Presentation on theme: "Moulana Muhsinh Hendricks"— Presentation transcript:
1Moulana Muhsinh Hendricks The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahMoulana Muhsinh HendricksAlhamdulillah, nahmaduhu wa nasta’eenuhu was nastaghfirWa nauthu billahi min shururi anfusinaa wa min sayyiaati a’maalinaMay yahdillahu fa laa mudhilla lahWas may yudhlil fa laa haadiya lahWa nashhadu allah ilaha illallah wahdahu laa shareeka lahwa nashhadu anna muhammadan abduhu wa rasulullahAll praise and thanks is due to Allah. We praise Allah, we seek assistance and forgiveness from Allah. And we seek refuge in Allah from our lower selves and from the wrongs we commit. Whoever Allah guides no one can misguide, and whoever Allah leaves astray, no one can guide. And we bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but God, the One who is unique and has no partners. And we bear witness that Muhammad is Allah’s servant and messenger.
2The Inner CircleFriday Khutbahثُمَّ قَفَّيْنَا عَلَى آثَارِهِم بِرُسُلِنَا وَقَفَّيْنَا بِعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْإِنجِيلَ وَجَعَلْنَا فِي قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ رَأْفَةً وَرَحْمَةً وَرَهْبَانِيَّةً ابْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَاهَا عَلَيْهِمْ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاء رِضْوَانِ اللَّهِ فَمَا رَعَوْهَا حَقَّ رِعَايَتِهَا فَآتَيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ 57:27And thereupon We caused our apostles to follow in their footsteps; and We caused them to be followed by Jesus, the son of Mary, upon whom We bestowed the Gospel; and in the hearts of those who [truly] followed him We engendered compassion and mercy.But as for monastic asceticism - We did not enjoin it upon them: they invented it themselves out of a desire for God’s goodly acceptance. But then, they did not observe it as it ought to have been observed: and so We granted their recompense unto such of them as had attained to faith, whereas many of them became iniquitous.
3The Inner Circle In this Khutbah I will be drawing on the work of Friday KhutbahIn this Khutbah I will be drawing on the work ofby Umar Faruq Abd-Allah from the An-Nawawi Institution.Two of the most contentious concepts of Islam, bid‘a (innovation) and ijtihad (critical thinking) has given Islam great historical mobility, yet at the same time maintained Islam’s originality and preservation as a dynamic faith.The fastest growing ideology in the world today.
4The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe allegation that something is bid‘a is often made rashly, marginalizing new ideas and making creativity difficult.For some Muslims, the term has become a means by which their own ideas are justified and the ideas of others made erroneous…. So much so that they are even brave enough to declare critical thinking and creative Muslims as “out of the fold of Islam”
5The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahAs a result of this attitude, the intellectual health and wealth of the Muslim community is suffering tremendously.
6The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe concept of bid‘a, contrary to its use today, tended to be negative one.The allegation that something was a bid‘a meant that it violated the tribal code or a tribal custom.It constituted a hateful innovation caused by deviating from the ways of patriarchs of past.
7The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahMake example of how the different sects in Islam makes the other wrong by the use of the word Bid’a
8“The doors of Ijtihad has been closed” The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe concept of Ijtihad suffers the same fate. Some restrict its use so severely that it ceases to be functional.“The doors of Ijtihad has been closed”Have to be a MujtahidNo ordinary person are allowed to “free think” when it comes to religious matters.
9The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahOthers apply it so freely that it becomes arbitrary and undermines any semblance of authenticity.Then there are those who “think so freely and creatively” that everything is justified and made “good” for their own good.
10In the pre-Islamic context, the Prophet The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahIn the pre-Islamic context, the ProphetMuhammad’s condemnation of idolatry was seen as a bid‘a, a concrete threat to the tribal order of Arabia.The Prophet made the opposite claim and turned the bid‘a controversy on its head, by asserting the Abraham was a Patriarch and the Arabs have deviated from the practice of this patriarch.So the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) cleverly used the concept of bid’ah to his own benefit.
11The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahWith the advent of Islam, the term sunna came to be closely connected with the normative teaching and conduct of the Prophet Muhammad, whereas Sunna before the advent of Islam referred to the customs and practices of the tribes.Later, after the demise of the Prophet (saw) bid‘a became contrasted with sunna (established tradition).And we see today how the Muslim community is pushed to extremes, either you follow the sunnah strictly or you are committing bid’ah
12The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahBut the Quran continues to give us the guidance to stay in the balance:وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُواْ شُهَدَاء عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًاAnd we intended for you to be a Nation just balanced.... So that you may become testimony of that to mankind and the Prophet testimony to you.
13The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahWe cannot say everything is a bid’a in the literal sense of the word otherwise we would have to question everything that came into existence after the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) passed away.And similarly we cannot say that every practice of ours would have to be within the Sunnah in the literal sense of the word otherwise all our practices from wearing knitted sock to brushing teeth has to be questioned.
14upon the Muslim community. The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahAn intriguing reference to bid‘a is the second caliph ‘Umar’s decision to institute Tarawih prayers during the nights of Ramadan, which he introduced within a decade of the Prophet’s death.The Prophet once led his Companions in similar prayers for a few nights of Ramadan shortly before his death, but discontinued the practice, expressing concern that if he continued leading the vigils, God would give them obligatory status through revelation, and the additional obligation would impose an excessive burdenupon the Muslim community.
15During his caliphate, ‘Umar observed the people The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahDuring his caliphate, ‘Umar observed the peoplepraying either individually or in small groups in the Prophet’s mosque during the nights of Ramadan. He took the decision to make them a single group behind one prayer leader, instituting the Ramadan vigil as a group prayer. Entering the mosque on a followingnight, he saw the congregation praying together and declared: “What an excellent bid‘a is this!”
16The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahDid Umar violate the sunnah of the Prophet which states: Kullu bid’atin dalaala wa kullu dalaalata fin naar - “Every innovation is misguidance, and thepath of every misguidance leads to the Fire.”?Or did he institute something for his community that he as a leader felt was beneficial in terms of creating unity?It was an innovation, for the GREATER GOOD
17The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahIbn ‘Abd al-Barr was among those who held that bid‘a was strictly ritualistic: “As for making innovations in the practical workings of this world, no constriction and no fault pertains to one who does so.”Technological progress, crafts, building projects, urban development, and the like does not constitute bid‘a according to him.
18The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe fundamental reason for bid‘a retrictions is so that Islam can continue to be conserved and preserved.The criteria of bid‘a impose a restrictive frame on creative ideas to ensure continuity with tradition and conformity with legal principle.However the same can be said, that if we look at the gradual nature of Islam’s existence and subsequent growth, it was through bid’a and Ijtihad. Hence, one cannot negate the use of these concepts as we evolve through a technological age and still maintain a sense of Islamicity.
19The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe constructive potential of bid‘a as a regulatory instrument is reinforced in Islamic law by the intellectual process of ijtihad, which has extensive legal authority and serves as a complement to the notion of bid‘a.By nature, ijtihad is empowering,forward-looking, and creative.
20Al-Baji, a traditional Sunni jurist, defined ijtihad The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahAl-Baji, a traditional Sunni jurist, defined ijtihadas “expending one’s fullest [intellectual] capacity in search of the right ruling.”
21The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe word Ijtihad is derived from the same root as jihad. Their common radical, JaHaDa, denotes expending the fullest effort to achieve a difficult but worthy goal.The concept of jihad is not “Holy war”, but essentially an active ethical principle for improving the world through personal and group effort.Its high point, however, is the inner struggle for discipline and self-knowledge.
22The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahIn other words, Jihad and Ijtihad is a constant striving toward the better, or the greater good, be it on a physical or cognitive level.
23The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahDr Fazlur Rahman speaks of ijtihad as an intellectual and moral jihad or, more concretely, as “the effort to understand the meaning of a relevant text or precedent in the past, containing a rule, and to alter that rule by extending or restricting or otherwise modifying it in such a manner that a new situation can be subsumed under it by a new solution.”
24The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahGeorge Makdisi, Ph.D., emeritus professor of Arabic and Islamic studies at the University of Pennsylvania notes, that Ijtihad is evident of the existence of classical Islamic schools of thought and it was imperative for them to use it to create the Shariah law many decades after the demise of the Prophet (pbuh)
25The Inner Circle Ijtihad is inherently creative and optimistic. The Friday KhutbahIjtihad is inherently creative and optimistic. TheProphet promised that those who performed it assiduouslywould be rewarded in the next world, even iftheir answers were technically incorrect. He stated:“If a judge [hakim] does ijtihad and gets the rightanswer, he receives two rewards, and, if he ismistaken, he gets one.”‘Ali ibn al-Qassar, ed. Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Sulaymani, Al-Muqaddima fi al-Usul, (Beirut: Dar al Gharb al-Islami, 1996), ; Sulayman ibn Khalaf al-Baji, ed. ‘Abd al-Majid al-Turki, Ihkam al-Fusul Ihkam fi Ahkam al-Usul, 2 vols. (Beirut: Dar al-Gharb al-Islami, 1995), 2: ; ‘Ubayd-Allah ibn ‘Umar al-Dabbusi, ed. Mahmud Tawfiq al-Rifa‘i, Al-Asrar fi al-Usul wa al-Furu‘ fi Taqwim Adillat al-Shar‘, 4 vols.(Amman: Wizarat al-Awqaf, 1999), 3: ; Ibn Amir al-Hajj, Al-Taqrir wa al-Tahbir, 3 vols. (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 1983), 3:306. The Ibadis took essentially the same position. See al-Kindi, Bayan al-Shar’, 1:92-93.
26The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahAbu Zayd al-Dabusi (died 430 A.H.), a prominent Sunni jurist, noted that what may be allowable in one time or place may become prohibited in another, because of changing circumstances, just as what was prohibited may become allowable by the same criterion. He added that changing times and places are not the only considerations; there are others, such as the particular realities of a person’s social group. What is beneficial for one segment of society may be harmful for another. 48
27The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahWe need to ask ourselves, after having a clear understanding of the diversity within sexuality: From what basis, in what context and for what purpose was it concluded approx.1200 years ago that homosexuality is synonymous to the act of sodomy and that homosexuality is punishable by death?
28The renowned Sunni jurist The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahThe renowned Sunni juristal-Qarafi asserted that there was scholarly consensus (ijma‘) on harshly reprimanding religious scholars who handed down legal judgments mechanically without performing ijtihad and merely followed the ancient texts in their books literally without regard for new realities on the ground. The fault of such jurists was inexcusable and constituted disobedience of God.49
29Whoever issues legal rulings to the people merely on the basis The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahA great jurist of the next generation, Ibn al-Qayyim, commented on al-Qarafi’s opinion, saying: This is pure understanding of the law.Whoever issues legal rulings to the people merely on the basisof what is transmitted in the compendia despite differences in their customs, usages, times, places, conditions, and the special circumstances of their situations has gone astray and leads others astray. His crime against the religion is greater than thecrime of a physician who gives people medical prescriptions without regard to the differences of their climes, norms, the times they live in, and their physical conditions but merely in accordance with what he finds written down in some medical manual about people with similar anatomies. Such a person is an ignorant physician; the other is an ignorant legal scholar but more detrimental.
30So we need to state boldly: The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahSo we need to state boldly:By regurgitating 1200 year scholars’ conclusions on homosexuality without a valid ijtihadic process followed regarding homosexuality as we understand it today, is unIslamic.And the process of ijtihad must be informed by all the sciences for it to carry enough weight. As Allah mentions in the Quran: Fas’al ahladh dhikri in kuntum laa ta’lamoon – Ask those who with knowledge (who remembers it) if you don’t know.
31The Inner Circle Barakallahu lee wa lakum fil quranil kareem Friday KhutbahBarakallahu lee wa lakum fil quranil kareemWa nafa’nee wa iyyakum bil aayaati wa dhikril hakeemInnahu jawaadun malikun barrun rabbur ra’oofur raheemMay Allah bless me and you through the guidance of this noble QuranAnd may it teachings and remembrances benefit me and youTruly Allah is the possessor of wealth, the sovereign, the all good, the one who has authority over us, the all-loving and all-merciful.
32The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahSit between Khutbahs
33The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahFor more than a millennium, the process of speculative ijtihad was the monopoly of traditional scholars, and the requirements they set for it remained largely unchallenged.It is vital for Muslims today to have an authentic and sophisticated understanding of bid‘a as a regulatory mechanism and of ijtihad as a process for inducing Islamic creativity.
34The Inner Circle In Islam, like other faith traditions Friday KhutbahIn Islam, like other faith traditions—whether of innovationand heresy, creativity or the lack of it—are never set in stone, nor do they emerge from a vacuum.
35The Inner Circle Classical Islamic thought was the product of Friday KhutbahClassical Islamic thought was the product ofa particular socio-political milieu.Contrary to the Activist cliché that there is no separation of Religion and State in Islam, Muslim religious establishments for more than a millennium were largely free of governmental control.
36Unlike the Muslim world today, the classical The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahUnlike the Muslim world today, the classicalIslamic world was culturally advanced, economically and militarily formidable, and relatively stable politically.Above all, as Dr Fazlur Rahman stresses, it produced generations of thinkers who were self-assured and psychologically invincible in confronting new challenges.
37Unlike the Muslim world today, the classical The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahUnlike the Muslim world today, the classicalIslamic world was culturally advanced, economically and militarily formidable, and relatively stable politically. Above all, as Fazlur Rahman stresses, it produced generations of thinkers who were self-assured and psychologically invincible in confrontingnew challenges.
38The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahIt should be sufficiently clear from what has preceded that the concept of bid‘a should constitute a standard of excellence and not a blanket condemnation of every unfamiliar practice or new solution.
39It should set the guidelines for critical thought, not prevent them. The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahIt should set the guidelines for critical thought, not prevent them.It should foster personal and groupexpression and not stifle it.
40Sound conception of the The Inner CircleFriday KhutbahSound conception of theprocess of ijtihad should serve as a positive source of inspiration for the entire Muslim community, scholarsand non-scholars alike, in the search for meaningful answers to contemporary challenges.
41The Inner Circle Friday Khutbah Allahummansur man nasra deena Muhammad; Allahummansuril mujahideena fee qulli makaan; Allahumma Yassir wa laa tu’assirAllahumma tammim bil ghayr wa antal kareemu muyassirO Allah, assist those who assist the cause of MuhammadO Allah, assist all those who strive towards good in every placeO Allah, make things easy for us and remove difficultyO Allah, complete us in Goodness, Truly You are the most noble of all those who provides assistance.Innallaha wa malaa’ikatahu yusolloona alan nabi… yaa ayyuhallatheena aamanu sollu alayhi wa sallimoo tasleema.Wa aakhiri da’waanaa anil hamdu lillahi rabbil aalameenTruly Allah and the Angels sends blessings and salutations on the Prophet Muhammad, O you who believe, send greetings and salutations upon him.And the final word is that all praise and thanks is due to Allah, the Authority over all creation.اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ 29:45 Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. Let us stand for prayer!