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Phylogenetic studies in Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae: circumscription and relationships Stephen R. Downie Krzysztof Spalik Mark F. Watson Deborah S. Katz-Downie.

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Presentation on theme: "Phylogenetic studies in Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae: circumscription and relationships Stephen R. Downie Krzysztof Spalik Mark F. Watson Deborah S. Katz-Downie."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylogenetic studies in Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae: circumscription and relationships Stephen R. Downie Krzysztof Spalik Mark F. Watson Deborah S. Katz-Downie

2 Outline of Presentation To highlight the results of previous molecular systematic investigations that led to the recent and modified circumscription of tribe Oenantheae To reveal the composition of the tribe and indicate provisional generic-level relationships based on preliminary phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS data To introduce several major genera (reduced morphology, taxonomic problems, biogeography) and discuss the implications of the phylogenetic results obtained to date To discuss our plans for the future

3 Molecular studies reveal a strongly supported Oenanthe clade

4 Region ITS cpDNA sites rpl16 intron matK rpoC1 intron rps16 intron rbcL Bootstrap (%) 100 97 91 86 65 Genera in Clade Berula, Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, Oxypolis, Perideridia, Sium Berula, Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Helosciadium, Oenanthe, Sium Berula, Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, Perideridia, Sium Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, Oxypolis Perideridia, Sium Bifora, Neogoezia, Oenanthe, Perideridia, Sium Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, Oxypolis, Perideridia, Sium Berula, Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Helosciadium, Oenanthe, Sium Cicuta, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, Sium Oenanthe Clade: Composition and Support

5 Lilaeopsis, a simple apioid umbellifer MP analysis of rbcL, matK, & rpoC1 intron data (Petersen et al. 2002) Lilaeopsis brasiliensis (Affolter 1985) Lilaeopsis mauritiana L. mauritiana Entire, simple, linear to spatulate, septate leaves Horizontal creeping stems Simple, few-flowered umbels Damp, marshy or truly aquatic habitats Thick, corky ribs; no carpophore

6 The Oenanthe Clade recognized as Tribe Oenantheae Dumort. (emend. M. F. Watson & S. R. Downie; Downie et al. 2000, 2001) Berula Cicuta Cryptotaenia Cynosciadium Helosciadium Lilaeopsis Limnosciadium Neogoezia Oenanthe Oxypolis Perideridia Ptilimnium Sium

7 Oenantheae Dumort. (1827) Aethusa Coriandrum Oenanthe Seseleae subtribe Oenanthinae Bentham (1867) Aethusa Astydamia Capnophyllum Choritaenia Cymbocarpum Eurytaenia Polemannia Siler Cynosciadium Discopleura (=Ptilimnium) Crantzia (=Lilaeopsis) Oenanthe Oenantheae Dumort. emend. Koso-Poljansky (1916) Apodicarpum Cicuta Cymbocarpum Cynosciadium Cyssopetalum (=Oenanthe) Ducrosia Hohenackeria Johrenia Krubera Oenanthe Ptilimnium Platylophium (=Ferulago) Rhabdosciadium Rhysopterus (=Cymopterus) Stenocoelium Thecocarpus Trepocarpus Red Highlight: Oenantheae emend. M.F. Watson & S.R. Downie A comparison of three systems of classification Fruits radiately ribbed Ribs raised, broadly thickened at margin, corky Fruits subterete to dorsally compressed Vallecular vittae solitary Fruit anatomy (relative placement of aerenchyma)

8 Distribution of Oenantheae Genera in the Nomenclator of Pimenov & Leonov (1993) (classification modified from Drude 1898) Echinophoreae Scandiceae Caucalideae Coriandreae Smyrnieae (1) Hohenackerieae Pyramidoptereae Apieae (11) Angeliceae Peucedaneae (1) Tordylieae Laserpitieae

9 Oenantheae Genera, Species & Distribution Genus No. SpeciesDistribution Berula2Widespread Cicuta43 NA; 1 circumboreal Cryptotaenia6Widespread Cynosciadium1USA Helosciadium5Eurasia Lilaeopsis13New World, Australasia Limnosciadium2USA Neogoezia5Mexico Oenanthe40Widespread Oxypolis7NA Perideridia1413 NA; 1 Asian Ptilimnium5USA Sium14Widespread

10 Tribe Oenantheae

11 Attributes of tribe Oenantheae Lilaeopsis (Affolter 1985) Perideridia gairdneri (Oregon State University) Cicuta (TAMU) Limnosciadium (TAMU) Globose to broadly ovate fruits Cicuta virosa Preference for wet or aquatic habitats Fascicled fibrous or tuberous roots Entire, simple, septate leaves Corky-thickened ribs (spongy cells; storage tracheids) Lilaeopsis brasiliensis Glabrous stems & leaves

12 Oxypolis greenmanii Oxypolis filiformis Lilaeopsis occidentalis Lilaeopsis carolinensis Linear, septate leaves are homologous to the rachis of a normal compound leaf, with the position of septae corresponding to the position of pinnae insertion (rachis-leaves; phyllodes) The size & shape of these leaves are readily modified by the environment (Affolter 1985) In Apiaceae, linear, septate leaves occur in: Cynosciadium, Eryngium, Lilaeopsis, Limnosciadium, Oenanthe, Ottoa, Oxypolis, Perissocoeleum & Ptilimnium Hollow leaves with transverse septae

13 Materials and Methods > 260 Accessions Examined, including comprehensive representation of all 13 genera unambiguously included within tribe Oenantheae > 60 Additional Accessions, representing taxa provisionally included within the tribe (i.e., Bifora) or those having one to several similar ecological or morphological traits (moist/wet habitat; fruits having spongy tissue; fascicled or tuberous-like roots; linear, septate or finely dissected leaves; simple umbels) As putative outgroups, we included representation of the tribe Pleurospermeae (i.e., Aulacospermum, Physospermum, & Pleurospermum), the Komarovia clade (i.e., Hansenia, Komarovia, & Parasilaus), and Erigenia Phylogenetic Analysis: Maximum Parsimony (PAUP*)

14 Provisional Generic-Level Relationships in Oenantheae (strict consensus tree based on MP analysis of ITS data)

15 Perideridia is sister to all other examined Oenantheae A possible NA origin of the tribe?

16 Berula erecta Afrocarum imbricatum Sium repandum Townsend, 1989, Flora of Tropical East Africa Berula, Sium & Afrocarum are similar morphologically

17 Cryptotaenia canadensis Missouri Flora Website Cryptotaenia, 4-7 species Oenantheae N. America Europe Asia Scandiceae subtribe Daucinae Canary Islands Pimpinella clade Africa “African species of Cryptotaenia are extremely close to Pimpinella” (Townsend 1989)

18 Oenanthe: 40 species; Helosciadium: 5 species Oenanthe nodiflora in Apium clade = Sclerosciadium nodiflorum Oenanthe aquatica C.A.M. Lindman Flora Helosciadium nodiflorum Helosciadium was included in Apium s. lat. It comprises wetland species, with aerenchymatic tissue in its mericarps (the latter is not present in Apium s. str.)

19 Cynosciadium, Limnosciadium & Ptilimnium Glabrous annuals, with compound umbels Fascicled, fibrous roots Inhabits wet places in south-central and SE USA Ovoid fruits with corky thickened lateral ribs Leaves entire to compound with elongate, narrow or filiform divisions. Some species linear septate Cynosciadium (BONAP) Limnosciadium (BONAP) Ptilimnium costatum Ptilimnium Cynosciadium digitatum Limnosciadium pinnatum

20 Bifora + Neogoezia (Plunkett et al. 1996) Digital Flora of Texas (TAMU) Bifora americana (BONAP) Trepocarpus aethusae (BONAP) Bifora americana Bifora americana & Trepocarpus: South-eastern USA Glabrous annuals; wetland habitats Corky fruits in Trepocarpus (that float!) Lvs pinnately decompound Bifora americana Trepocarpus aethusae

21 Neogoezia: 5 species endemic to Mexico Constance 1987 NYBG Type Catalog Neogeozia macvaughii N. macvaughii N. gracilipes N. macvaughii Simple, many-flowered umbels Fascicled fleshy-tuberous roots Acaulescent, scapose habit Ovoid, globose fruits Usually moist habitats

22 Perideridia: delicious tuberous roots P. gairdneri P. kelloggii (Lee Dittmann) 14 species of glabrous perennials Late summer to fall flowering Unique polystelic vascular structure (the fusion product of several individual roots) Moist or xerophytic habitats Broad corky or filiform fruit ribs P. kelloggii P. howellii P. oregana

23 Perideridia is Indigenous to USA Number of species per state: 1-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 BONAP P. neurophylla Strict consensus of MP trees Perideridia neurophylla allies with Pternopetalum & Spuriopimpinella (therefore maintain as Pterygopleurum neurophyllum)

24 A possible addition to tribe Oenantheae? (based on partial ITS sequence data) Lichtensteinia 6 spp. South Africa 1 sp. St. Helena) Burtt, 1991, Edinb. J. Bot. 48(2): 225 Lichtensteinia obscura

25 Additional genera examined (or will be examined) for possible placement in tribe Oenantheae Apium Apodicarpum Asciadium Chamaele Crenosciadium Lichtensteinia Niphogeton Oreoschimperella Ottoa Pterygopleurum Pternopetalum Rutheopsis Spuriopimpinella Stoibrax Material of any of these genera would be appreciated, as well as suggestions of other taxa to survey!

26 Summary Tribe Oenantheae Dumort. is a strongly supported monophyletic group in all molecular analysis to date While these plants may share several morphological attributes (such as those acquired through existence in a wet environment), no unique morphological synapomorphy supports their monophyly. Some species with simplified vegetative morphology confound cladistic analysis Afrocarum, Trepocarpus and, possibly, Lichtensteinia, are recent additions to the tribe. The placement of Bifora americana within the tribe is confirmed Old World genera Berula, Cryptotaenia, Oenanthe, and Sium, as currently circumscribed, are each not monophyletic

27 Summary cont’d. The USA endemic genus Perideridia is sister taxon to all other examined Oenantheae (suggestive of a NA origin of the tribe?) Phytogeographical discussions based on distribution patterns of certain Oenantheae (i.e., Cryptotaenia, Perideridia & Sium) should be treated with caution prior to phylogenetic study Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences often results in fully resolved phylogenies with well-supported clades

28 Major Goals of Ongoing Research To produce a comprehensive estimate of phylogenetic relationships within tribe Oenantheae using molecular and morphological data To use the resultant phylogeny to elucidate patterns in the evolution of specific phenotypic characters and to explain many interesting disjunct geographic distributions To revise generic circumscriptions and to produce a modern classification for the group that reflects its evolutionary history. Collaborations are welcome!

29 Acknowledgements Feng-Jie Sun Mary Ann Feist Changshook Lee Carolina Calviño Gina Colletti NSF Grants 9407712 & 0089452 Jean-Pierre Reduron (for material)

30 Krzysztof Spalik Deborah Katz-Downie Mark F. Watson Co-conspirators in tribe Oenantheae

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