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C ULTURAL G ROUP S TUDY P ROJECT A MERICAN I NDIANS Jacey Ageno, Jessica Biles, Lisa Dubuc, Elysse Sato, Joy Senff & David Short.

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Presentation on theme: "C ULTURAL G ROUP S TUDY P ROJECT A MERICAN I NDIANS Jacey Ageno, Jessica Biles, Lisa Dubuc, Elysse Sato, Joy Senff & David Short."— Presentation transcript:

1 C ULTURAL G ROUP S TUDY P ROJECT A MERICAN I NDIANS Jacey Ageno, Jessica Biles, Lisa Dubuc, Elysse Sato, Joy Senff & David Short

2 H OME COUNTRY

3 Location- United States Size million square miles Population- Over 310 million people Demographics White 79.8% Hispanic (of any race) 15.4% Black 12.8% Asian 4.5% American Indian and Alaska Native 1.0% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 0.2% Two or more races 1.7% Languages Spoken-311 Literacy Rates- 99% of total population can read and write ages 15+ History Indigenous people of the U.S. believe to have migrated from Asia 1492 arrival of Spaniards European colonists spread Christianity 1700’s Indigenous population drastically declines from disease and warfare 1802 Indian lands exchanged for U.S. services 1830 Indian Removal Act 1924 Citizenship granted to all Indians Current Problems Economy struggles/Unemployment Terrorism Education Alcoholism

4 L ANGUAGE

5 C HINUK W AWA, C HINOOK J ARGON, C HINOOK P IDGIN Regional language in the Pacific American North Coast - Oregon to Panhandle Alaska Was spoken extensively in British Columbia and much of the Pacific Northwest for most of the 1800s and the early 1900s It provided a means of communication between speakers of different First Nations’ languages, as well as between First Nations speakers and Europeans U.S. Ethnic population: 119 (2000 census) and decreasing Many words are still used and enjoyed throughout Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska Old-timers still remember it, although in their youth, speaking this language was discouraged as slang The Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde community of Oregon is taking steps to preserve Chinook Jargon use through a full immersion head start/preschool The Confederated Tribes also offer Chinuk Wawa lessons at their offices in Eugene and Portland, Oregon Nearly extinct A Little HistoryNow

6 T HE L ANGUAGE I TSELF Chinuk-wawa (also known as Chinook Jargon) is a unique pidgin language that is a mix of tribal languages, French, and English. It is easy to learn and use. Example sentence "I speak Chinook Jargon“ Naika wawa chinook wawa Vocabulary Teach to: mam’-ook kum’-tuk Child: ten’-a Yes: áh-ha; e-é Hear it for yourself!

7 C ULTURAL V ALUES

8 Native American (Traditional Indian Values) Non-Indian (Dominant Society Values) GROUP (take care of the PEOPLE) >>SELF ( take care of #1) TODAY is a Good Day! >>PREPARE FOR TOMORROW A RIGHT time/RIGHT place >>TIME (use EVERY minute) AGE (knowledge-wisdom) >>YOUTH (rich, young, beautiful) COOPERATE >>COMPETE! Be PATIENT >>Learn to be AGGRESSIVE LISTEN (and you'll learn) >>SPEAK UP GIVE and share >>TAKE and save Live in HARMONY (with all things) >>CONQUER Nature Great MYSTERY/intuitive >>SKEPTICAL/ Logical HUMILITY >>(Ego) SELF attention A SPIRITUAL Life >>Religion (a PART of life)

9 Extended Families Strong roles for women Traditional, bicultural, or assimilated Historically adversarial relationship with schools Cooperation Group HarmonyModesty Autonomy Placidity Patience Generosity Indifference to work ethic Moderation in speech Careful listening Careful observation Time is relative Focus on the present Pragmatism Respect for elderly Respect for nature Spirituality Avoidance of eye contact Native language retention Caution Spirituality Cultural pluralism

10 A DAPTATION & A DJUSTMENT I SSUES I NSTRUCTIONAL M ATERIALS

11 A DAPTATION & A DJUSTMENT I SSUES Many American Indians live on reservations Disadvantages of reservations Lack of access to capital Lack of natural resources Isolated High cost of transportion Instability of tribal government They rank at the bottom for many social statistics Highest teen suicide rate of all minorities: 18.5 per 100,000 Highest rate of teen pregnancy Highest high school drop out rate: 54% Lowest per capita income Unemployment rates between 50% to 90% Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Loss of language Assimilated to the white culture or “White- washed” Culture isn’t represented at school and in the curriculum Native American Holidays? Books Elementary Jingle Dancer by Cynthia Leitich Smith Cheyenne Again by Eve Bunting Middle School My Name is Sepeetza by Shirley Sterling Crossing the Starlight Bridge by Alice Mead High School Wolf That I Am: In Search of the Red Earth People by Fred McTaggart Everyday LifeTexts I NSTRUCTIONAL M ATERIALS

12 I NSTRUCTIONAL S TRATEGIES Finding culturally relevant material is a challenge What’s relevant to one group might not be relevant to another Text should build upon background knowledge Text should be culturally relevant and meaningful Ideas for creating culturally relevant stories Involve the local community members in story telling Have stories recorded and in writing available to students Allow children to develop their own stories When choosing appropriate material ask yourself these questions: Is the American Indian culture evaluated from the perspective of Indian values and attitudes rather than those of another culture? Does the literature recognize the American Indian as an enduring race, not a vanishing or assimilated people? Does the literature portray realistic roles for American Indian women? Do not persistently look directly at American Indian students when speaking to them, or expect them to look directly at you Seen as a sign of defiance and hostility When speaking they will often will look off in the same direction, not at each other Do not put too much pressure on time Traditionally, native cultures have relied on weather or other conditions to determine when something must be done, rather than using a clock Promote relaxed communication, native students need to be able to ask questions without hesitation and feel that they can discuss problems freely Do not try to motivate students by competition. In many native groups, a person who shows himself/herself to be superior (as opposed to an equal and cooperating member of the group) is ostracized and belittled Culturally Relevant MaterialsTeaching Strategies

13 C OMMUNITIES IN O REGON

14 A MERICAN I NDIAN T RIBES IN O REGON Burns Paiute Tribe in Burns Language – Paiute List of words on their website Confederated Tribes of the Coos – Lower Umpqua – Siuslaw Indians in Coos Bay Languages – Milluk (Coos), Hanis (Coos), and Siuslaw & Lower Umpqua Audio cassettes on their website for learning their language Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde (Umpqua, Molalla, Rogue River, Kalapuya & Chasta) Common Language – Chinuk Wawa Chinuk Wawa immersion preschool Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians Language – Athabaskan The Siletz language program is actively teaching classes on the Athabaskan language to tribal members

15 A MERICAN I NDIAN T RIBES IN O REGON CONTINUED The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Languages – Kiksht (Wasco) only 5 fluent speakers left, Numu (Paiute) only 5 fluent speakers left, and Ichishkiin (Sahaptin) about 50 fluent speakers left The Tribal Language Program is taking steps to bring the language back to the people. Cow Creek Bank of Umpqua Tribe of Indians (Roseburg) Language – Takelma – no mention on efforts to revive language Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Languages – Cayuse (extinct today except a few words spoken), Sahaptin Education department has created a language program in an effort to restore the language The Klamath Tribes (Klamath, Modoc & Yahooskin) Language – Klamath The Klamath Tribes Language Project – basic course in writing & pronunciation Coquille Indian Tribe Language – Milluk, Hanis & Athapaskan (Coquille) mostly extinct now among tribal members

16

17 R ESOURCES Americans in the United States. (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from Burns Paiute Tribe. (2010). Retrieved December 2010, from Burns Paiute Tribe: Chinook Jargon Yinka Déné Language Institute. Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde. (2010). Retrieved December 2010, from Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde: Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians. (2010). Retrieved December 2010, from Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians: Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, Siuslaw Indians. (2006). Retrieved December 2010, from Confederated Tribes of the Coos, Lower Umpqua, Siuslaw Indians: Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. (2010). Retrieved December 2010, from Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation: Coquille Indian Tribe. ( ). Retrieved December 2010, from Coquille Indian Tribe: Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. (2010). Retrieved December 2010, from Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians: Eller, J. (2009).

18 R ESOURCES C ONTINUED Garcia, E. (2002). Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Google. (n.d). Retrieved from: Keller, E. (2005, April 12). Strategies for teaching science to Native Americans. Retrieved from Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Native Languages of the Americas. (2007). Native languages of the Americas: American Indian children’s books and literature. Retrieved from languages.org/children-books.htm Oregon's Indian Tribes. (2009). Retrieved December 2010, from Oregon Blue Book: Smith, K. (2007). Native issues. Retrieved from Teaching and Learning With Native Americans. (2010). Contrasting Values. Retrieved from The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. ( ). Retrieved December 2010, from The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs: The Klamath Tribes. (2008). Retrieved December 2010, from The Klamath Tribes: United States. (2010). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from


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