3 history Oldest continuous residents of Wisconsin At the start of the treaty era, in the early 1800’s, the Menominee tribe occupied a land base of an estimated 10 million acres.
4 Brief timeline1634: Jean Nicolet, French made contact with the Menominee1775: Some fought against the American in the Revolutionary War1812: War of 1812, Some fought against the Americans1854: gave up lands except for a reservation on Wolf River in north-central Wisconsin: federal status TerminatedTwo part plan1961: Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin was terminated, Tribal membership 3,270 Tribal land (Acres) 233,8811972: Menomiee Restoration Act restored tribe
5 Treaties 1817 March 30, at St. Louis, with the Chippewa 1825 August 19, at Prairie du Chien, with the Sioux, Etc.,1827 August 11, at Butte des Morts1831 February 8, at Washington1831 February 17, at Washington1832 October 27,1836 September 3, at Cedar Point1848 October 18, at Lake Powawhaykonnay1854 May 12, at Falls of Wolf River1856 February 11, at Keshena
7 Spiritual beliefsBelieved that children and elders were closest to the spiritsIf a baby was unhappy, a special healer would find out why. Often it was thought that a certain ancestor spirit has been reborn in the baby and wanted the baby’s name changed. Therefore, a naming ceremony was held to give that child that ancestor’s name.
12 Culture Algonquin speaking nation Menominee refer to themselves as mameqtaw meaning “the people”Other indian tribes call them menominee, derived from manomin- an algonkian word for wile rice as it is a staple food for the tribe. (mpm.edu)French called them “the nation of wild oats”
13 Culture Lived by hunting, fishing and gathering Wild rice= staple food Augmented by corn, beans and squashSome food was dried in the sun to save for the winterBoiling and roasting were common cooking methodsMaple sugar and syrup were commonly used as sweeteners and flavorings
14 GeographyOnce occupied over 10 million acres of land which is now central and mid-eastern Wisconsin
15 Culture- Clans Clans Bear Eagle Moose Crane Wolf (Facts and figures 2004)
21 Current location Current location: Current Menominee indian reservation is located about 45 miles northwest of Green Bay.The reservation is 235,523 acres and countains roughly 223,500 acres of heavily forested lands
22 Affects on the tribes social and economic conditions today Today Menominee are on their way to economic progressMulti-million dollar organizationProvides employment to its people along with services such as a clinic, police protection, and a Tribal school
23 Comparisonlgonquian and Great Lake Tribessuch as Ojibway (35,000), Delaware (8,000), Powhatan (9,000) Massachuset (13,600), and Cree (17,000)Northeastwigwamswore little clothing except in winter - made from animal skinshuntersgathererstrappersplanterspow wowssnowsnakeBirchbark baskets and canoestrapsbirchbark boxeswampumdream catchersPocahontas (1585?-1622) PowhatanPontiac (1720?-1769) OttawaTecumseh (1765?-1813) ShawneeBlack Hawk ( ) SaukSquanto (1585?-1622) PatuxetIroquois Tribes such as Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora (Total 5,000)long housemostly buckskin (skin of deer)hunters planters gatherers tradersThree Sisters (corn, squash, & beans)formed Confederacymany festivalscanoes snowshoesFalse Face Society wooden masks