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Indian Removal Was It Justified?. Background Check: GET YOUR MIND IN GEAR On page ---- of your notebook, answer the following questions in complete sentences.

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Removal Was It Justified?. Background Check: GET YOUR MIND IN GEAR On page ---- of your notebook, answer the following questions in complete sentences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Removal Was It Justified?

2 Background Check: GET YOUR MIND IN GEAR On page ---- of your notebook, answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1.What was the Indian Removal Act? 2.If you had to answer the question, “Was the Indian Removal Act justified?” how would you respond? 3.List any background knowledge you have about Native American relations during the formation of the United States. (Ex: Pontiac’s Rebellion, Pilgrims, French and Indian War, etc.)

3 In the early 1800’s, the Cherokee tribe was unlawfully living on land that belonged to America. 1.True 2.False 12345

4 Native Americans in the early 1800’s were completely opposed to American culture. 1.True 2.False 12345

5 The Cherokee tribe had gone so far in adopting American ideas and culture that they developed a written language and a constitution for their people based on the U.S. Constitution. 1.True 2.False 12345

6 When trying to defend their rights to govern themselves and maintain their land, the Native Americans immediately began scalping U.S. Citizens and burning their properties. 1.True 2.False 12345

7 The purpose of the Indian Removal Act was to… A.Meet in open talks with the Native Americans. B.Take Native American land and relocate the tribes farther West. C.Take away all Native American rights to self-government. D.Both A and B E.All of the above 12345

8 MOVING RIGHT ALONG… James Monroe 5 th President of the United States ( ) Succeeded by John Quincy Adams

9 President James Monroe addresses Congress in 1925 “…the removal of the Indian tribes from the lands which they now occupy within the limits of the several states and Territories…is of…high importance to our Union, and may be accomplished...in a manner to promote the interest and happiness of those tribes…For the removal of the tribes within the limits of the State of Georgia the motive has been particularly strong…The removal of [these] tribes…would not only shield them from impending ruin, but promote their welfare and happiness…[If this doesn’t happen] their degradation* and extermination will be inevitable.” *Degradation means “shame”

10 Why did President Monroe call for the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia? 1.Food shortages 2.Welfare of Native Americans 3.They found gold! 4.All of the above 12345

11 Madison’s words convey that he was concerned for which of the following? 1.Happiness of the Native Americans 2.Shielding Native Americans from ruin 3.To keep them from being exterminated 4.All of the above 12345

12 Discussion Point: President Madison’s words convey an interest in the well being of the Native Americans. Do you believe that he had their best interest at heart? 1.Yes, of course. 2.No way!

13 President Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson 7 th President of the United States ( ) Nicknamed “Old Hickory” due to his toughness

14 Andrew Jackson’s first annual message to Congress on December 8, 1829: “I informed the Indians inhabiting parts of Georgia and Alabama that their attempt…would not be countenanced by [me], and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi… As a means to effecting this end, I suggest…setting apart an ample district west of the Mississippi…to be guaranteed to the Indian tribes as long as they shall occupy it.”

15 Whose side in the argument did Jackson support? White settlers 2.Native Americans

16 What solution to the conflict between the Cherokees and Georgia did President Jackson propose? Leave them alone on the land where they were living at that time 2.Ask them what they want to do, since they were there first 3.Force them to move West of the Mississippi 4.Set up wigwam camps in a field and have a big meeting of the tribes with Congress

17 The Cherokee People Speak Back

18 Cherokee appeal to Congress in December 1829: “To the honorable…Senate and House of Representatives of the United States… [This] is the land of our nativity, and the land of our…birth. We cannot consent to abandon it, for another far inferior, and which holds out for us no inducements. We do, moreover, protest against the…measures of our neighbor, the state of Georgia, in her attempt to extend her laws over us…in direct opposition to treaties…of the United States…To protect [us] from…these encroachments upon [our] rights, [we] earnestly pray [you].”

19 What were the Cherokees asking Congress to do? 1.Hold to promises they’ve already made. 2.Give them better land. 3.Allow them to make their own American state 4.Give them a train to bring them to their new reservation land

20 The Cherokees thought the new land that was being offered to be much better than the land they already had. 1.True 2.False 12345

21 Where were the Native Americans before?

22 Indian Territory… Let’s take a look. Where will they go?

23 Sections of the Indian Removal Act, January 1830: “…the President of the United States [may] cause…territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi,…to be delivered into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there… …in the making of any such exchange or exchanges…the President [shall] solemnly…assure the tribe or nation…that the United States will forever secure and guarantee to them, and their heirs or successors, the country so exchanged with them.”

24 Which of the following would be a good summary of what the Indian Removal Act said? The United States is being so kind as to arrange areas that are specially reserved for Native Americans. 2.The United States promises that these lands will belong to the Native Americans for as long as their generations stay alive. 3.We are giving Native Americans a choice. 4.All of the above.

25 Was this a good deal for the Native American tribes? 1.Of course so. 2.Certainly not.

26 Perspective, perspective, perspective… Lewis Cass is the second from the right in this picture of President Buchanan’s Cabinet.

27 Lewis Cass (former U.S. general in War of 1812, governor of Territory of Michigan after War of ) excerpt from a popular magazine: “The destiny of the Indians, who inhabit the cultivated portions of the territory of the United States,…has long been a subject of debate… [They are a] barbarous people, depending for subsistence upon the scanty and precarious supplies furnished by the chase, [and] cannot live in contact with a civilized community… Let the offer of a new country be made to them with ample means to reach it and to subsist in it, with ample security for its peaceful and perpetual possession…”

28 Which side did Cass support? White settlers 2.Native Americans

29 Why, according to Cass, were the Cherokees (and other tribes living in the southeastern states), unable to live with success “in contact with a civilized community?” They don’t speak English 2.They’re too advanced to deal with rough settlers 3.Their children are too cute and make the settlers feel inferior 4.They are barbaric, and they only know how to hunt. They are generally shabby.

30 Tribal Territories in the United States

31 Theodore Frelinghuysen (New Jersey senator opposed to the Indian Removal Act) speaking to Congress during the Indian Removal Act debates: “God, in his providence, planted these tribes on this…continent. …we cannot rightfully complete the cession {giving up} of [their] lands, or take them by violence, if [their] consent be withheld… The confiding {trusting} Indian [over many years] listened to our professions {declaration} of friendship; we called him brother, and he believed us. Millions after millions he has yielded to our importunity {repeated requests}, until we have acquired more than can be cultivated in centuries—and yet we crave more. We have crowded the tribes upon a few miserable acres [in our South]; it is all that is left to them of their once boundless forests: and still…our insatiated {unsatisfied} cupidity {extreme greed} cries, Give! Give!”

32 Which side did Frelinghuysen support? 1.White settlers 2.Native Americans 12345

33 What, according to Senator Frelinghuysen, was the real reason why President Jackson wanted to relocate the Cherokees and other southeastern tribes west, beyond the Mississippi River? 1.GREED 2.GREED 3.GREED 4.All of the above 12345

34 Whose quotations have made the most sense to you out of all of these arguments? President James Monroe 2.President Andrew Jackson 3.Cherokee Nation 4.Lewis Cass 5.Theodore Frelinghuyson

35 INDIAN REMOVAL: Is it justified? It’s April 1830, and Congress is debating the Indian Removal Act. Should this law be passed? Write a newspaper editorial that expresses your opinion. Must include quotations and references to information from this week’s Turning Points slides and background knowledge gained through our previous in-class study of this topic.


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