The Age of Imperialism 1867-1914 Imperialism is the policy of establishing colonies to transform a single country into a large empire
Global Imperialism In the late 1800’s England, France, Belgium, Germany, Portugal, etc. began to occupy large areas of Africa, Asia and have large amounts of control in China and Japan.
Impact on Europe PROS Europe gained large amounts of wealth in raw materials Gained markets to sell products to CONS Europeans got involved in tribal conflicts Caused tension between Europeans over who controlled what Had to spend lots of money to set up cities, roads, etc
Impacts on other countries PROS Gained new technology and products Organized their governments More education and better medical care CONS Tribal cultures and languages replaced with European versions Resources taken People used as slave laborers
The Age of Imperialism 1867-1914 Since 1776, the U.S. had always been isolationist (the belief that a country should isolate itself from world affairs)
American Imperialism America’s emergence on the global scene was delayed because of the Civil War.
Afterwards, America still had to “Imperialize” the West. –Instead of “civilizing” African or Asian natives, they focused on American Indians. Replaced their culture, religion and took their resources.
America’s Focus America was focused on internal affairs –Regulating business –Controlling Immigration –Building Railroads –Fighting a Civil War
Because of these factors, America’s involvement on the global stage was slightly delayed. What did I miss?
Causes of US Imperialism Competition with Europeans Industrial Revolution Racism and Missionary Efforts New theories in Naval power
Competition with Europeans Europeans had established massive empires and the US did not want to be left behind.
Industrial Revolution New factories and technology created a demand in the US for raw materials. Also, US companies were seeking markets for mass produced products.
Racism and Missionary Efforts Many Americans were motivated by a desire to spread “Western” culture throughout the world. –Positive and negative aspects
New Theories on Naval Power Alfred Thayer Mahan published a book titled The Influence of Sea Power on History in 1886. –“Gunboat diplomacy” - To be a world power, you need to have a strong navy.
Naval Power America needed naval bases throughout the world to fuel and supply battleships.
The Age of Imperialism 1867-1914 The U.S. became very involved with the countries of Latin America, the islands of the Pacific (Hawaii), and China
Alaska The Russians had laid claim to Alaska as far back as the 1700’s Their claim went as far south as modern Oregon
Alaska In the mid-1800’s Russia was a political and financial mess. In 1867 they decided to negotiate with the US to sell their claim to Alaska.
Alaska Sec. of State William Seward agreed to buy all 586,412 square miles of Alaska.
China and the Open Door Policy To prevent this, President Roosevelt’s Secretary of State John Hay proposed the “Open Door Policy” that would give all nations equal trading rights with China John Hay
“Spheres of Influence” With China’s doors open to foreign trade, Europeans began to set up “spheres of influence” –An area where one nation has exclusive trading and political rights.
Competition over Latin America Since the early 1800’s, the Monroe Doctrine had not had any major violations.
Latin America The Monroe Doctrine –Europe needs to no longer be involved in the Western Hemisphere.
Latin America American businesses begin to look to Latin America as a source of raw materials and markets.
Dollar Diplomacy Proposed by President Taft. Definition - America will get involved in any country where instability threatens American business ventures.
The Spanish American War (1898) 1) American sugar companies owned much of the best Cuban land and controlled the economy. Also 1) When the US changed the tariff on sugar, the Cuban economy collapsed but American businesses prospered.
The Spanish American War (1898) 2) The Spanish Empire controlled the island of Cuba as a colony and in 1895 the Cubans began to rebel Also 2) Cubans are willing to tolerate US involvement if that meant the Spanish would leave.
The Role of Yellow Journalism “Yellow Journalism” = was newspapers that exaggerated and sensationalized stories to arouse public sentiment and sell more papers
The Role of Yellow Journalism In an effort to sell more newspapers, competing newspaper owners William Randolph Hurst and Joseph Pulitzer sold sensational, or exaggerated, stories.
“Yellow Journalism” When told by a reporter in Cuba that war between Spain and the US seemed unlikely, Hurst responded… “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.”
The Spanish American War (1898) The U.S. battleship Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor, Feb 15 th, 1898. 260 American Sailors killed
The Maine Explosion The cause of the explosion remains unclear. –Some claim it was a Spanish mine or sabotage –Others claim it was an internal fire that spread to ammunition. –Whatever the cause, American newspapers printed that is was caused by the Spanish.
The Role of Yellow Journalism These newspapers purposely exaggerated Spanish rule and the abuses of the Cuban people When the U.S. Maine exploded these newspapers printed that it was an attack by Spain without any evidence to prove it
The War in the Pacific 1)Citizens of the Philippines (another Spanish colony) revolted under the leadership of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo 2)The US Navy in the Pacific, led by Admiral Dewey, quickly defeated a Spanish fleet and prevented them from setting sail from the Philippines
War in the Pacific Dewey’s fleet had several modern battleships and fought against a larger Spanish fleet of wooden ships. In a short battle 400 Spanish sailors were killed and all of their ships sunk. One American sailor died (of a heart attack)
War in the Pacific Spanish troops surrendered to American forces. –Even though the Filipino's, led by Aguinaldo, did most of the fighting.
The War in the Atlantic 1)The major battle in Cuba took place on San Juan/Kettle Hill. 2)Future President Theodore Roosevelt led the ‘Rough Riders’
The Result of the War 1)Spain was defeated and gave up control of Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Atlantic and the Philippines and Guam in the Pacific 2) The US annexed Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam
The Result of the War 3) The US let Cuba become independent, but asserted the right to intervene in Cuban affairs
Casualties 2,200 American dead –Most from disease About 10,000 Spanish dead USSpain
The Philippine Occupation Over the next fifteen years, around 100,000 US troops occupied the Philippines. Filipinos wanted their independence - this time from the US. Over the course of the undeclared war, about 5,000 American soldiers and at least 250,000 Filipinos, most of them civilians, died.
The Philippines didn’t earn their independence from the US until July 4, 1946.
Hawaii was Annexed (1898) 1)Hawaii had grown during the late 1800’s because of its relationship with the U.S. 2) Many American businesses entered the islands and controlled many aspects of the government
Hawaii is Annexed (1898) 3) Queen Liliuokalani – came to power in 1891 and sought to return all power to the native people. The US used marines to remove her from power 4) During the Spanish American War the US annexed the Hawaiian Islands
Annexation - the legal takeover of one territory by another country
Long Term Impacts “Roosevelt Corollary” –After acquiring fame in the Spanish American War, Teddy Roosevelt became president. –Declared that the United States may intervene in Latin America whenever it was in their best interest.
The Great White Fleet The US showed off its military power in 1908 with a round-the-world naval trip.
Long Term Impacts America acquired naval bases in the Pacific America intervened in affairs in Central America on no less than 25 occasions. –Military intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Mexico, Haiti, Columbia, Panama, etc.
Long Term Impacts The United States took over construction of the Panama Canal and finished by 1913. US controlled shipping until 1979.