Presentation on theme: "Water Resource Management for DRR - A Case study of Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India By Kiran Jalem B.E, M.Tech, (PhD) Asstt. Professor, Disaster Management."— Presentation transcript:
Water Resource Management for DRR - A Case study of Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India By Kiran Jalem B.E, M.Tech, (PhD) Asstt. Professor, Disaster Management SKIPA, Ranchi & Purnima Kumari M.A Research Scholar, Ranchi University, Ranchi
WORLD WATER RESERVE FRESH WATER Drinkable SALT WATER Not Drinkable unless desalinated 2.5% 97.5% Frozen in Ice caps & Glaciers 3/4th 1/4th AVAILABLE for Household Use Fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, underground, and glaciers. The world is heading towards a freshwater crisis in diff. scale and intensity Reasons for the depletion of freshwater resources, particularly groundwater res. 1.Rapidly increasing population, economic Development & Over exploitation of GW 2. Mismanagement & Injudicious use of Water NEED of the TIME: WATER MANAGEMENT for its SUSTANABLE USE
WATER MANAGEMENT QUALITATIVE MANAGEMENT QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT RAIN WATER MANAGEMENT Agricultural In situ conservation RUNOFF WATER HARVESTING from Agricultural Lands Domestic ROOF WATER HARVESTING in Towns/Cities Water treatment for contaminants JUDICIOUS UTILIZATION
Introduction India has eminent medium of natural resources like forest resources, water resources, mineral resources, food resources, energy resources and land resources. But due to lack of proper management the distribution of natural resources are not rational in all the areas. So, the need of micro level approach is must essential rather than macro level approach. One of the most famous environmentalist said once that-“All the natural resources of the earth’s surface starts and ends with the water resources.” So, in this paper we tried to focus and pay attention on only water resource management. This paper is a humble attempt to analyze the reasons and possible solutions of global water crisis, and in this process, will attempt to question some myth propounded by the unexamined reality. However, this paper reflect the core content of the right to water and contribute to the progressive realization of this right globally.
Need and Importance of the Study Due to its great abundance, water is generally a very inexpensive resource. Compared with other natural resources, water is used in tremendous quantities. On a global scale, total water abundance is not the problem; the problem is water’s availability in the right place at the right time in the right form. Scarcity of fresh water results in serious regional disparities. we should use our water resources quite carefully, logically and ethically. The day is not so far when water crisis is going to be a issue of civil war.
Scope of this Study Mapping of water sources and water bodies with details like area, river, lakes, streams, reservoirs, ponds, dams, canals etc. Ground survey for collection of water source wise information of each water bodies. To prepare reliable, accurate and comprehensive information system for the water resources.
One of Richest Mineral Zones 40% of Total Minerals of India >35% Coal, 40% Copper …… Rare Minerals – Uranium ….. Rare Flora & Fauna Livelihood for 80% population Net Sown Area 1.8 Mha Irrigated Area 0.16 Mha (8%) Productivity 1 t/ha – very poor Food Production less than half of Total Requirement Total Population ~2.69 crore ST/SC Population ~39% Literacy ~54% Population Below Poverty Line ~50% Geographical Area ~7.9 Mha Home to major iron, coal, mica, …. based industries TELCO, TISCO, HEC, SAIL, BCCL…. Mineral Wealth Agriculture Forest Land & The People Industrial Base Annual Rainfall 1200 - 1400 mm 4 river basins Severe Drinking Water Problems Water JHARKHAND Disaster Vulnerability Drought Flood Flash Flood Forest Fire Lightning Earthquake Hazards Mining Hazards Animal Attacks etc.
World’s Top Ten Mining Disasters 1. Honkieko, China- April 26,1942 (C 1549) 2. Courrieres, France- March 10, 1906 (C 1100) 3. Omuta, Japan – November 9, 1963 (C 447) 4. Senghenydd, Wales, UK-October 14, 1913 (C 438) 5. Coal Brook, Sout Africa, January 1, 1960 (C 437) 6. Wankie, Rhodesia, June 6, 1972 (C 427) 7. Dhanbad,India- May 28, 1965 (C 375) 8. Chasnala, Dhanbad, December 27, 1975 (C 372) 9. Barnsley, UK- December 12, 1866 (C 361) 10. Monongah, USA, December 6, 1907 (C 361) May 5, 20158
Context Due to deforestation, global climate change and the polar shifting, the rain clouds coming from the Bay of Bengal travel all the way across India and rain on the Arabian Sea i.e. clouds which once rained on Jharkhand now rain on the Arabian Sea. Jharkhand State is facing less rainfall and the ground water is also lowering day by day and also it is observed that the average fall of water table is about 2.5 m during last 2 years. The main rivers of Jharkhand State are: Sone, North Koel, Damodhar, Baraker, Subarnarekha and Kharkai, due to deforestation these rivers are now drying up, and consequently there is less rainfall. Drought is the most recurring Disaster in Jharkhand effecting all the 24 Districts except Bero Block of Ranchi because of the Vision of Tribal Chieftain - Simon Oraon.
Sl. No.DistRainfall Position (mm)Deificiency in Rainfall and Actual Rainfall in June 2010 (mm) June 2008 June 2009June 2010 Normal Rainfall Actual Rainfall Normal RainfallActual RainfallNormal Rainfall Actual Rainfall 1 Ranchi 177-9378-8 177-945-0187-784-493-50 2 Gumla 352-4263-7 352-440-1352-484-8268-00 3 Simdega 187-3319-8 187-386-7187-3159-328-00 4 Lohardega 137-3341-2 137-366-0137-3137-4& 5 E. Singhbhum 247-9585-5 247-955-9247-992-6155-30 6 W. Singhbhum 172-5456-2 172-594-9172-588-484-10 7 Saraikela 232-0568-0 138-255-7138-266-671-60 8 Palamau 152-4319-5 152-432-9152-461-091-40 9 Garhwa 194-2166-4 138-813-8138-826-3112-50 10 Latehar 138-8176-5 194-260-0194-253-4140-80 11 Hazaribagh 194-0380-0 194-052-0194-0116-877-20 12 Chatra 167-1297-3167-144-6167-158-0109-10 13 Koderma 165-7274-2165-776-1165-7101-863-90 14 Giridih 202-0282-6202-064-0202-085-2116-80 15 Dhanbad 205-3159-3205-365-2205-386-4118-90 16 Bokaro 184-8437-6184-836-8184-875-6109-20 17 Dumka 217-2211-4217-228-2217-2133-084-20 18 Gamtara 247-7219-2247-766-8247-7133-7114-00 19 Deoghar 185-9269-6185-926-6185-9100-685-30 20 Godda 186-9231-7186-937-8186-9150-236-70 21 Sahebganj 225-4265-4225-442-5225-4177-847-60 22 Pakur 214-0295-9214-042-3214-0189-224-80 23 Ramgarh &&194-010-8194-044-2149-80 24 Khunti &&192-268-4192-257-3134-90 Total 199-5313-6195-050-5195-598-596-57 Comparative statement of normal rainfall and actual rainfall during June 2008 to June 2010 & its deviation
Aims & Objectives 1.To study and Document the best practices followed in Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand 2.To Identify & Suggest Suitable Mitigation Measures for DRR & WRM 3.Wetland Mapping of Jharkhand using high spatial resolution satellite data 4.Conservation & Management of Water Bodies, Forests, Irrigation System & Rainwater Harvesting System in Bero Block
Approach & Methodology This paper is drawn from the original site research work of Bero Block, that is 30 km away from the Ranchi City in the state of Jharkhand The problem and challenges of Global Water Crisis that aggravate disasters like flood and drought have been discussed in this paper. Literature Survey to find the Impact of Drought in Bero Block. Visit to Bero Block for Assessing Ground Reality. Mitigation Measures Identified for DRR & WRM. The broad methodology includes digitization of water resources and attribute addition is done with the help of GIS based on the information collected during the field survey.
Sr. No.Wetland type codeWetland CategoryNumbersTotal Wetland AreaOpen Water Post- monsoon (Jan 06) Pre- monsoon (Mar 07) 1100Inland Wetlands - Natural 11101Lakes1632041344385 21102Ox-bow lakes/ Cut-off meanders18837170 31104Riverine Wetlands421629781552 41105Waterlogged5823123216 51106River/Stream317977469774463442 1200Inland Wetlands -Man-made 61201Reservoirs/Barrages1062481774738734476 71202Tanks/Ponds910568852554241 81203Waterlogged11615035 92202Aquaculture Ponds2888 Sub-total2436156827152872103225 10 Wetlands (<2.25 ha), mainly Tanks13327 00 Total15763170154152872103225 Table: Area estimates of wetlands in Jharkhand Area in ha
Study Area Jharkhand State Ranchi District Bero Block Location Map of Bero Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand State, India Area - 387.64 Sq Km Population – 131713
Simon Oraon – Jharkhand Tribal Chieftain Simon Oraon, 72 popularly known as “Baba” (father), has taught 51 villages in the Bero area to protect their environment using various means. Baba’s 2000 acres (809 hectares) of farmland stood in stark contrast” during Drought Situations in Jharkhand. Elsewhere the drought forced many to commit suicide, but the Bero People enjoyed a “Golden Harvest”. People call him Engineer but he says ‘I am not an Engineer rather I am an Illiterate Class IV Drop Out Man’. Every year, the tribal chieftain plants more than 1000 trees, a mission he began in 1960 on his 4000 square meters of ancestral land. As time went on, neighbors saw how his methods had helped conserve rainwater and allowed him to plant trees on their lands. Baba has built three dams, five ponds and three canals that converted vast stretches of barren land into cultivable farm land. With great struggle we managed to stop deforestation and launched the afforestation movement for FRM & WRM – Mr. Oraon said.
With three dams, five ponds and thousands of trees, Simon Oraon has changed lives in six villages of Chotanagpur without any help of the state government, Oraon led his fellow tribesmen to build two Dams at Deshbali & Jharia and five ponds. Growing up in Bero, a tiny village 30 km from Ranchi, Simon Oraon realized that irrigation water was what his native Chotanagpur region needed the most. As a tribe, he also believed that survival of the jungle was necessary for the survival of life on earth. Once there, he mapped the contour of the rainwater falling from top of the hills near Bero. “In the undulating terrain, water gushed out creating ravines. I thought if a dam is built somewhere near the foothills, that water can be blocked and used for irrigation with the use of canals on the plains”, said Oraon.
The dams and ponds trapped rainwater at the start of monsson by diverting streams. That water was channeled through canals to the fields. To ensure that soil erosion did not affect the water bodies, Oraon planted more than 3000 trees of Sal, Jackfruit, Jamun and Mango. Thanks to him, 1500 families reap three crops of vegetables besides paddy, every year from nearly 2000 acres of land now. Migration has become a thing of the past. In addition, Bero also had a mandi from where 15000 tons of vegetables worth 15 lakh were transported to Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Kolkata and Bhubaneshwar every month. His more than 60 years of work has been acknowledged in the form of a dissertation by Sarah Jewitt for her PhD Degree at Department of Geography, Newnham College, University of Cambridge and also by the Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi. The state government recently awarded him a citation and Rs. One lakh.”His name was recommended for the award of the Padmashree.”said Secretary, Rural Development, Santosh Kumar Satpathy. As long as I have the energy, I will tell everybody that green revolution can be ushered everywhere in Jharkhand by harvesting rainwater.
Results Bero Block can be considered as a best role model for WRM and can be easily replicated elsewhere in a cost effective manner. Pro-active, Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness Driven Approach by the Community to a combat a Disaster like Drought. Besides WRM, efforts were made to manage Forest Resources effectively through local indigenous technology.
Country experience is that- Drought can be prevented Drought can be prevented Drought can be mitigated Drought can be mitigated Hardships can be minimized Hardships can be minimized Sufferings can be reduced Sufferings can be reduced If we at all levels work together Drought is not a Disaster but a Management Issue a Management Issue Drought a Management Issue
SWOT : S trength W eaknesses O pportunities T hreats Threats N o T hreat if S trengths… C apitalised, W eaknesses/Issues… A ddressed properly and O portunities…… A vailed E lse T hreat of Acute Water Crisis in years to come