1Water Resource Management for DRR - A Case study of Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India ByKiran Jalem B.E, M.Tech, (PhD)Asstt. Professor, Disaster ManagementSKIPA, Ranchi&Purnima Kumari M.AResearch Scholar, Ranchi University, Ranchi
2Not Drinkable unless desalinated WORLD WATER RESERVE2.5%97.5%FRESH WATERDrinkableSALT WATERNot Drinkable unless desalinated1/4th3/4thFrozen inIce caps & GlaciersAVAILABLEfor Household UseFresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, underground, and glaciers.Reasons for the depletion of freshwater resources, particularly groundwater res.Rapidly increasing population, economic Development & Over exploitation of GW2. Mismanagement & Injudicious use of WaterThe world is heading towards a freshwater crisis in diff. scale and intensityNEED of the TIME: WATER MANAGEMENT for its SUSTANABLE USE
3JUDICIOUS UTILIZATION WATER MANAGEMENTQUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENTQUALITATIVE MANAGEMENTRAIN WATER MANAGEMENTWater treatment for contaminantsAgriculturalDomesticIn situ conservationROOF WATER HARVESTING in Towns/CitiesRUNOFF WATER HARVESTING from Agricultural LandsJUDICIOUS UTILIZATION
4IntroductionIndia has eminent medium of natural resources like forest resources, water resources, mineral resources, food resources, energy resources and land resources. But due to lack of proper management the distribution of natural resources are not rational in all the areas. So, the need of micro level approach is must essential rather than macro level approach.One of the most famous environmentalist said once that-“All the natural resources of the earth’s surface starts and ends with the water resources.” So, in this paper we tried to focus and pay attention on only water resource management. This paper is a humble attempt to analyze the reasons and possible solutions of global water crisis, and in this process, will attempt to question some myth propounded by the unexamined reality. However, this paper reflect the core content of the right to water and contribute to the progressive realization of this right globally.
5Need and Importance of the Study Due to its great abundance, water is generally a very inexpensive resource. Compared with other natural resources, water is used in tremendous quantities. On a global scale, total water abundance is not the problem; the problem is water’s availability in the right place at the right time in the right form.Scarcity of fresh water results in serious regional disparities.we should use our water resources quite carefully, logically and ethically.The day is not so far when water crisis is going to be a issue of civil war.
6Scope of this StudyMapping of water sources and water bodies with details like area, river, lakes, streams, reservoirs, ponds, dams, canals etc.Ground survey for collection of water source wise information of each water bodies. To prepare reliable, accurate and comprehensive information system for the water resources.
7JHARKHAND Land & The People Water Mineral Wealth Forest Agriculture Disaster VulnerabilityDroughtFloodFlash FloodForest FireLightningEarthquake HazardsMining HazardsAnimal Attacks etc.JHARKHANDLand & The PeopleTotal Population ~2.69 croreST/SC Population ~39%Literacy ~54%Population Below Poverty Line ~50%Geographical Area ~7.9 MhaWaterMineral WealthAnnual Rainfall mm4 river basinsSevere Drinking Water ProblemsOne of Richest Mineral Zones40% of Total Minerals of India>35% Coal, 40% Copper ……Rare Minerals – Uranium …..ForestRare Flora & FaunaAgricultureLivelihood for 80% populationNet Sown Area 1.8 MhaIrrigated Area 0.16 Mha (8%)Productivity 1 t/ha – very poorFood Production less than half of Total RequirementIndustrial BaseHome to major iron, coal, mica, …. based industriesTELCO, TISCO, HEC, SAIL, BCCL….
8World’s Top Ten Mining Disasters Honkieko, China- April 26,1942 (C 1549)Courrieres, France- March 10, 1906 (C 1100)Omuta, Japan – November 9, (C 447)Senghenydd, Wales, UK-October 14, 1913 (C 438)Coal Brook, Sout Africa, January 1, (C 437)Wankie, Rhodesia, June 6, 1972 (C 427)Dhanbad,India- May 28, 1965 (C 375)Chasnala, Dhanbad, December 27, 1975 (C 372)Barnsley, UK- December 12, 1866 (C 361)Monongah, USA, December 6, 1907 (C 361)April 14, 2017
11ContextDue to deforestation, global climate change and the polar shifting, the rain clouds coming from the Bay of Bengal travel all the way across India and rain on the Arabian Sea i.e. clouds which once rained on Jharkhand now rain on the Arabian Sea.Jharkhand State is facing less rainfall and the ground water is also lowering day by day and also it is observed that the average fall of water table is about 2.5 m during last 2 years.The main rivers of Jharkhand State are: Sone, North Koel, Damodhar, Baraker, Subarnarekha and Kharkai, due to deforestation these rivers are now drying up, and consequently there is less rainfall.Drought is the most recurring Disaster in Jharkhand effecting all the 24 Districts except Bero Block of Ranchi because of the Vision of Tribal Chieftain - Simon Oraon.
13Comparative statement of normal rainfall and actual rainfall during June 2008 to June 2010 & its deviationSl. No.DistRainfall Position (mm)Deificiency in Rainfall and Actual Rainfall in June 2010 (mm)June 2008June 2009June 2010Normal RainfallActual Rainfall1Ranchi177-9378-845-0187-784-493-502Gumla352-4263-740-184-8268-003Simdega187-3319-886-7159-328-004Lohardega137-3341-266-0137-4&5E. Singhbhum247-9585-555-992-6155-306W. Singhbhum172-5456-294-988-484-107Saraikela232-0568-0138-255-766-671-608Palamau152-4319-532-961-091-409Garhwa194-2166-4138-813-826-3112-5010Latehar176-560-053-4140-8011Hazaribagh194-0380-052-0116-877-2012Chatra167-1297-344-658-0109-1013Koderma165-7274-276-1101-863-9014Giridih202-0282-664-085-2116-8015Dhanbad205-365-286-4118-9016Bokaro184-8437-636-875-6109-2017Dumka217-2211-428-2133-084-2018Gamtara247-7219-266-8133-7114-0019Deoghar185-9269-626-6100-685-3020Godda186-9231-737-8150-236-7021Sahebganj225-4265-442-5177-847-6022Pakur214-0295-942-3189-224-8023Ramgarh10-844-2149-8024Khunti192-268-457-3134-90Total199-5313-6195-050-5195-598-596-57
14Aims & ObjectivesTo study and Document the best practices followed in Bero Block, Ranchi, JharkhandTo Identify & Suggest Suitable Mitigation Measures for DRR & WRMWetland Mapping of Jharkhand using high spatial resolution satellite dataConservation & Management of Water Bodies, Forests, Irrigation System & Rainwater Harvesting System in Bero Block
15Approach & Methodology This paper is drawn from the original site research work of Bero Block, that is 30 km away from the Ranchi City in the state of JharkhandThe problem and challenges of Global Water Crisis that aggravate disasters like flood and drought have been discussed in this paper.Literature Survey to find the Impact of Drought in Bero Block.Visit to Bero Block for Assessing Ground Reality.Mitigation Measures Identified for DRR & WRM.The broad methodology includes digitization of water resources and attribute addition is done with the help of GIS based on the information collected during the field survey.
17Table: Area estimates of wetlands in Jharkhand Area in ha Sr. No.Wetland type codeWetland CategoryNumbersTotal Wetland AreaOpen WaterPost- monsoon (Jan 06)Pre- monsoon(Mar 07)1100Inland Wetlands - Natural11101Lakes163204134438521102Ox-bow lakes/ Cut-off meanders1883717031104Riverine Wetlands42162978155241105Waterlogged5823123251106River/Stream3179774697744634421200Inland Wetlands -Man-made61201Reservoirs/Barrages106248177473873447671202Tanks/Ponds910568852554241812031161503592202Aquaculture Ponds Sub-total243615682715287210322510 Wetlands (<2.25 ha), mainly Tanks13327 Total15763170154
18Location Map of Bero Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand State, India Study AreaRanchi DistrictJharkhand StateArea Sq KmPopulation –Bero BlockLocation Map of Bero Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand State, India
19Simon Oraon – Jharkhand Tribal Chieftain Simon Oraon, 72 popularly known as “Baba” (father), has taught 51 villages in the Bero area to protect their environment using various means.Baba’s 2000 acres (809 hectares) of farmland stood in stark contrast” during Drought Situations in Jharkhand.Elsewhere the drought forced many to commit suicide, but the Bero People enjoyed a “Golden Harvest”.People call him Engineer but he says ‘I am not an Engineer rather I am an Illiterate Class IV Drop Out Man’.Every year, the tribal chieftain plants more than 1000 trees, a mission he began in 1960 on his 4000 square meters of ancestral land. As time went on, neighbors saw how his methods had helped conserve rainwater and allowed him to plant trees on their lands.Baba has built three dams, five ponds and three canals that converted vast stretches of barren land into cultivable farm land.With great struggle we managed to stop deforestation and launched the afforestation movement for FRM & WRM – Mr. Oraon said.
20With three dams, five ponds and thousands of trees, Simon Oraon has changed lives in six villages of Chotanagpur without any help of the state government, Oraon led his fellow tribesmen to build two Dams at Deshbali & Jharia and five ponds.Growing up in Bero, a tiny village 30 km from Ranchi, Simon Oraon realized that irrigation water was what his native Chotanagpur region needed the most. As a tribe, he also believed that survival of the jungle was necessary for the survival of life on earth.Once there, he mapped the contour of the rainwater falling from top of the hills near Bero. “In the undulating terrain, water gushed out creating ravines. I thought if a dam is built somewhere near the foothills, that water can be blocked and used for irrigation with the use of canals on the plains”, said Oraon.
21The dams and ponds trapped rainwater at the start of monsson by diverting streams. That water was channeled through canals to the fields.To ensure that soil erosion did not affect the water bodies, Oraon planted more than 3000 trees of Sal, Jackfruit, Jamun and Mango.Thanks to him, 1500 families reap three crops of vegetables besides paddy, every year from nearly 2000 acres of land now. Migration has become a thing of the past. In addition, Bero also had a mandi from where tons of vegetables worth 15 lakh were transported to Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Kolkata and Bhubaneshwar every month.His more than 60 years of work has been acknowledged in the form of a dissertation by Sarah Jewitt for her PhD Degree at Department of Geography, Newnham College, University of Cambridge and also by the Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi.The state government recently awarded him a citation and Rs. One lakh.”His name was recommended for the award of the Padmashree.”said Secretary, Rural Development, Santosh Kumar Satpathy.As long as I have the energy, I will tell everybody that green revolution can be ushered everywhere in Jharkhand by harvesting rainwater.
23ResultsBero Block can be considered as a best role model for WRM and can be easily replicated elsewhere in a cost effective manner.Pro-active, Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness Driven Approach by the Community to a combat a Disaster like Drought.Besides WRM, efforts were made to manage Forest Resources effectively through local indigenous technology.
24Drought a Management Issue Country experience is that-Drought can be preventedDrought can be mitigatedHardships can be minimizedSufferings can be reducedIf we at all levels work togetherDrought is not a Disaster buta Management Issue
53No Threat if Else SWOT: Strength Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Strengths… Capitalised, Weaknesses/Issues… Addressed properly and Oportunities……AvailedElseThreat of Acute Water Crisis in years to come