Indian Politics One party (Congress – Gandhi) state 1948 – 1977 Opened to multiple parties Congress back in power 1981-96 Baratiya Janata Party (BJP) –led destruction of Babri mosque in Ayodhya (Uttar Pradesh) BJP in ascendancy 1996 -> BJP philosophy –Indian nationalism, Hindu practice, (Hindutva) –liberal in economic matters, –higher-caste dominated, now branching to other castes (esp. dalit), strongly opposed to Pakistan in favor of nuclear India non-aligned, leans towards Russia as balance
Challenges to Indian democracy – separatism and fundamentalism 1948 – 1 million dead; 17 million refugees Punjab – Sikh majority – 3000 killed in Delhi in 1984 after Gandhi assassination – army control; rich state; uneasy relations Assam – lowland-highland tribal conflicts – Hindu. core against periphery; Moslem immigrants from Bangladesh Kashmir
Created state in 1948 separate from India; E. Pakistan exclave 1971 Bengali rebellion – independence of Bangladesh after war with India Allied to and supported by China Ally of U.S. in the Cold War – base of Afghan mujahaddin (CIA bases) Major arms and drugs route to Afghan. Cycles of civilian and military control Military coup Fall 1999 Musharraf Internal turmoil –President (secular) v. religious Islamists Pakistan
Kashmir history 1947: India leaves independence for sub continent 1947-1949: civil war, creation of India and East and West Pakistan Kashmir caught in the middle: –as a result of the bequest of its territory to Maharajah in the 19 th century by the british –Wants to be independent; seeks support from India –Pakistan invades and keeps western part –Jammu and Ladakh (buddhist) side with India –Eastern high valley especially contentious 1965: another war
Recent Events 1999: on the verge –Pakistani militants invade India Dec. 2001: another buildup on the disputed border –Pakistani terrorists attack Indian parliament but calmed down by the US –Convinced Musharraf (with $$$) to back off and gave Pakistan a key role in the fight against terrorism Recent hopes for negotiations Dashed by the killing of a leading Pakistani militant in Kashmir
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