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By Kiran Jalem B.E, M.Tech, (PhD)

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1 Water Resource Management for DRR - A Case study of Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
By Kiran Jalem B.E, M.Tech, (PhD) Asstt. Professor, Disaster Management SKIPA, Ranchi & Purnima Kumari M.A Research Scholar, Ranchi University, Ranchi

2 Not Drinkable unless desalinated
WORLD WATER RESERVE 2.5% 97.5% FRESH WATER Drinkable SALT WATER Not Drinkable unless desalinated 1/4th 3/4th Frozen in Ice caps & Glaciers AVAILABLE for Household Use Fresh water is found in lakes, rivers, streams, underground, and glaciers. Reasons for the depletion of freshwater resources, particularly groundwater res. Rapidly increasing population, economic Development & Over exploitation of GW 2. Mismanagement & Injudicious use of Water The world is heading towards a freshwater crisis in diff. scale and intensity NEED of the TIME: WATER MANAGEMENT for its SUSTANABLE USE


4 Introduction India has eminent medium of natural resources like forest resources, water resources, mineral resources, food resources, energy resources and land resources. But due to lack of proper management the distribution of natural resources are not rational in all the areas. So, the need of micro level approach is must essential rather than macro level approach. One of the most famous environmentalist said once that-“All the natural resources of the earth’s surface starts and ends with the water resources.” So, in this paper we tried to focus and pay attention on only water resource management. This paper is a humble attempt to analyze the reasons and possible solutions of global water crisis, and in this process, will attempt to question some myth propounded by the unexamined reality. However, this paper reflect the core content of the right to water and contribute to the progressive realization of this right globally.

5 Need and Importance of the Study
Due to its great abundance, water is generally a very inexpensive resource. Compared with other natural resources, water is used in tremendous quantities. On a global scale, total water abundance is not the problem; the problem is water’s availability in the right place at the right time in the right form. Scarcity of fresh water results in serious regional disparities. we should use our water resources quite carefully, logically and ethically. The day is not so far when water crisis is going to be a issue of civil war.

6 Scope of this Study Mapping of water sources and water bodies with details like area, river, lakes, streams, reservoirs, ponds, dams, canals etc. Ground survey for collection of water source wise information of each water bodies. To prepare reliable, accurate and comprehensive information system for the water resources.

7 JHARKHAND Land & The People Water Mineral Wealth Forest Agriculture
Disaster Vulnerability Drought Flood Flash Flood Forest Fire Lightning Earthquake Hazards Mining Hazards Animal Attacks etc. JHARKHAND Land & The People Total Population ~2.69 crore ST/SC Population ~39% Literacy ~54% Population Below Poverty Line ~50% Geographical Area ~7.9 Mha Water Mineral Wealth Annual Rainfall mm 4 river basins Severe Drinking Water Problems One of Richest Mineral Zones 40% of Total Minerals of India >35% Coal, 40% Copper …… Rare Minerals – Uranium ….. Forest Rare Flora & Fauna Agriculture Livelihood for 80% population Net Sown Area 1.8 Mha Irrigated Area 0.16 Mha (8%) Productivity 1 t/ha – very poor Food Production less than half of Total Requirement Industrial Base Home to major iron, coal, mica, …. based industries TELCO, TISCO, HEC, SAIL, BCCL….

8 World’s Top Ten Mining Disasters
Honkieko, China- April 26,1942 (C 1549) Courrieres, France- March 10, 1906 (C 1100) Omuta, Japan – November 9, (C 447) Senghenydd, Wales, UK-October 14, 1913 (C 438) Coal Brook, Sout Africa, January 1, (C 437) Wankie, Rhodesia, June 6, 1972 (C 427) Dhanbad,India- May 28, 1965 (C 375) Chasnala, Dhanbad, December 27, 1975 (C 372) Barnsley, UK- December 12, 1866 (C 361) Monongah, USA, December 6, 1907 (C 361) April 14, 2017



11 Context Due to deforestation, global climate change and the polar shifting, the rain clouds coming from the Bay of Bengal travel all the way across India and rain on the Arabian Sea i.e. clouds which once rained on Jharkhand now rain on the Arabian Sea. Jharkhand State is facing less rainfall and the ground water is also lowering day by day and also it is observed that the average fall of water table is about 2.5 m during last 2 years. The main rivers of Jharkhand State are: Sone, North Koel, Damodhar, Baraker, Subarnarekha and Kharkai, due to deforestation these rivers are now drying up, and consequently there is less rainfall. Drought is the most recurring Disaster in Jharkhand effecting all the 24 Districts except Bero Block of Ranchi because of the Vision of Tribal Chieftain - Simon Oraon.


13 Comparative statement of normal rainfall and actual rainfall during June 2008 to June 2010 & its deviation Sl. No. Dist Rainfall Position (mm) Deificiency in Rainfall and Actual Rainfall in June 2010 (mm) June 2008 June 2009 June 2010 Normal Rainfall Actual Rainfall 1 Ranchi 177-9 378-8 45-0 187-7 84-4 93-50 2 Gumla 352-4 263-7 40-1 84-8 268-00 3 Simdega 187-3 319-8 86-7 159-3 28-00 4 Lohardega 137-3 341-2 66-0 137-4 & 5 E. Singhbhum 247-9 585-5 55-9 92-6 155-30 6 W. Singhbhum 172-5 456-2 94-9 88-4 84-10 7 Saraikela 232-0 568-0 138-2 55-7 66-6 71-60 8 Palamau 152-4 319-5 32-9 61-0 91-40 9 Garhwa 194-2 166-4 138-8 13-8 26-3 112-50 10 Latehar 176-5 60-0 53-4 140-80 11 Hazaribagh 194-0 380-0 52-0 116-8 77-20 12 Chatra 167-1 297-3 44-6 58-0 109-10 13 Koderma 165-7 274-2 76-1 101-8 63-90 14 Giridih 202-0 282-6 64-0 85-2 116-80 15 Dhanbad 205-3 65-2 86-4 118-90 16 Bokaro 184-8 437-6 36-8 75-6 109-20 17 Dumka 217-2 211-4 28-2 133-0 84-20 18 Gamtara 247-7 219-2 66-8 133-7 114-00 19 Deoghar 185-9 269-6 26-6 100-6 85-30 20 Godda 186-9 231-7 37-8 150-2 36-70 21 Sahebganj 225-4 265-4 42-5 177-8 47-60 22 Pakur 214-0 295-9 42-3 189-2 24-80 23 Ramgarh 10-8 44-2 149-80 24 Khunti 192-2 68-4 57-3 134-90 Total 199-5 313-6 195-0 50-5 195-5 98-5 96-57

14 Aims & Objectives To study and Document the best practices followed in Bero Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand To Identify & Suggest Suitable Mitigation Measures for DRR & WRM Wetland Mapping of Jharkhand using high spatial resolution satellite data Conservation & Management of Water Bodies, Forests, Irrigation System & Rainwater Harvesting System in Bero Block

15 Approach & Methodology
This paper is drawn from the original site research work of Bero Block, that is 30 km away from the Ranchi City in the state of Jharkhand The problem and challenges of Global Water Crisis that aggravate disasters like flood and drought have been discussed in this paper. Literature Survey to find the Impact of Drought in Bero Block. Visit to Bero Block for Assessing Ground Reality. Mitigation Measures Identified for DRR & WRM. The broad methodology includes digitization of water resources and attribute addition is done with the help of GIS based on the information collected during the field survey.


17 Table: Area estimates of wetlands in Jharkhand Area in ha
Sr. No. Wetland type code Wetland Category Numbers Total Wetland Area Open Water Post- monsoon (Jan 06) Pre- monsoon (Mar 07) 1100 Inland Wetlands - Natural 1 1101 Lakes 16 3204 1344 385 2 1102 Ox-bow lakes/ Cut-off meanders 18 83 71 70 3 1104 Riverine Wetlands 42 1629 781 552 4 1105 Waterlogged 58 231 232 5 1106 River/Stream 317 97746 97744 63442 1200 Inland Wetlands -Man-made 6 1201 Reservoirs/Barrages 1062 48177 47387 34476 7 1202 Tanks/Ponds 910 5688 5255 4241 8 1203 11 61 50 35 9 2202 Aquaculture Ponds  Sub-total 2436 156827 152872 103225 10  Wetlands (<2.25 ha), mainly Tanks 13327  Total 15763 170154

18 Location Map of Bero Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand State, India
Study Area Ranchi District Jharkhand State Area Sq Km Population – Bero Block Location Map of Bero Block, Ranchi District, Jharkhand State, India

19 Simon Oraon – Jharkhand Tribal Chieftain
Simon Oraon, 72 popularly known as “Baba” (father), has taught 51 villages in the Bero area to protect their environment using various means. Baba’s 2000 acres (809 hectares) of farmland stood in stark contrast” during Drought Situations in Jharkhand. Elsewhere the drought forced many to commit suicide, but the Bero People enjoyed a “Golden Harvest”. People call him Engineer but he says ‘I am not an Engineer rather I am an Illiterate Class IV Drop Out Man’. Every year, the tribal chieftain plants more than 1000 trees, a mission he began in 1960 on his 4000 square meters of ancestral land. As time went on, neighbors saw how his methods had helped conserve rainwater and allowed him to plant trees on their lands. Baba has built three dams, five ponds and three canals that converted vast stretches of barren land into cultivable farm land. With great struggle we managed to stop deforestation and launched the afforestation movement for FRM & WRM – Mr. Oraon said.

20 With three dams, five ponds and thousands of trees, Simon Oraon has changed lives in six villages of Chotanagpur without any help of the state government, Oraon led his fellow tribesmen to build two Dams at Deshbali & Jharia and five ponds. Growing up in Bero, a tiny village 30 km from Ranchi, Simon Oraon realized that irrigation water was what his native Chotanagpur region needed the most. As a tribe, he also believed that survival of the jungle was necessary for the survival of life on earth. Once there, he mapped the contour of the rainwater falling from top of the hills near Bero. “In the undulating terrain, water gushed out creating ravines. I thought if a dam is built somewhere near the foothills, that water can be blocked and used for irrigation with the use of canals on the plains”, said Oraon.

21 The dams and ponds trapped rainwater at the start of monsson by diverting streams. That water was channeled through canals to the fields. To ensure that soil erosion did not affect the water bodies, Oraon planted more than 3000 trees of Sal, Jackfruit, Jamun and Mango. Thanks to him, 1500 families reap three crops of vegetables besides paddy, every year from nearly 2000 acres of land now. Migration has become a thing of the past. In addition, Bero also had a mandi from where tons of vegetables worth 15 lakh were transported to Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Kolkata and Bhubaneshwar every month. His more than 60 years of work has been acknowledged in the form of a dissertation by Sarah Jewitt for her PhD Degree at Department of Geography, Newnham College, University of Cambridge and also by the Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi. The state government recently awarded him a citation and Rs. One lakh.”His name was recommended for the award of the Padmashree.”said Secretary, Rural Development, Santosh Kumar Satpathy. As long as I have the energy, I will tell everybody that green revolution can be ushered everywhere in Jharkhand by harvesting rainwater.


23 Results Bero Block can be considered as a best role model for WRM and can be easily replicated elsewhere in a cost effective manner. Pro-active, Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness Driven Approach by the Community to a combat a Disaster like Drought. Besides WRM, efforts were made to manage Forest Resources effectively through local indigenous technology.

24 Drought a Management Issue
Country experience is that- Drought can be prevented Drought can be mitigated Hardships can be minimized Sufferings can be reduced If we at all levels work together Drought is not a Disaster but a Management Issue

25 Mitigation Measures Scientific Afforestation
Scientific Crop Management

26 Babula (Acasia Arabica Wild) Kheyer (Acasia Catechu Wild)
Bukphul (Sesbania Grandiflora Pers) Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia Sissoo) Piyasal (Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxb

27 Khair Tree (Accacia Catechu) Mimosaceae
Plants & Nakshatras

28 Jamun Tree Syzygium cumini Linn.Syn. (Eugenia Jambolana) Myrtaceae

29 Cluster Fig - Gular Tree (Ficus racemosa) Moraceae

30 Yugma Tree

31 Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L Syn
Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L Syn. Emblica officinalis) Euphorbiaceae

32 Indian Butter Tree - Mahuwa (Madhuca longifolia) Sapotaceae

33 Margosa Tree - NEEM (Azadirachta indica Syn
Margosa Tree - NEEM (Azadirachta indica Syn. Melia azadirachta) Meliaceae

34 Mango Tree – Aam (Mangifera indica) Anacardiaceae

35 Kadamba Tree [Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb) Bosser Syn
Kadamba Tree [Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb) Bosser Syn. Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb)] Rubiaceae

36 Ghaf Tree - Shammi (Prosopis spicigera) Mimosaceae

37 Akwan Tree (Prosopis spicigera) Mimosaceae

38 Jackfruit Tree – Kathal (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Moraceae

39 Saraca Indica – Sita Ashoka Tree

40 White Dammar - SAL (Shorea robusta Roxb.) Dipterocarpaceae

41 Cheer Tree

42 Bullet Wood Tree (Mimusops Elongi L.) Sapotaceae

43 Arjun Tree(Terminalia Arjuna Roxb.) Combretaceae

44 Bael Fruit Tree - Bel (Aegle marmelos) Rutaceae

45 Soap Nut Tree - Ritha Sapindus emarginatus Syn. S
Soap Nut Tree - Ritha Sapindus emarginatus Syn. S. trifoliatus) Sapindaceae

46 Rudraksha Tree (Elaeocarpus Ganitrus Roxb.)

47 Jungle Flame

48 Banyan Tree – Bargad, Bar (Ficus benghalensis L.) Moraceae

49 Cobra Safron – Naag Keshar (Mesua Ferrea) Clusiaeae

50 Peepal Tree (Ficus Religiosa L.) Moraceae

51 Bamboo tree – Baans (Dendrocalamus Strictus)

52 Pakar Tree

53 No Threat if Else SWOT: Strength Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
Strengths… Capitalised, Weaknesses/Issues… Addressed properly and Oportunities……Availed Else Threat of Acute Water Crisis in years to come

54 Thank you

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