Bellwork: Define Terms Boli/Chac-chac– large, seed-filled rattle. Chantwell--lead singer, usually female. Cutter—a snare drum. Dahomey—the culture-kingdom of West Africa, centered in the city of Ardra. Historical ethnomusicology -an approach that uses musical materials to discover history.
Announcements Reading #5 is due on Tuesday, September 17 th.
Guided Notes— The Big Drum Dance Big Drum Dance—a ritual/celebration where descendants of different nations of Africa meet and dance after the nature of their own country. The ancient big drum dance of Carriacou, Grenada, is crucial to the current generation’s memory of national origin and kinship. Created by enslaved people, the Nation Dance celebrates family reorganization and changes in social status.
Where is Carriacou? Carriacou is the largest island in the Grenadine chain, in Grenada. Unilateral descent—uncorrupted blood-line, isolated environment nurtured the preservation of old customs. The population of Carriacou is made up of Afro- caribbean peoples--the unwilling immigrant to the Americas—the enslaved African. The african’s sense of estrangement in the new world influenced their concept of nation.
CFU--Customs Individually or in pairs, think about your family’s traditions. List three traditions—it could be something as simple as dinner at McDonald’s on Sundays. Try to list some older tradition, too. If you can, think of possible origins of the traditions. If you don’t know the origin, make up one! If you’d like to, draw branches of a tree to illustrate your facts.
Listening Example #1— Anansi-o-e, Cromanti Active Listening Can you hear the cutter drum?—it sticks out above the rest. What is the name of the shaken instrument in the background of this piece? What is the name of the lead singer who starts the songs?
Just the Faux, Listening Example #1— Anansi-o-e, Cromanti The form of this song is call and response. Anansi—The akan spider hero, is also a venerated ancestor figure. Sali—to pray, in Arabic. Baba—a carib name for father of everyone, it has related meanings in the Yoruba and Hausa languages. Hausa—it is a ligua franca, a language that has been adopted by speakers of other languages, of western Africa, including Nigeria. This dance was performed for a funeral rite.
Guided Notes— Music as History By studying music, we study history. Music and the ritual complexes of which it may be a part, are primary cultural documents within which cultural evidence is encoded. These aren’t artifacts, but instead living journals of song, ritual and dance that communicate the ethos of an earlier time.
Building the Big Drum Dance Tribes who contribute to the dance: Manding, Cromanti, Igbo, Congo, Temne, Chamba, Banda, Arada, Moko. Instances where the big drum dance is performed: 1. A wedding reception 2. A funeral 3. The launching of a new boat 4. The christening of a new house.
Big Drum Basics Three groupings of Big Drum dances include: 1. Nation dances 2. Creole dances 3. Frivolous dances The texts are written in French-creole, patois, with a sprinkling of African-sounding words.
Active Listening #2 Ina-O, Cromanti Think for a second (second’s over!) on the use of rhythm in Chinese music. How does the African use of rhythm differ from that of China? What word that starts with S and is used in this piece, as well as in the Steel drum pieces we heard? How many percussion instruments do you hear?
Listening example #2 Ina-O, Cromanti Ina—female ancestral figure, the mother of all spirits, in Hausa, a connection to the spirits. The drums use both open tones and bass tones to vary the sound. Salamaini—middle of the night, to greet in Hausa. From a sacred group of songs called the midnight Cromanti. The worshippers reconvene the dance after the late-night saraka recess. Cromanti songs have potent spiritual content.
What do those words mean? Text: Ina-o, Ina-oInna-O, Inna-O Ina-o, Mama nuInna-o, our mother Salamani-oGreet her in the middle of the night
CFU: Gallery Walk On a small post-it write down one fact from the listening examples of today. When you have completed this, place it in a larger category on the board: Song Lyrics Ritual Facts Instrument Facts Do a gallery walk by row and write down two additional facts from the category you chose.
Exit Ticket Define the word: Dahomey: The population of Carriacou is made-up primarily of: Write a concise definition of the “Big Drum Dance” Who is Ina? Name the tribe whose songs we have studied today: