonDepersonalize the inducteeServes as management tool to ensure inmates are assigned to units appropriate to their custody level:Separated from those who might victimize themGrouped with members of their work assignment
13 Classification Objective classification: Predictive model: Designed to distinguish inmates with respect to risk of escape, potential misconduct, and future criminal behavior.Statistical techniquesEquity-based model:Use only a few explicitly defined legal variables reflecting current and previous criminal characteristics, not used:RaceEmploymentEducation
14 Learning Objective 5Learning objective 5: Describe the major kinds of institutional programs that are offered in correctional institutions.
15 Institutional Programs Rehabilitative programs:Aim at reforming the offender’s behaviorPrograms vary:PsychologicalBehavioralSocialEducationalVocationalSubstance abuseSex offenderReligious programs
16 Institutional Programs Prison industry:Way to manage the restlessness and idleness of prison timeViewed as part of the reformative processPrison maintenance programs:Typical prison must provide every major service available in a community:Fire departmentElectrical and plumbingJanitorial maintenanceMail deliveryRestaurantDrug store
17 Institutional Programs Maintenance programs cont.:Constitute an elaborate pecking order of assignmentsChoice jobs involve access to powerEssential to managing the prison:Lower the cost of operations by eliminating the need to hire outside labor.Job hierarchy provides rewards and punishments to enforce discipline.
18 Institutional Programs Recreational:Two primary functions:Integral to prison social lifeCan be rehabilitative in several ways:Teach social skills as cooperation and teamworkProvide a means for prisoners to grow in experience and enhance their self-imageServe as a productive counterpoint to the general alienation of prison
19 Learning Objective 6Learning objective 6: Analyze recent developments in the field of correctional rehabilitation.
20 Correctional Rehabilitation Martinson’s 1974 study indicating prison rehabilitation ineffective.New vision:Prison a place that should provide safe and secure custody while punishing offenders.Criminogenic needs:Needs than, when successfully addressed by treatment programs, result in lower rates of recidivism.
21 Correctional Rehabilitation Six conditions identified by researchers under which treatment will be effective:Directed toward high-risk clients.Responds to offenders’ problems that caused the criminal behaviorTake into account offenders’ psychological maturityProviders are allowed professional discretion on how to manage offenders’ progress in treatmentAre fully implemented as intendedOffenders receive follow-up support after completing the treatment programs
22 Correctional Rehabilitation Cost-benefit ratio:A summary measure of the value of a correctional program in saving money through preventing new crime.
23 Learning Objective 7Learning objective 7: Describe the main types of correctional industries and define how each works.
24 Correctional Industry The contract labor, piece price, and lease systems:A contractor provided raw materials and agreed to purchase goods made by prison inmates at a set price.The public account system:A prison bought machinery and raw materials with which inmates manufactured a salable product.
25 Correctional Industry The state use system:A labor system under which goods produced by prison industries are purchased by state institutions and agencies exclusively and never enter the free market.The public works and ways system:A labor system under which prison inmates work on public construction and maintenance projects.
26 Learning Objective 8Learning objective 8: Understand the current pressures facing correctional programming policies.
27 Current PressuresMost rehabilitative programs have serious shortcomings and limited effectiveness.Large number of inmates are not considered to need educational, vocational training, or drug/alcohol rehabilitation.Services provided in prison settings are substantially less effective than same programs in community.
29 Learning Objectives Discuss parole and explain how it operates today. Be familiar with the origins and evolution of parole in the United States.Discuss the different mechanisms that are used to release offenders from correctional facilities.Explain how releasing authorities are organized.Be familiar with the steps that are taken to ease the offender’s reentry into the community.
30 Learning Objective 1Learning objective 1: Discuss parole and explain how it operates today.
31 ParoleThe conditional release of an inmate from incarceration, under supervision, after part of the prison sentence has been served.Three concepts:Grace or privilegeContract of consentCustodyOnly felons released on paroleOnly state and federal governments effect parole
32 Learning Objective 2Learning objective 2: Be familiar with the origins and evolution of parole in the United States.
33 Origin and Evolution Parole in U.S. evolved during 19th century Capt. Alexander Maconochie:British colony administratorDeveloped classification system by which prisoners could pass through:Strict imprisonmentLabor on chain gangsFreedom within an areaA ticket-of-leave or parole with conditional pardonFull liberty
34 New York, indeterminate sentencing law, 1876: Origin and Evolution1870, National Prison Association incorporated principles into the Declaration of PrinciplesNew York, indeterminate sentencing law, 1876:Zebulon BrockwaySuperintendent of Elmira ReformatoryBegan to release prisoners on parole
35 1920 – 20 states had parole systems Origin and Evolution1920 – 20 states had parole systems1925 – 46 states1942 – 48 statesDuring 1970’s parole criticized on several grounds:Release was tied to treatment successParole boards abusing their discretionInmates being held in suspended animation
36 Learning Objective 3Learning objective 3: Discuss the different mechanisms that are used to release offenders from correctional facilities.
38 Discretionary Release The release of an inmate from prison to conditional supervision at the discretion of the parole board within the boundaries set by the sentence and the penal law.Allows the parole board to assess prisoner’s readiness for releaseFocuses on:Nature of offenseInmate’s behaviorInmate’s participation in rehabilitative behavior
39 Mandatory ReleaseThe required release on an inmate from incarceration to community supervision on the expiration of a certain period, as stipulated by a determinate-sentencing law or parole guidelines.Matter of bookkeepingGood timeReleased conditionally
40 Probation ReleaseThe release of an inmate from incarceration to probation supervision, as required by the sentencing judge.Often tied to shock incarcerationSince 2000, use increased from 6 to 10%
41 Other Conditional Release A probationary sentence used in some states to get around the rigidity of mandatory release by placing convicts in various community settings under supervision.FurloughHome supervisionHalfway housesEmergency release
42 Expiration ReleaseThe release of an inmate from incarceration without any further correctional supervision; the inmate cannot be returned to prison for any remaining portion of the sentence for the current offense.19% of prison releases
43 Learning objective 4: Explain how releasing authorities are organized.
44 Organization Consolidated versus autonomous: Field services: Inside or outside the department of correctionsField services:Argued that institutional staff and the parole board must be coordinatedFull time versus part time:Full time:Criminal justice professionalsPart time:Thought to represent the community better
45 Appointment: Appointed by governor or correctional authority OrganizationAppointment:Appointed by governor or correctional authority
46 Learning Objective 5Learning objective 5: Be familiar with the steps that are taken to ease the offender’s reentry into the community.
47 Release 2008, Second Chance Act Reintegration model: Gradually lowering level of custodyPrerelease counselingTraining programsTransfer to housing unit, family readjustment trainingParticipating in most cases voluntary
48 Chapter Sixteen Making it: Supervision in the Community
49 Learning ObjectivesKnow the major characteristics of the postrelease function of the corrections system.Define community supervision and revocation of community supervision.Understand how community supervision is structured.Describe residential programs and how they help parolees.
50 Identify the major problems parolees confront. Learning ObjectivesIdentify the major problems parolees confront.Understand why some parolees are viewed as dangerous and how society handles this problem.Describe the effectiveness of postrelease supervision.
51 Learning Objective 1Learning objective 1: Know the major characteristics of the postrelease function of the corrections system.
52 Postrelease Function Conditions of release: Restrictions on conduct that parolees must obey as a legally binding requirement of being released.Parole boards only release about 1/4 of inmates (65% in 1976)80% of those released now under parole supervision (60% in 1960)No truly “clean” start is possible
53 Learning Objective 2Learning objective 2: Define community supervision and revocation of community supervision.
54 Community Supervision Restrictions on parolees:Personal and material problems are staggeringMost are unskilled or semiskilledNearly 1/4 paroles fail within 6 months
55 Revocation Revoked for 2 reasons: Committing new crimeViolating conditions of parole (technical violation):Usually involve noncriminal conduct (fail to change address)Most occur when parolee is arrested on a serious charge or cannot be locatedParole is a privilege
56 Technical Violation Two-stage revocation proceeding: Parole board determines whether there is probable cause that a violation has occurred:Right to be notified of chargesBe informed of witnessesBe heardPresent witnessesConfront parole board witnesses (safety)
57 Two-stage revocation proceeding cont.: Technical ViolationTwo-stage revocation proceeding cont.:Parole board decides if the violation is severe enough to warrant return to prison.Parole agency has several options:Return parolee to prisonNote violation but strengthen supervisionNot violation but take no actionHighest rate of failure in first year
58 Learning Objective 3Learning objective 3: Understand how community supervision is structured.
59 StructureThree forces:Parole officerParole bureaucracyExperiences of offenderComplex web of attitudes, situations, policies, and random events determines outcome of supervision process.
60 Agents of Community Supervision Cop and social workerTwo hidden conditions:Officer have certain expectations about how clients will behave and how to treat them:Parental approachWelfare approachPunitive officersPassive agentsSupervision plan
61 Constraints on officers’ authority: BureaucracyWorkload:Active v. reduced surveillanceParole officers spend as much as 80% of their time at nonsupervisory workPhilosophy and policyConstraints on officers’ authority:Go along with the system
62 Affects offender’s postrelease experience in several ways: BureaucracyAffects offender’s postrelease experience in several ways:Provides rules and policies managing workloads that would otherwise be unbearable.Structures the activities of parole officers according to traditional philosophical orientations.Provides a context of unwritten and informal norms that define appropriate and inappropriate officer conduct.
63 Learning Objective 4Learning objective 4: Describe residential programs and how they help parolees.
64 Residential Programs Community correctional centers: A small-group living facility for offenders, especially those who have been recently released from prison:Usually provide counseling and drug treatmentImpose strict curfewsResidents can gradually earn a reduction in restrictionsIdea is to provide treatment while promoting step-by-step adjustment to community relief
65 Residential Programs Work release center: A facility that allows offenders to work in the community during the day while residing in the center during nonworking hours.Two types:Prisoners work during day and return at nightOffenders work and live at home during week, return to center on weekends
66 Learning objective 5: Identify the major problems parolees confront.
67 Postrelease Life Strangeness of reentry Supervision and Surveillance Unmet personal needsBarriers to success:Civil disabilities:Right to votePublic assistance and food stampsPublic housingDriver’s licensesAdoptions and foster careStudent loans
68 Postrelease Life Barriers to success: Employment: Expungement: A legal process that results in the removal of a conviction from official records.Pardon:An action of the executive branch of the state or federal government excusing an offense and absolving the offender of the consequences of the crime.
69 Learning Objective 6Learning objective 6: Understand why some parolees are viewed as dangerous and how society handles this problem.
70 No correlation between numbers of parolees and crime rate Parolee as DangerousBy 1997, 32 states and the federal government had passed sex offender notification laws:Notification laws seem to have heightened public discomfortIsolated tragedies can exaggerate the actual dangerNo correlation between numbers of parolees and crime rate
71 Learning Objective 7Learning objective 7: Describe the effectiveness of postrelease supervision.
72 Measured in terms of rates of recidivism EffectivenessMeasured in terms of rates of recidivismLess than 1/2 of those released from prison remain prison free after 3 yearsMandatory release only seems to work for property offendersCase managementOverall, success of parole supervision is mixed
73 THE END NEXT WEEK: RESEARCH PAPERS DUE! CHAPTERS 18, 20 AND 21 REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM