Created in 1994: political response in post-Cold War world Focuses on key post-conflict, stabilization and transition issues in priority countries Operational with special authorities and unique mechanisms Catalytic Programs intended to be 2-3 years in duration Designed to deploy and begin operations within a few weeks of decision to engage. 50+engagements and around $2 billion since 1994 Office Background 3
DCHA/OTI Office of the Director Operations & Management Division Program Office Field Programs Division Applied Best Practices & Coordination Regional Teams: AFR, AME, LAC, AFPAK Personnel Support Team Operations Support Team Outreach & Evaluation Budget & Procurement 7
1.Focus on make or break issues, and local perceptions critical to the direction and durability of transition or political crisis 2.Transitional work, not development; basic human desires not always basic human needs 3.Support rather than promote; focus on local processes, local priorities, local ownership, local resiliencies. 4.Process-driven, not sector-driven; impact defined in terms of attitudes, behaviors and perceptions. 5.Committed to effects and outcomes as well as outputs 6.Get outside the capital, target local actors, move beyond “usual suspects,” activate existing capacities. OTI Programming Principles
OTI Assistance Assumptions Local capacity (resiliencies) to create positive change often exists, even when critical structures are broken Small inputs can have profound, catalytic, effects if appropriate, timely, targeted and magnified Modest initial investments can be used to leverage other resources in order to maximize impact In uncertain times, populations need assurance that the risks of change are worth it; immediate, tangible signs of progress can build confidence
INTENSIVE MANAGEMENT Assessment Start-up Workshop First Strategy Meeting Management Review (six months) PPR Quarterly Strategy Meetings MID END Annual Budget Review Handover Plan (18 mo) Closeout Planning Final Evaluation After Exit Review Nth Strategy Meeting = Reminder to repeat Year One activities (post-start-up workshop) Task Order
Marawara, Kunar Province SOI : Lack of GIRoA presence, legitimacy and capacity Design: Post-Kinetic Clearing – maximize benefit to improve community stability Implementation: Community Infrastructure – Cash for Work; Encourage GIRoA Outreach Impact : Organic engagement between traditional leaders and GIRoA
District Situation: June 2010 Stable area - the District Center and the narrow zone of Loya Bache valley Unstable – Loya Dara (big valley) 80 out of 87 villages beyond the reach of GIRoA Limited freedom of movement: DG and ANSF not able to move outside of the district center; few residents of Loya Dara visit the DC Frequent security incidents: IEDs on the road, attacks on ANP and ANA patrols, night letters, kidnappings and murder of persons associated with GIRoA (demining teams, DAKAR, etc.) No links between the DG and tribal elders; dysfunctional tribal shura, but operating CDCs
ASI Programming ASI/E started activities in late 2009/early 2010 Activities concentrated in the DC – improving physical capacity of the DG Limited knowledge of the district Military operation in June 2010 – new momentum for programming Post-clear hold & stabilization
Design What – Combination of highly visible cash for work activities and soft activities to complement the infrastructure projects to help GIRoA extend its reach into remote areas, engage the population and start building credibility – Cluster of activities starting in the District Center and gradually expanding into unstable areas of Loya Dara valley
Design 2 Infrastructure: Activities included two roads connecting the DC with remote villages and other infrastructure projects along the road to engage key populations living in the area (flood walls, retaining walls, and school rehabilitation) Soft activities: Shura meetings to connect the District Government with tribal elders, capacity building grants to help DG with public outreach and more efficient and transparent delivery of services Rationale: Engage as many people as possible on projects over the period of 4-6 months. The activities were substantial enough to provide labor opportunity to most men from the area and create a space where GIRoA can engage with the population in a constructive way. Cluster of activities cost around 1.5 million dollars. 70% went to the labor and the remainder on the materials, majority of which were procured locally ($19/capita)
Implementation - How Not about “What” but “How” Principles of programming: – Identified tribal elders – positive influencers – Community-identified projects (DDP, CDP,Shuras) – Cash for work (no contractors) – Local labor mobilization led by the District Governor – Local Procurement – Money stays in the community
Stabilization Effects Activities long enough to provide time and space for positive interaction Community ownership created a sense of cohesion and purpose among the population Community showing signs of resilience - resisted pressure from Taliban to stop the activities twice Through the activities, the District Government built strong links with the tribal structure (DDA and CDCs and influential maliks). Without ASI/E facilitation, this cooperation continues organically (e.g., Boys School, abduction of tribal elders) Improved freedom of movement: ANA and ANBP are going as far as DariDam and Ghaki Pass using MRW001 and MRW015; More visitors to the DC from remote areas Security: Check post under construction in Dari Dam, no IED incidents or violent attacks on ANA, ANP DG using ASI/E success to encourage other donors to Marawara (WFP, ICRC)
Impact Strengthened relationship between DG and informal and other structures (IDLG, DDA & CDC) New confidence in GIRoA (e.g., Barolow) Clear roles and responsibility of institutions New governance dynamic: inclusive and participatory shura set up (e.g. Boys School, Abduction of Elders, MRW004,etc.) New discourse
PTI Strategic Review Session October 31, 2011 P AKISTAN C ASE S TUDY
Community Confidence in Government Key Finding: Confidence in the government has increased in the communities where PTI projects have been implemented 90% indicated their confidence in the GOP increased due to the PTI project 88% said their community’s support for the government increased Confirmed by GOP officials and focus group with POC members AND this increase is the direct result of those interventions.
PTI Processes Key Finding: Hallmark PTI processes are working well. CCJs have broadened community involvement in decision making POCs have created community ownership But there is room for improvement!