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Stuff Reading Notes Due on Friday Reading Notes Due on Friday If you need old reading notes come to my office If you need old reading notes come to my.

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Presentation on theme: "Stuff Reading Notes Due on Friday Reading Notes Due on Friday If you need old reading notes come to my office If you need old reading notes come to my."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stuff Reading Notes Due on Friday Reading Notes Due on Friday If you need old reading notes come to my office If you need old reading notes come to my office Good discussion on Friday Good discussion on Friday May discuss the other two chapter this Friday May discuss the other two chapter this Friday Watch for Watch for Remember CLASS paper due on April 24 th Remember CLASS paper due on April 24 th

2 Post War America and the Indian

3 WWII changed the world, America and life and expectations for Native Americans WWII changed the world, America and life and expectations for Native Americans Colonies around the world began to break down Colonies around the world began to break down Communities and countries around the world began to demand and take, a path, to Self-Determination Communities and countries around the world began to demand and take, a path, to Self-Determination

4 For some white politicians WWII had taught them “new” ideas with regard to Native Americans For some white politicians WWII had taught them “new” ideas with regard to Native Americans Having seen Native American soldiers fight with, and function effectively within, the Armed forces Having seen Native American soldiers fight with, and function effectively within, the Armed forces In non-segregated units In non-segregated units

5 This “New” Idea This “New” Idea They believed that Indians deserved to share equally in the benefits of citizenship They believed that Indians deserved to share equally in the benefits of citizenship Could be drawn fully into the economic, social, and cultural fabric of America Could be drawn fully into the economic, social, and cultural fabric of America Can anyone say assimilation? Can anyone say assimilation?

6 By moving in this way By moving in this way Native Americans could be removed from rural ghettos Native Americans could be removed from rural ghettos No awareness of the Navajo Code Talkers Genuinely wanted to help Genuinely wanted to help Others had the same ideas Others had the same ideas But not the same motivations But not the same motivations

7 Collier was tied to FDR Collier was tied to FDR New deal policies came to be seen as communist New deal policies came to be seen as communist Collier’s protection of native land was damaging to business Collier’s protection of native land was damaging to business Therefore dangerous to America Therefore dangerous to America Remember Joe McCarthy Remember Joe McCarthy

8 Conservative politicians wanted to Conservative politicians wanted to Trim federal budget Trim federal budget See America as a single identity See America as a single identity Both these aims were turned to Native America Both these aims were turned to Native America With disastrous results With disastrous results The aim was to redefine the relationship The aim was to redefine the relationship Phase out tribal government Phase out tribal government Terminate the relationship between the federal government and Native America Terminate the relationship between the federal government and Native America

9 Brief video overview on issues of land and sovereignty Brief video overview on issues of land and sovereignty Brief video overview on issues of land and sovereignty Brief video overview on issues of land and sovereignty

10 Termination We heard in the video that tribal sovereignty had never been taken away We heard in the video that tribal sovereignty had never been taken away Yet for a period of time in the 20 th Century and for a few groups that is exactly what occurred Yet for a period of time in the 20 th Century and for a few groups that is exactly what occurred

11 After Colliers' resignation After Colliers' resignation replaced by William Brophy and John Nicholls replaced by William Brophy and John Nicholls good men but unable to rebuff the attacks on the role of the BIA good men but unable to rebuff the attacks on the role of the BIA 1950 Pres. Truman appointed Dillon S. Myer 1950 Pres. Truman appointed Dillon S. Myer

12 Myer had managed relocation of Japanese to camps Myer had managed relocation of Japanese to camps Believed that Japanese-Americans and others should and could be assimilated Believed that Japanese-Americans and others should and could be assimilated Why? Why? To reduce racial tension To reduce racial tension Turned focus to Native Americans to achieve this goal Turned focus to Native Americans to achieve this goal Launched a political counter-offensive Launched a political counter-offensive

13 Native American cultures an Oxymoron Native American cultures an Oxymoron He argued that Native Americans had no “legitimate cultures” He argued that Native Americans had no “legitimate cultures” Government had no business in encouraging native languages, arts, literature, and government. Government had no business in encouraging native languages, arts, literature, and government. End cultural pluralism End cultural pluralism Deemphasized day schools near reservations Deemphasized day schools near reservations Enlarged boarding school process Enlarged boarding school process

14 When Eisenhower assumed presidency in 1952 Myer knew he would not be reappointed When Eisenhower assumed presidency in 1952 Myer knew he would not be reappointed But didn’t want to lose influence and power But didn’t want to lose influence and power Volunteered support and guidance to new commissioner Glenn Emmons Volunteered support and guidance to new commissioner Glenn Emmons

15 One of Myer first acts of help was to compose a letter to congress One of Myer first acts of help was to compose a letter to congress Proposal suggested Termination Proposal suggested Termination Policy was already doing the rounds in the halls of power Policy was already doing the rounds in the halls of power They main players They main players Emmons Emmons Former banker from New Mexico Former banker from New Mexico Arthur V. Watkins of Utah Arthur V. Watkins of Utah Chair of Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Chair of Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Abolish tax free status of reservations Abolish tax free status of reservations

16 Conservative republicans chaired Committee of Indian Affairs in both houses Conservative republicans chaired Committee of Indian Affairs in both houses Pushed through termination bill as a Pushed through termination bill as a “valuable and salutary Congressional measure” “valuable and salutary Congressional measure” August 1 st 1953 Congress unanimously passed August 1 st 1953 Congress unanimously passed House Concurrent Resolution 108 House Concurrent Resolution 108

17 Concurrent Resolution 108 Concurrent Resolution 108 Congress wanted Indians to be Congress wanted Indians to be “subject to the same laws and entitled to the same privileges and responsibilities” “subject to the same laws and entitled to the same privileges and responsibilities” As other Americans, listed nations in As other Americans, listed nations in That were prepared to have federal services withdrawn That were prepared to have federal services withdrawn California California New York New York Wisconsin Wisconsin Oregon Oregon Montana Montana Kansas Kansas Nebraska Nebraska Florida Florida Texas Texas

18 Resolution 108 was not law Resolution 108 was not law But it guided Indian policy and But it guided Indian policy and Two weeks later congress passed Two weeks later congress passed Public Law 280 (PL 280) Public Law 280 (PL 280) Placed lands in Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, Nebraska and Oregon under Placed lands in Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, Nebraska and Oregon under Criminal and civil legislation of the states Criminal and civil legislation of the states President Eisenhower signed it into Law noting President Eisenhower signed it into Law noting Congress had not included a provision Congress had not included a provision ‘asking for native consent’ ‘asking for native consent’

19 PL 280 reminiscent of laws in PL 280 reminiscent of laws in 1830s Georgia 1830s Georgia 1850s California 1850s California Ignored policies under Collier Ignored policies under Collier Congressmen knew that Indians would oppose termination Congressmen knew that Indians would oppose termination This is why they didn’t consult This is why they didn’t consult 1954 House and Senate passed laws 1954 House and Senate passed laws Terminating federal relationships with particular tribes Terminating federal relationships with particular tribes Ending tribal governments and constitution Ending tribal governments and constitution Effectively forced Native Americans to be subjects of the state in which they lived Effectively forced Native Americans to be subjects of the state in which they lived

20 US had got out of the ‘Indian Business’ US had got out of the ‘Indian Business’ Ordered states and counties to take over Ordered states and counties to take over Indians could either Indians could either sell land and resources and offer per capita payments or sell land and resources and offer per capita payments or transfer title to a trustee transfer title to a trustee Individual Indians given title to land so they could sell them Individual Indians given title to land so they could sell them Can anyone say allotment? Can anyone say allotment?

21 Many Native Americans found out about PL 280 long after the fact. Many Native Americans found out about PL 280 long after the fact. Surprised and uprooted in one day Surprised and uprooted in one day Others however recognized the danger Others however recognized the danger Several tribal council passed resolutions opposing it Several tribal council passed resolutions opposing it National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Organized in 1944 Organized in 1944 Mobilized against Termination in 1953 Mobilized against Termination in 1953

22 Termination Termination An attempt to An attempt to “desegregate Indian communities and integrate Indians into the rest of society” “desegregate Indian communities and integrate Indians into the rest of society” also intended as also intended as “the ultimate destruction of tribal cultures and native life-styles” “the ultimate destruction of tribal cultures and native life-styles” Donald L. Fixico Donald L. Fixico Creek, Seminole, Shawnee Sac and Fox Creek, Seminole, Shawnee Sac and Fox

23 Many Native Americans found out about PL 280 long after the fact. Many Native Americans found out about PL 280 long after the fact. Surprised and uprooted in one day Surprised and uprooted in one day Others however recognized the danger Others however recognized the danger Several tribal council passed resolutions opposing it Several tribal council passed resolutions opposing it National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Organized in 1944 Organized in 1944 Mobilized against Termination in 1953 Mobilized against Termination in 1953

24 Lead figure in the National Congress of American Indian (NCAI) and their opposition to PL 280 Lead figure in the National Congress of American Indian (NCAI) and their opposition to PL 280 Joseph Garry Joseph Garry Former Marine and Chair of Coeur d’Alene tribe Former Marine and Chair of Coeur d’Alene tribe NCAI argument was that: NCAI argument was that: Only Native Americans, not congress, could end tribal- government relationship Only Native Americans, not congress, could end tribal- government relationship

25 As with many issues Native American ironic black humor appeared in the condemnation of termination As with many issues Native American ironic black humor appeared in the condemnation of termination Earl Old Person Earl Old Person Blackfeet elder Native translation for Termination: wipe out, kill off Native translation for Termination: wipe out, kill off Planning your future under the threat of termination like cooking Planning your future under the threat of termination like cooking “a meal in your tipi when someone is standing outside trying to burn the tipi down” “a meal in your tipi when someone is standing outside trying to burn the tipi down”

26 Another strong campaigner Another strong campaigner Lucy Covington Lucy Covington Colville Confederated tribe Colville Confederated tribe Some members waivered towards terminating Some members waivered towards terminating Covington took the lead Covington took the lead “Lucy Covington single-handily stopped the Coalvilles from terminating” “Lucy Covington single-handily stopped the Coalvilles from terminating” Tribal member Tribal member

27 With help of Commissioner of Indian Affairs Philleo Nash With help of Commissioner of Indian Affairs Philleo Nash She successfully fought Washington Senator Henry Jackson She successfully fought Washington Senator Henry Jackson Prevented termination in 1966 Prevented termination in 1966

28 Not the result for all tribes Not the result for all tribes Finally congress terminated 109 tribes Finally congress terminated 109 tribes 3 % of federally recognized tribes 3 % of federally recognized tribes Together owned 3.2% of native lands Together owned 3.2% of native lands 1958 “rancheria bill” part of the attack on California where 41 reservations were terminated 1958 “rancheria bill” part of the attack on California where 41 reservations were terminated Most from any single state Most from any single state

29 Two of most well known acts of termination era Two of most well known acts of termination era 1954 Klamath Termination Act 1954 Klamath Termination Act And And 1961 Menominee Termination Act 1961 Menominee Termination Act But before we get to these two cases But before we get to these two cases

30 New documentary series

31 1958 congress authorized sale of forests to private companies 1958 congress authorized sale of forests to private companies 1,659 Klamaths (77%) voted to terminate 1,659 Klamaths (77%) voted to terminate Received one time payment of $43,000 Received one time payment of $43,000 To pay for this government agents sold 717,000 acres To pay for this government agents sold 717,000 acres Remaining 474 Klamath (23%) voted to retain tribal status had 145,000 acres Remaining 474 Klamath (23%) voted to retain tribal status had 145,000 acres

32 Klamath Termination 1954 act passed 1954 act passed Allowed natives on Klamath reservation to Allowed natives on Klamath reservation to A) remain with the tribe and placing unsold part of reservation into trust A) remain with the tribe and placing unsold part of reservation into trust B) sever relationship with tribe and federal government B) sever relationship with tribe and federal government Those who severed received share of tribal assets Those who severed received share of tribal assets

33 Klamath identified for termination due to Klamath identified for termination due to Rich timber resources Rich timber resources Relative prosperity Relative prosperity $2 million gross annual income from sale of tribal timber $2 million gross annual income from sale of tribal timber Leader for termination was Wade Crawford a tribal member – lived of the reservation Leader for termination was Wade Crawford a tribal member – lived of the reservation

34 1974 these people voted to terminate 1974 these people voted to terminate Per capita payment $173,000 Per capita payment $173,000 Despite this all Klamath continued to identify as Indians Despite this all Klamath continued to identify as Indians 1975 readopted tribal constitution 1975 readopted tribal constitution Klamath Tribe of Oregon Klamath Tribe of Oregon Asserted water, hunting and fishing rights as provided in treaty Asserted water, hunting and fishing rights as provided in treaty Lobbied congress to restore tribal status Lobbied congress to restore tribal status 1978 congress recognized the Klamath and restored federal status 1978 congress recognized the Klamath and restored federal status

35 Friday Termination cont. and discussion

36 Menominee Termination 1961 act passed 1961 act passed First proposed 1954 First proposed Menominee had been seeking distribution of earlier settlement 1953 Menominee had been seeking distribution of earlier settlement Senator Watkins of Utah Senator Watkins of Utah Supporter of termination Supporter of termination Added amendment to payment Added amendment to payment Termination precondition to payment Termination precondition to payment Led to confusion on reservation Led to confusion on reservation

37 Menominee voted unanimously for termination Menominee voted unanimously for termination Of 3,254 members of the tribe on 200 actually voted Of 3,254 members of the tribe on 200 actually voted Most Menominee refused to vote to show opposition to even discussing or recognizing termination as a policy Most Menominee refused to vote to show opposition to even discussing or recognizing termination as a policy 1961 created Menominee Enterprises Inc 1961 created Menominee Enterprises Inc To operate their lumber mills and lands To operate their lumber mills and lands

38 Termination proved to be disastrous Termination proved to be disastrous Had to close tribal hospital Had to close tribal hospital Tuberculosis, had been on decline, rose again Tuberculosis, had been on decline, rose again /3 of tribe were positive for the disease /3 of tribe were positive for the disease infant mortality 200% above national average infant mortality 200% above national average And children who survived no longer recognized as Indian And children who survived no longer recognized as Indian tribal rolls had been closed in 1954 with termination tribal rolls had been closed in 1954 with termination

39 Unemployment on reservation rose to 25% Unemployment on reservation rose to 25% Forcing tribe to sell land to non natives along lakes and in prime hunting grounds Forcing tribe to sell land to non natives along lakes and in prime hunting grounds 1970 formed 1970 formed Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders (DRUMS) Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders (DRUMS) Led by Ada Deer Led by Ada Deer December President Nixon signed the Menominee Restoration Act December President Nixon signed the Menominee Restoration Act

40 This act effectively ended Termination era This act effectively ended Termination era Federal government neither Federal government neither A) Got out of Indian business A) Got out of Indian business 1953 – 1973 BIA grew in budget and staff 1953 – 1973 BIA grew in budget and staff B) Saved money B) Saved money Federal government spent vast sums on Federal government spent vast sums on Welfare, public health, and Social Security Welfare, public health, and Social Security Native Americans did not enter melting pot Native Americans did not enter melting pot But helped ignite a new activism among Native Americans But helped ignite a new activism among Native Americans


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