Presentation on theme: "Native American History Arizona Geography GCU 221."— Presentation transcript:
Native American History Arizona Geography GCU 221
Game Plan Native Americans in Arizona Southwestern tribes before Columbus Anasazi Ancestors: Hopi Hohokam Ancestors: Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham Athabaskan Arrivals: Navajo
Native Americans: 21 tribes in AZ 250,000 people
Pre-Spanish Native America The North American native population was likely between 50 and 100 million people. After their arrival, their population dropped to 237,000. Deaths from: Disease (small pox, typhus, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, mumps, yellow fever, and whooping cough), War, Massacre, Displacement Part of Globalization 1.0
Hopi Former Anasazi people and share religion, including kivas. Very religious, focus on pacifism, corn, and rainfall Sustainable dryland farmers (700 years) growing corn, beans, and squash: 1. Plant seeds deep 2. Plant in clumps 3. Space plants far apart 4. Leave stalks on the field Reservation surrounded by the Navajo Nation, their old enemies. Peabody Coal mine issues
Nineteen members of the Hopi tribe incarcerated at Alcatraz in 1895 for not “farming” correctly.
Hopi 1931: Einstein visits the Hopi house at the Grand Canyon.
Hopi In 1850, ask for help from Americans to protect them from Navajo raiding.
Hopi 1899: Oraibi founded sometime before 1100 and the oldest continuously inhabited village in North America
Hopi Dryland farming can be done with as little as 9 inches of rain a year. Over 14 varieties of corn.
Hopi Black Mesa Mine closed in 2005 – supplied coal to Mojave Generating Station through a water intensive slurry line. Kayenta Mine supplies coal to Navajo Generating Station – powers CAP, biggest single user of electricity in Arizona
Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham Tohono O'odham, meaning “People of the Desert”, cover a large southern portion of the state and extend into Mexico Akimel O'odham, meaning “People of the River” live along the Gila and formerly Salt Rivers Both are considered ancestors of the Hohokam people Farmers that faced real change with the advent of groundwater pumping
1,500 Tohono O'odham tribal members live in Mexico, but are not US citizens. $3 million spent a year to deal with illegal immigration. Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham
The White Dove of the Desert built with the Spanish between 1783 – 1797. Grew tired of the Spanish and had two major rebellions in the 1660s and 1750s. Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham
Agricultural intensive culture made them sedentary and an easy target for raiding Apaches and used and improved the same canals built originally built by the Hohokam. Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham
Confined to small reservations and anglo ground water pumping practices make agriculture difficult. Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham
Navajo An Athabasakan people and a recent arrival in the 1000s. Originally hunters and gatherers, adapted agricultural practices and herding practices. Famous for wool blankets from goat herding Raided and traded with Pueblo tribes, Spanish, and Mexicans, kept slaves. Sent on a 300 mile walk to New Mexico, before being allowed to go back to their old home land. Uranium mining and hazardous side effects Code Talkers
Navajo Uranium tailings dam failure: “Hundreds of millions of gallons of radioactive waste escaped. It was the largest accidental release of radioactive material in U.S. history — bigger than Three Mile Island — and nobody cares.”
Things to know: Importance of Native Americans in Arizona Describe and the know the general geographic distribution of the Hopi Describe and the know the general geographic distribution of the Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'odham Describe and the know the general geographic distribution of the Navajo Help: Ask Dr. Douglass